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reign of Anne, extorted the Act of Union Bannockburn settled the question, they refrom England almost at the point of the laced their old Saxon lords in the position sword. The popular notion is, we believe, which their descendants still enjoy,
os the that this union was forced on Scotland; bold Buccleugh,” for example, being just now but the truth is, that it was forced on Eng- the social superior of the nobles whose fathers land by a threat of final separation if it were considered his fathers much as we consider not conceded. The Scotch, beggared and the men of Tipperary. Cut off by the long maddened by the failure of the Darien expe- struggle from all amity with England, the dition, which they attributed to “ the Dutch- Scotch turned their eyes to France, and from man, ,” declared that unless their losses were Bannockburn to the accession of James the repaid to the last penny, and themselves ad- First, Scotland became in politics a haughty mitted to full participation in all English but dependent province of France. Every privileges, particularly of commerce, they cadet who found no room at home, every man would on Anne’s death set up a separate whose ambition could not be satisfied with monarchy. If Parliament chose the Stuarts, the proceeds of what was then a bleak and the Estates would set up another family,- barren soil, where wheat was as rare as probably the Bruces ; if Parliament rejected greengages are now, sought a new career the Stuarts, the Estates would accept them. in the beautiful land whose rulers were so The Estates passed a law to arm the whole friendly to his race. The Kings of France population in case England should try force, finding that Scotchmen could fight, always and an English vessel was even seized in the at war with their own nobles, with the SpanForth, in reprisal for the legal condemnation iards, with the Germans, and with Englishof a ship belonging to the Darien Company. men, were delighted to obtain such supportScotland was, in fact, in insurrection, the ers, and granted them special privileges. English ministry gave way, and the most John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, who landed beneficial political act ever passed by a rep-in 1424 with five thousand followers, was resentative assembly was, in fact, a concession created Constable of France, the highest to avert a civil war.
fighting dignity in the realm ; the Scotch The long war which, with intervals of truce, guard was treated like a company of nobles ; raged between England and Scotland from an illegitimate son of the bad Badenoch, who Hastings to Bannockburn was, in fact, the lies in Dunkeld Cathedral, helped Charles only open contest between the Norman and the Bold to reconquer Liège ; Alexander the Saxon. The lowlands of Scotland were Stewart (Albany) became a great continental in 1066, almost completely in Saxon hands, statesman, married into the family of AuSaxon emigrants,
3,--Johnstons, Armstrongs, vergne, and became a thorough Frenchman; Kerrs, Bells, Scotts, Browns, and others with Stewart of Darnley obtained the lordships of purely Saxon names,---ruling a mixed race Aubigny, Concressault, and d'Evereux, and of Celts and Saxons. The Conquest greatly his son Bernard became “ Viceroy of Naples, increased the number of the dominant caste, Constable of Sicily and Jerusalem, Duke of the Saxons, disorganized and cowed, flying Terra Nova, Marquis of Girace and Squillazo, in thousands to Scotland, more particularly Count of Beaumont, D'Arcy, and Venassac, from the territory north of the Humber, Lord of Aubigny, and Governor of Melun.' which William is said to have · depopulated.” A Douglas became lord of the whole provThe Court became purely Saxon, and order- ince of Touraine, a Hamilton Duc de Chaed invasion after invasion of England with telherault and Constable of France. The little result, except to establish in the minds minor successes are endless, and the noblest of the French Kings of England an ardent houses in France still trace back their ancesdesire to extend the limits of their sover- try to Ramsays and Kinnemonds, Gowries eignty up to the Hebrides. The Plantage- and Morrisons, Livingstons and Williamsons nets very nearly succeeded, and Mr. Burton (Vallençon). The De Lisles were Leslies, notices that during the struggle the Scotch the Vaucoys Vauxes, the de Lauzuns Lawnobles of great mark are Normans, -De sons, the D’Espences Spences, and so on Vere, De Coucy, De Umfraville, and the like. through a long muster-roll. Usually these Bhe Saxon commonalty, however, hated the men sank, as it were, into the soil, concealnobles and England for their sake, and when ing their names under some new territorial
designation ; but the pedigrees have been | latterly to their rough kingdom. They killed well kept, and French historians have ac- most of them one way or another, and then knowledged to the full the obligation of came the dauphin's death, the reformation, their country, and more especially of the and a final break between Scotland and her royal house, to the exiles. At last the union ancient ally. From the death of Elizabeth, of the countries culminated, and by the mar- the struggle with England was reduced to one riage of Mary, heiress of Scotland and a for money and privileges, and with the last Guise, to the dauphin, heir of the Valois, the of the Stuarts it ended, as we have said, in three strands of the rope, --France, Scotland, an act, extorted by Scotland from Englard, and the Guise8,-were united, and to record which gave to England the aid of the single to all the world the union all Scotchmen race with whom Englishmen have ever been were by one single decree made naturalized able to live on terms at once of brotherhood citizens of France.
and equality, and to Scotland wealth beyond And then the ancient alliance virtually her dreams. ended. The Scotch people, though well There is only one want in these two volpleased to seat themselves in France, had umes, and that is a general sketch of the penever cordially liked the French. They culiarities which enabled the Scotch abroad hated the French nobles, who, accustomed to to succeed so well. That they were brave unquestioned rule in their own country, tried and thrifty and faithful, we all know; but to treat the stubborn Scotch peasants as they Southrons as yet do not quite recognize that treated the villeins of Picardy, and who were the Scot is one of the most adaptable of manespecially insolent in their denunciations of kind. Hard, prejudiced, and logical, he has, Scotch poverty. “Besides,” says Froissart, nevertheless, some quality which makes him “ whenever their servants went out to forage, at home among the most diverse races,& they were indeed permitted to load their quality totally wanting in the race which in horses with as much as they could pack up some respects is most like himself, the Frenchand carry; but they were waylaid on their man of the Northern departments. His poreturn, and villanously beaten, robbed, and sition in France for centuries, was exactly sometimes slain, insomuch that no varlet dare that of the Frenehmen who thronged the go out foraying for fear of death. In one Court of the Plantagenets, and whom our month the French lost upwards of a hundred fathers, calling them “ favorites,' used to varlets ; for when three or four went out for- massacre every now and then ; but he never aging, not oue returned, in such a hideous excited any national hatred. Why? The manner were they treated.” That is, the Scot adventurer was a violent person,
who nobles landed as allies, sent their followers took all he could get and held it with the out to plunder, and the peasants, not seeing strong hand, and was very free of blows, and why they should be plundered, killed a few not at all free of money, yet he was liked and thrashed more,-a highly proper pro- and obeyed, while his rival was hated and ceeding, though villanous in Froissart's eyes. despised. We believe the secret to have been In 1395, the Scotch Estates were compelled the entire absence of insolence in the Scotch to pass a law that the foreigners should not character, a sort of thrift of force which intake meat by force, and many years later the duced bim to injure nobody unless there was French, after a raid into England, retired to a reason for injuring him; but we should France, all except a few great men, whom like to see Mr. Burton's opinion on the subthe canny Scotch retained as hostages for the ject. The adaptability exists still, and has money the Frenchmen in general owed. They perhaps done more for Scotland and Scotchhated, too, the interference of the pope, and men than much higher but less cosmopolitan they hated above all the Scoto-French whom virtues. the alliance with the Guises brought over
PAGE, 1. The History of our Lord in Art,
435 2. Tony Butler. Part 11,.
447 3. The Circassian Exodus,
460 4. The Physiology of Art, ·
469 5. Bathing at the Seaside,
471 6. Sanctuaries,
474 7. Public Swimming at Brighton,
477 POETRY.-Alfred Tennyson on Bulwer, 434. The Bridge of Cloud, 434. The Dying Wish, 434.
SHORT ARTICLES.-Sea-Dust, 446. Sentence of Deposition on Bishop. Colenso, 468. Disease among Cattle, 468. Death of (Dr. Normandy, 480. M. Heffelseim and the Heart, 480. Dr. Tilbury Fox and Mr. Erasmus Wilson, 480. Dr. Grusselback, 480. Electricity as a Curative Agent, 480.
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BULWER. ALFRED TENNYSON ON BULWER.
BRIDGE OF CLOUD. The authorship of some pointed verses, which will
BY HENRY W. LONGFELLOW. live among the “ quarrels of authors," has just come BURN, O evening hearth, and waken to light,—the verses in question being a sharp bit Pleasant visions, as of old ! of personal satire by Alfred Tennyson on “Sir
Though the house by winds be shaken, Lytton.” It may be recollected that Bulwer, in his
Safe I keep this room of gold ! New Timon,” took occasion to ventilate some very malignant and uncalled-for asperities against his brother-author. They called forth a squib or
Ah, no longer wizard Fancy two in Punch. It now appears that Tennyson him.
Builds its castles in the air, self entered the field in the latter journal with the Luring me by necromancy, following “settler : "— Transcript.
Up the never-ending stair !
But instead it builds me bridges
Over many a dark ravine, And those fine curses which he spoke :
Where beneath the gusty ridges The old TIMON with his noble heart,
Cataracts dash and roar unseen. That, strongly loathing, greatly broke.
And I cross them, little heeding
Blast of wind or torrent's roar,
As I follow the receding
Footsteps that have gone before.
Nought avails the imploring gesture,
Nought avails the cry of pain !
When I touch the flying vesture,
'Tis the gray robe of the rain.
Baffled I return, and leaning
O'er the parapets of cloud,
Watch the mist that intervening
Wraps the valley in its shroud.
And the sounds of life ascending
Faintly, vaguely, meet the ear,
Murmur of bells and voices blending
With the rush of waters near.
Well I know what there lies hidden,
Every tower and town and farm,
And again the land forbidden
Re-assumes its vanished charm.
Well I know the secret places,
And the nests in hedge and tree ;
At what doors are friendly faces,
In what hearts a thought of me.
Through the mist and darkness sinking,
Blown by wind and beaten by shower, It's always ringing in your ears,
Down I fing the thought I'm thinking, They call this man as good as me.”
Down I toss this Alpine flower.
The merits of a spotless shirt.
THE DYING WISH.
“ Mamma," a little maiden said,
Almost with her expiring sigh,
“ Put no sweet roses round my head,
When in my coffin-dress I lie :".
“Why not, my dear?” the mother cried : A TIMOn you ! Nay, nay; for shame :
What flower so well a corpse adorns ?” It looks too arrogant a jest
“ Mamma,” the innocent replied, The fierce old man-to take his name,
“ They crowned our Saviour's head with You bandbox. Off, and let him rest.
thorns.” ALCIMADES. -Versified by James Montgomery, Esq.
From The Edinburgh Review. indeed, has the aspiration of art been satis1. The History of our Lord as exemplified in fied even with these overpowering themes.
Works of Art with that of the Types, It has aimed—and to speak as men may speak
has created and given permanence to sublime 2. The New Testament of our Lord and Sav- visions of immortal beings and eternal worlds ;
iour Jesus Christ. With Engravings on it has raised the forms of human beauty to Wood from Designs by the Italian Mas- their highest power, in the fond belief that ters. Longman. 4to. London : 1864.
they may be no unworthy image of a diMore than twenty years have elapsed since vine excellence; and it has thus familiarthe late Mrs. Jameson began to collect the ized the eyes of the church with all but livmaterials for the series of elegant and in- ing impersonations of beings and of events, structive works on the History of Christian which, but for this counterfeit of creative enArt, which has assigned to her so honorable ergy, must have remained in the dim circle a place among the critics, and we may almost of mere abstractions. No doubt if the highsay the artists, of this country. The two est types of art owe much to religion, relivolumes entitled “Sacred and Legendary gion itself owes not less of its visible and conArt,” which included descriptions of works crete influence over mankind to these types representing most of the secondary person- of art. It is the union of these two elements ages of the Gospel histories, were commenced that is, the union of mysterious truths, in 1842, and published in 1848; they were partially revealed and partially accessible to followed by the single volume of the - Mon- the human mind, with those sacred forms and astic Orders," and that containing the “ Le- images of which man is himself the real ingends of the Madonna,' the most graceful ventor, however they may acquire something and elaborate of Mrs. Jameson's own produc of the divine character—which constitutes tions, which continues to be in such demand the theory of religious art. that a third edition of it has just issued from To relate in fitting language the history of the press. Indeed, it may be said with per- this lofty work of the imagination and the fect truth that these books are the indispen- hand of gifted artists, and to show the relasable guides and companions of every Eng- tion it has borne to the faith of Christendom lishman who seeks to fix identity and mean- in successive ages, is a task demanding far ing on the beautiful, but often unintelligi- higher qualificntions than the description of ble, representations of Romish tradition. A those legendary subjects which had previously greater and more important task remained to been treated by Mrs. Jameson. That lady be performed ere the series of these works had, in fact, made but little progress in this could be closed. The person of our Lord is portion of her labors. She had collected the central figure to which all history, all notes on pictures relating to some of the intradition, all legend, converge in the records cidents in the New Testament, in which the of Christian art: whether in the awful char- person of our Lord is prominently engaged. acter of the Deity, Maker of all things, Judge These notes are comprised in about two hunof all men, revealed in the form of the incar- dred pages of the first volume of the work nate Son, or as the highest visible object of now published by Lady Eastlake ; but they devout adoration, or as the purest example are a very small contribution to the whole of beauty, power, and wisdom ever seen on design, and it is to the present editor, far earth, or as the chief actor in the scenes of more than to the original projector of the his ministration and in the redemption of book, that the high honor belongs of having inankind, the bighest powers of human art completed it. Without the slightest wish to have incessantly been directed, under the in- detract from Mrs. Jameson's acknowledged fluence of the Christian Church, to depict merit and well-earned reputation, it is in and portray the person of Jesus Christ, and some respects fortunate that this work has to produce upon the mind of the beholder some been executed with a breadth of research and impression of his holiness, his supernatural a force of style to which that amiable and acpresence, his sufferings, and his death. Nor, complished woman laid no claim. In Mrs.