« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
after analyzing Corneille, and explaining how out offence, be called a truism. He seems, he wrote as he did because he was a Norman also, to labor under a fear of being considered by birth and had been an advocate by profes- a materialist, against which imputation he sion, he quotes the following charming little vindicates himself, according to the manner poem addressed to a young lady who had not of French writers, by talking about l'idée, been quite civil to him. He says with truth, le droit, and so on. And all this is worked
Le sujet est léger, le rhythme court, mais up into a good many pages of not merely on y retrouve la fierté de l'homme, et aussi harmless but laudable rhetoric, the general l'ampleur du tragique.” The verses are prob- result of which appears to be that the world ably new to our readers. They are well worth in which we live is composed of a great deal reading :
of matter, and more or less spirit, capable of Marquise, si mon visage
making eloquent protests against its rival A quelques traits un peu vieux, and partner when the occasion requires it to Souvenez-vous qu'a mon age
Whether all this is or is not philosVous ne vaudrez guère mieux.
ophy, M. Deschanel has written an amusing
little book and said many things worth re“ Le temps aux plus belles choses Se plait a faire un affront,
membering. Et saura faner vos roses
Comme il a ridé mon front.
« Le meme cours des planètes
From The London Review, 30 July.
BATHING AT THE SEASIDE.
LONDON has grown much larger, and the
Thames much dirtier, and the principles of Cependant j'ai quelques charmes
health have become better understood, and Qui sont assez éclatants Pour n'avoir pas trop d'alarmes
the terrible battle of existence is more fiercely De ces ravages du temps.
and eagerly and closely contested now than
in the days not very long gone by, when the “ Vous en avez qu'on adore,
frugal Mrs. Gilpin proposed to her well-to-do Mais ceux que vous méprisez Pourraient bien durer encore
husband, John, to celebrate the twentieth Quand ceux-la seront usés.
anniversary of their married life, and signal
ize the very first holiday they had ever taken “ Ils pourront sauver la gloire
by a simple dinner at the suburban village of Des yeux qui me semblent doux,
Edmonton. The modern Mrs. Gilpin would
be more likely to address her husband at
breakfast somewhat in this fashion : " It's « Chez cette race nouvelle
two years, dear, since we had a dip in the Ou j'aurai quelque créd
Last year, after the failure of Whirli-
gig and Grumby, you did not think it pru
dent to increase our expenditure until we had “ Pensez-y, belle Marquise,
pulled up those losses ; but we have been 80 Quoiqu'un grison fasse effroi,
fortunate since, that I really think we can afIl vaut qu'on le courtise
ford a month at Ramsgate, or, at least, at Quand il est fait comme moi.”
Margate, this year. It would do the chilThe last four stanzas in particular are brim- dren a world of good, and I am sure no one ful of spirit, and the mixture of pride and wants a little rest, fresh air, and recreation vanity which they display is so remarkable more than you do yourself, you dear, hardthat it seems impossible that it should have working slave of a man!” To which the modever occurred in more than one person. ern “ linen-draper bold,” who, instead of be
M. Deschanel does not himself inspire much ing “a train-band captain,” is a sergeant confidence ; but he is full of wit and shrewd in a volunteer corps, might reply, “ Except ness and entertaining illustrations. His great yourself, you dear, devoted slave of a wife theory is, that the circumstances to which and mother!” And thereupon the trip to his different chapters relate affect a writer's the seaside is settled. literary works, and this may, we trust with- How did our ancestors get on without trips
to the seaside? How did people contrive to summer. Far more tempting are the cool live without spending at least one month of plash of the ocean brine, and that peculiarly the twelve at a watering-place? It is sur- fresh and invigorating odor which comes from prising what a modern invention, histori- the open sea. Even as we sit broiling and cally speaking, the English system of sea- working, with the yellow atmosphere of Lonbathing is. We pride ourselves, as a nation, don stretching away over our field of vision, upon our cleanliness in all things, but still we fancy a faint scent of sea-breeze comes in more, if possible, upon the attention which at the open window, and intimates that a dewe pay to the purification of our persons than lightful “ header” may be within the range to our clothing and our residences. It is dif- of possibility. Unless cleanliness be acceptficult to realize the fact that our marine wa- ed as a very modern handmaiden of godliness, tering-places are all of modern growth, and how are we to judge of the piety of our forethat our grandfathers and grandmothers were fathers ? The luxury of the heathen Romans educated in a hydrophobic terror of water, in their baths and modes of bathing was so and an avoidance and exclusion of fresh air offensive and repugnant to Christian morality, and ventilation, which are not to be account- propriety, and decency, that studied neglect ed for by any theory of folly and ignorance of the person became a distinguishing charcombined with which we are acquainted. acteristic of those early Christians who set Not that all English watering-places are only themselves most zealously in pious opposition of the modern growth of one or two genera- to pagan customs. And when we remember tions. The inland mineral springs, which that the ancient name of a public bath has were the foundation of medicinal bathing, come down to our own times as a synonym are nearly all of ancient date; but their for a place of the most infamous resort, we proper and decorous use bears no proportion shall cease to wonder at the long and stern to the length of their existence. As to the contest which Christianity has been forced to seaside resorts, it is not wonderful that, in wage against a system of deep demoralization the old days of naval warfare and piratical fostered under the semblance of cleanliness, prowlings, people whose business did not nat- and at the strange tales of the boastful negurally compel them to live near the coast, ligence of washing by even eminent and kept as far out of the reach of chance visi- learned churchmen, laymen, and ladies of tors from the ocean as possible.
the early and middle ages. The plain truth Mr. D. Urquhart, the champion of the is, that with the ancient Romans bathing was Eastern mode of bathing, whose writings resorted to, not for ablution, but for luxury. upon the subject induced an Irish physician, Those masters of the world, when they abanDr. Barter, of Blarney, to erect the first doned the grim severity of their republican Turkish bath ever seen in Christian Europe, manners, and adopted the sensualism and efgives an amusing account of the comments feminacy of the Lydians and Sybarites, spent made by a Turkish lieutenant of a man-of- a large part of their time in baths, which they war who, whilst smoking, was watching the adorned in the most profuse splendor, makablutions of an officer of a British man-of- ing them shine with costly marbles and prewar, which lay near. “ Allah be praised ! ”cious stones, with silver and with gold. Here he said, taking the amber from his mouth; they would sit for hours, reading, conversing, " that poor devil wishes to be clean, if he receiving friends, and killing time in a hunonly knew how. See ! how he dabbles, and dred ways, of which the least objectionable throws back upon his face and neck the foul, was mere indolence. We have but to read thick, greasy, nasty puddle. And now he Juvenal, to know the corrupt uses to which rubs down and presses into his skin all that the system was turned ; and there can be filth with a damp towel, and feels quite sat- no doubt that the vicious indulgences which isfied that he is washed and clean. Allah be cloaked themselves under a pretext of salupraised !” But the Turkish bath is only a brity, had much to do with the decay and form or a copy of the old Roman and Gre- ruin of the vast Roman Empire. The strong, cian hot-air bath, and, how charming soever hardy, and withal dirty Northmen seem may be its cleansing and restorative powers, to have extinguished the system of hot baththe thought of it is by no means agreeable or ing in which imperial Rome had so long revrefreshing in these scorching, sunny days of elled; but for some reason or other it sur
vived in the Eastern Empire,-probably be- passing to and fro. Belgravia will be a descause that part of Europe was less influenced ert,—Tyburnia like a city in a fairy tale, than the west by the example of barbarian where all the people are mysteriously asleep,
When the Turks took Constanti- and the gallant young prince has not yet arnople in the fifteenth century, they were as rived to waken them up by kissing the lips rough, unkempt, and unwashed as any Goth of the somnolent beauty. It would be curior Hun that ever marched under Alaric or ous if we could have, some census year, a Attila;
but they were not slow in adopting supplementary statement of the number of the system of bathing which they found in persons sleeping in the metropolis on the full existence among the people they had night of the 31st of August, in addition to conquered, and it must be added that they the usual figures with reference to the 30th were equally quick in assimilating those of April. We should then see the extent of vices which the supple Greek had preserved our annual depletion. A division into disthrough all the changes of government and tricts would hardly be necessary. We know religion. The Turks became externally clean, already, but too well, that this yearly reand internally, in many cases, foul enough. freshment of body and soul is only for the The excessive stress which their faith lays well-to-do. The western section of London upon personal ablutions made them the more contributes by far the largest contingent; the ready to adopt a system which they found south, also, pours forth its holiday seekers ; made to their hands ; and it has thus come to but the north and east have little share in the pass that the luxury of bathing has never observance. Mile End and Bethnal Green are quitted the shores of the Bosphorus from the represented at the seaside by few indeed, save days when the rude Thracian first softened travelling showmen, itinerant nigger minhis primeval manners to the existing mo- strels, and nomadic swell-mo bsmen. Victoment. The Turkish Bath,” as we have said, ria Park is not abandoned with the advanis but the ancient Greek or Roman bath re- ing season to disconsolate nursery-maids and vived.
misanthropical “ keepers,” like Hyde Park This, however, is not what an Englishman and Kensington Gardens, but flourishes as understands by bathing. The Romans had gayly and is as well attended in September as their hot-baths in this island, and a species in May. This restriction of a good and neof sweating-bath has always been known cessary thing to the minority is one of the among the Irish peasantry; but the modern saddest considerations in connection with the Briton's idea of a bath is for the most part as- autumnal period of recruiting. There is no sociated with a cold plunge in the river or the time of rest and refreshment and oxygenization
At this time of year, thousands of Lon- of the blood for those who most sorely need doners are looking forward with eager antic- the change. Happily, however, the railway ipation to the salt sting and savor and reno- system of late years has done something towvating freshness of a dip in the cool waves ard redressing this evil. The excursion trains, off Margate, or Ramsgate, or Brighton, or every now and then, remind us with hideous Scarborough, or Hastings, or some other of abruptness that we are all mortal ; but they the many delightful watering-places with enable, at a moderate expense, large bodies wbich our shores are thickly sprinkled. of our poorer fellow-creatures to spend seven Many of our weary workers are off already; or eight hours in the green rural places far many more will depart in the coming weeks away, or by the life-breathing margin of the of August, and until the autumn is far ad-sea, and thus allow us, who have more time vanced the lodging-house keepers will know no and money at our disposal, to feel a little less rest from their profitable toils. London is al- uneasy in our consciences as we lounge in easy ready thinning; in a short time longer, the coat and wide-awake hat, within sight of the Strand and Cheapside, Oxford Street and the French coast, or on the shores of the German parks, will exhibit an unmistakable and most Ocean, or by the long-rolling waves and obvious difference in the number of persons mighty murmur of the Atlantic deep.
From The Saturday Review. has consequently corrupted on the pretence SANCTUARIES.
of improving it. The recent fire in the Chapel of the Savoy Whence or when the Greeks got the notion suggests the curious reflection that, had such of sanctuaries, we do not know; but it is a catastrophe occurred two centuries ago, it certain that, when they began to extend their would have been esteemed one of the greatest territories eastward, they found and carried blessings that could possibly have befallen back with them the custom of making every London. Within those spacious precincts of temple, sacred grove, and statue of a god a the ducal palace of which the only relics now sanctuary for criminal, debtor, and slave. are charred ruins, was collected at that time By whatever channels the institution travelled as varied a medley of nuisances as it is pos- through Asia Minor, one most vital alterasible to imagine. There congregated a com- tion had by this time been introduced. We munity of desperate exiles from the world, have seen that the refuge was originally protected only by their chosen prison from probationary only,—a security against Lynchthe penalties of waging war against society ; law; among the heathens it was absolute. beyond the reach of law and justice ; liable, In the temple of a god no violence might inmost or all of them, had such a fire as that trude, no discord might violate bis domain. of last month driven them from their magic As the natural consequence, every holy place circle, to be hung by scores at Tyburn, hard was perpetually tenanted by a crowd of refuby where now stands the Marble Arch. A gees, who evaded the laws by turning the strange law, that a palace should avail to temple into a dwelling, and hailed in every protect its neighborhood against the law of new deity and in every new votive building a the land! A most mischievous law, one fresh step toward the abolition of all punishwould think, that inside those Savoy pre- ments. With beautiful and discriminating cincts sheriff and constable might never enter, pathos, twenty-three centuries ago, Euripides —that thief and murderer and debtor could bewailed that “they who should be driven rest as tranquilly within those four brick from the altars of the gods are instead prowalls as if there were no hindrance from law tected by them; that places which ought to against every one doing what seemed right in be a sanctuary for the just, to shelter from his own eyes.
Yet it was a law which, for injury and oppression, are allowed to show all that, had its source in a kind and wise equal favor to the evil and the good.” This institution of the world's most ancient law- was a result widely different from the original giver ; for its origin may be traced to the six design of cities of refuge. Yet there remained cities of refuge which, on the plains of Moab, in Athens alone, till the latest moment of its Moses is related to have proposed to the independence, no fewer than seventeen of Israelites to build. The object of those cities these sanctuaries, utterly beyond the reach was that anybody who by misadventure had of law, and in which justice might be defied killed a neighbor should flee to some one of with impunity. On this point it need only them, and find in it a retreat from the fury be added, that the system was allowed to of the avenger. To protect a wilful murderer remain down to the final conquest of Greece sanctuaries were never intended. Whoever by Rome ; that one of the first innovations took refuge in one was forced, even though then made by the conquerors was its abolihe clung to the altar, to give himself up to tion; and that until the time of Justinian the proper authorities for trial. If he then the Romans never disfigured their jurispruproved that he had “ slain his neighbor with- dence with such a perpetual obstacle to doout guile,” the law promised to defend him mestic prosperity and social order. By that from further molestation ; if not, his tempo- time, as was the case all the world over, rary hiding-place was open to him no longer. sanctuaries abounded on every band ;, for It was a benevolent provision, both for giving with the introduction of Christianity into a time for the surviving relatives' anger to cool country, the introduction of this institution down, and for affording the innocent object seems to have been a universal consequence. of their resentment an opportunity to justify At all events, we find it, as we have already himself. Unfortunately, however, the world stated, spread through the great empire of has refused to keep to the original model, and the East. Just about the same time we meet
with a proof that it was established in France, crown, while a return from his exile renin a story told of one of her kings, Chilperic, dered him at any time liable to summary juswho died about the end of the sixth century.. tice on his own recorded confession. Had this One of his sons, having incurred the royal original state of the law remained, theredispleasure, is related to have fled to the fore, in its integrity, as it issued from the sanctuary of Tours. Offended majesty ran head-quarters of the church, it would be difafter him, and demanded restitution of its ficult to detect much mischief in such a sysson, threatening, if the bishop of the place tem, or any greater anomaly than in modern refused, to ravage the church's lands there- sentences of transportation. The odium abouts. The bishop (Gregory the historian) that is associated with it belongs to a later made answer, that “ Christians could not be age, when the church and the world both guilty of an act unheard of among pagans.”' became impurer as they grew older, and corThereupon King Chilperic wrote an auto- rupted by prosperity and wealth. By royal graph letter to St. Martin, whose tomb was concessions, by papal bulls, and monkish agin the sanctuary, requesting permission to gressions, these sanctuaries were first revolutake away his son by force. “ The honest tionized and then multiplied in every direcsaint," as Mr. Hallam puts it,“ returned no tion. Their privileges were no longer limanswer ; ” and his majesty had to content ited to churches and churchyards. Wherhimself with devastating the neighboring ever a friar chose his house, or a great man estates. Even so bad a Christian as he was built his palace, there the apathy of the exdid not dare to infringe on the privileges of a ecutive and the insolence of the mob estabcity of refuge in the sixth century after lished a sanctuary; and to such an extent
did this national madness spread that, at the It was probably not until after the con- end of the seventeenth century, no fewer version of our Saxon forefathers to Chris- than forty recognized refuges might be enutianity that the law of sanctuary became merated in London alone. One of the earknown in this country. The Broad Sanctuary liest and most curious instances of the sysof Westminster appears to have been the tem in our own kingdom is the sanctuary first, and claims for its founder Edward the long claimed in Scotland by the descendants Confessor, some five or ten years before the of Macduff, Macbeth's dethroner. Malcolm Conquest. The original state of the law in III. (Canmore), on recovering his ancestral this country, according to Blackstone, is as crown in the middle of the eleventh century, follows:
granted to this clan the privilege that any - If a person accused of any crime except had been guilty of unpremeditated homicide,
one related to it within nine degrees, who treason and sacrilege had ied to any church or churchyard, and within forty days after should on fleeing to Macduff's Cross, near went in sackcloth and confessed himself be- Lindores in Fifeshire, have his penalty remitfore the coroner, and declared all he par- ted for a fine. Sir Walter Scott, in bis • Minticular circumstances of his offence, and took strelsy of the Scottish Border," quotes a Latin the oath in that case provided, -namely, document of the thirteenth century, in which • That he abjured the realm, and would the privilege is claimed in bar of any other depart from thence forthwith at the port which should be assigned to him, and would jurisdiction than that of the Earls of Fife. never return without leave from the king,'
The cross itself was destroyed at the reforhe by this means saved his life, if he observed mation; but its pedestal still remains, as also the conditions of his oath by going with a does the tradition in the family of Moray in cross in his hand, and with all convenient Abercairny. speed, to the port assigned, and embarking
At various periods of the Middle Ages we there ; for if, during this forty days' sanc- find claims of privilege being tried and contuary, or on his road to the seaside, he was apprehended and arraigned in any court for firmed by law. Two only we select by way this felony, he might plead the privilege of of example. In 1378, John of Gaunt sent sanctuary, and bad a right to be remanded if two emissaries, Sir Ralph de Ferrers and Sir taken out against his will."
Allen Boxhull, to drag a fugitive from his
retreat within the precincts of Westminster He remained, nevertheless, a felon all his Abbey. An appeal was made to the Archlife, and his property was forfeited to the bishop of Canterbury, who excommunicated