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the offenders, and compelled the restoration seen feasting side by side, in equal security of their captive. This is notable as the first and with equal appetite. recorded instance of any one being hardy It only remains for us to give a brief noenough to attempt such a sacrilege. The tice of the two most famous London sancone we are about to relate shows even more aries,—Whitefriars and Savoy. On the strongly the extent to which these usurpa- former, we shall content ourselves with a quotions had reached. In 1439, while a crimi- tation from Lord Macaulay, who describes it nal was being carried from Newgate to Guild as it was in 1697,-just before its extinction. Hall for trial, the tenants of the College of Originally a house of Carmelite friars, foundSt. Martin's-le-Grand (which, so late as the ed in the thirteenth century, and, by virtue present century, used to have a law-court of its papal charter, a refuge for all its tenand jurisdiction of its own) suddenly burst ants ; then, at the Reformation, restricted to out, attacked the guard, and carried the the privilege of sheltering debtors ; and in prisoner home with them. The sheriff hav- 1608, by special concession from King James, ing, with a large force, succeeded in recap- constituted once more an asylum for crimituring his prey, the lord high chancellor ruled, nals of every shade, it was rechristened by by order of the king, that the privileges of its grateful occupants with its ancient name, the Dean and Chapter (of Westminster, to Alsatia, or “ Eald-Seaxen.” which the college was subject) had been in

“ Bounded on the west by the great school vaded, and that the prisoner must be re- of English jurisprudence, and on the east stored. When we remember that not only by the great mart of English trade, stood in Westminster Abbey and St. Martin's-le- this labyrinth of squalid, tottering houses, Grand, but in every part of the country, packed, every one of them, from cellar to public peace and private security were ex- cockloft, with outcasts, whose life was one posed to the risks of lawless rabbles such as

long war with society. The most respectable this, the wonder, is not that riots and rob- who were in fear of bailiffs. The rest were

part of the population consisted of debtors beries and highway murders were frequent, attorneys struck off the rolls, witnesses who but rather that a pretence of municipal or- carried straw in their shoes as a sign to inder could assert itself at all. The two cases form the public where false oaths might be we have quoted are instances, taken from a purchased for half a crown, sharpers, receivgreat number before us, of a state of things ers of stolen goods, clippers of coin, forgers which actually continued till 1697, when of bank-notes, and tawdry women, blooning Parliament for the first time took the matter made free use of their nails and their scissors,

with paint and brandy, who in their anger in hand, and, amid threats of rebellion ut- yet whose anger was less to be dreaded than tered openly and threats of assassination their kindness. With these wretches the written anonymously, decreed the downfall narrow alleys of the sanctuary swarmed. of all sanctuaries from one end of the king. The rattling of dice, the call for more punch dom to the other. We believe that the sole and more wine, and the noise of blasphemy remaining exception to this abolition is Holy- and ribald song, never ceased during the rood Palace, which still protects from arrest

whole night. The Benchers of the Inner for debt all those who take refuge within its ance no longer. They ordered the gate leading

Temple could bear the scandal and the annoyprecincts, and inscribe their names in its into Whitefriars to be bricked up. The AlBailie's books. By virtue of the royal pre- sations mustered in great force, attacked the rogative, indeed, all the sovereign's de- workmen, killed one of them, pulled down mesnes exclude the execution of civil

process ;

the walls, knocked down the sheriff who but Holywood is the only one which compri

came to keep the peace, and carried off his ses a street of houses, open to the public at gold chain, which no doubt was soon in the large, and occupied without leave or license tilla company of the foot-guards arrived. This

melting-pot. The tumult was not suppressed by whoever may have more debts in the outer riot excited general indignation. Yet so difworld than he knows how to pay. On the ficult was it to execute any process in the Continent, however, the institution still pre- dens of Whitefriars, that near two years vails to a considerable extent, so far as civil elapsed before a single ringleader was appre

hended." process is concerned ; and here and there we

a hospitable monastery where A puzzling paradox for an ethical philosoand murderer and traveller might be pher,—that the same high and mighty prince

come across

6

of blessed memory, who “ did never desist to the most memorable is the great religious urge and to excite those to whom it was com- Conference of 1661, between the Episcopamended” to the translation of the Holy Scrip- lians and Presbyterians, for the revision of the tures, sold for money a license such as this, Liturgy,

—a curious instance of the inefficacy signed its charter with his own royal hand, of theological controversy to change people's and sealed it with his own great seal ! It theological belief. An entire week, and would scarcely be too much to say that this twelve learned tongues on each side, were act of weakness, or avarice, or whatever oth- devoted to the discussion ; but at the end the er motive may have led to it, hindered the Reformers found themselves exactly where due administration of justice in this country they had started, and the court party went for at least half a century.

home to agree among themselves that henceA few words on the history of the Savoy forth King Charles II., and all sovereigns seem to be demanded by the catastrophe after him, should be commended to Heaven 'which has just swept away its last vestige. as “ most religious and gracious.” They Its founder was Peter Earl of Savoy and might be excused for feeling in a very good Richmond, the uncle of Henry III.’s wife El- bumor after escaping safe and sound into eanor, who in 1245 got a royal grant of a the open air from the perilous asylum of the piece of land between the Strand and the Savoy. river, and built upon it a small brick palace. On his death he left it to Queen Eleanor, who again by royal letters patent vested it in her second son, Edward of Lancaster, and

From The Spectator, 6 Aug. his heirs. The Dukedom of Lancaster hav- PUBLIC SWIMMING AT BRIGHTON. ing been under Henry VIII. annexed to the We have often wondered in past years that crown, the Savoy has ever since been a swimming was so little cultivated in England. royal domain, and in this character—and One would have thought that our insular powithout, as far as appears, any special char- sition and our sea-going propensities should ter-acquired its sanctuary privileges. Here, have had the effect of making a swimming in 1350, John II. of France was confined a nation of us long since ; but it has not been prisoner after the battle of Poictiers, and so. Even amongst our sailors of the last here he found such pleasant quarters—laved generation only a small percentage could as they then were by a clear and cheerful swim, and of course the rest of the commuriver, and looking out on pleasant country nity, except always those who had been edufields beyond—that he asked permission to cated at public schools, were far behind the revisit the palace a few years after, and ac- sailors. A decided majority of public school tually died in it in 1364. Burned to the boys came away fair swimmers ; but even ground in one of Wat Tyler's riots, and in there the art was left to take care of itself. ruins for upwards of a century, Henry VII. There were men who had to attend at the in 1505 rebuilt and endowed it as a hospital bathing-places of the lower school during the for a hundred poor people, adding to it a season ; but it was no part of their business chapel and a printing-press, —

-one of the first, to give instruction in swimming, nor do we we believe, in London. About fifty years la- remember their ever doing so. Education ter, on the destruction of the old church of has been marching in this respect, as in so St. Mary-le-Strand, we find the Chapel Royal many others, within the last few years,

and of the Savoy the parish church of the neigh- now swimming is scientifically taught at the borhood, and among its records is a formal naval schools, and, we believe, at most of our renunciation, by the parishioners, of “ all in- public schools also. At any rate, there are terest or right” in the edifice. With the ex- now regular yearly competitive examinations ception of a brief suspension in the reign of in the art at these latter, and the general public Edward VI., the hospital remained till 1702, is following in the same direction. The parish in which year it was converted into a mili- of St. George set the example, which has been tary prison, and in 1819 all but the chapel followed, though not so largely as it deserves was pulled down to make way for the pres- to be, by other metropolitan parishes, and in ent approach to Waterloo Bridge.

consequence of the opening of such swimming Of the historical associations of the Savoy, 1 baths as those in Davies Street quite a large

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of young cockneydom is learning to ready, and were then drawn up in line and keep its head above water. At these baths started by pistol-shot. They got into the there are constant swimming matches amongst water as they pleased, and had to swim round the members of the swimming clubs and other a post, of which there was a line gay with frequenters; but of course the space is too flags, the furthest being five hundred yards confined for a satisfactory test of the swim- from the shore. There was a Humane Socimer's powers. For this there is nothing like ety's boat in attendance, into which any canthe sea, and therefore we are glad to find that didate scrambled who felt that he had had the custom of swimming matches is begin- enough, and soon after the commencement a ning to prevail at some of our seaside places dozen other boats were pulling about the of resort. Until this week we had never had course, carrying a lot of well-dressed men the opportunity of witnessing one of these ; and women, who seemed to enjoy their prox but on Monday last we chanced to be at imity to the races, but somewhat interfered Brighton on the occasion of the “ Fifth An- with the view from the beach. We managed, nual Swimming Matches of the Brighton nevertheless, to see the matches very well, Swimming Club," and think that some ac- and can vouch that there was some really count of them may amuse our readers in this good swimming. The fourth match was for holiday time.

second-class swimmers, distance, one thouThe posters announced that the fun was sand yards, which was done by the winner to begin at 9.30 precisely, so we started off in eighteen minutes and thirty seconds, the for the scene of operations directly after next man being a minute and a half behind. breakfast, purchasing on our way for one The longest race was the fifth, for first-class penny a correct card, which gave the names swimmers, members of the Brighton Swimand colors (worn in bathing-caps ) of the ming Club, the course being round the swimmers, the distances of the course, a list of head of the Chain Pier, and the distance the prizes, and the few and simple rules, such being one thousand two hundred and forty as that all competitors were to wear bathing yards. The winner, a Brighton tradesman drawers, and that no false starts would be of the name of Cavill, did the distance in serallowed. The bathing-station is a portion of enteen minutes forty-five seconds, the next the beach, fifty yards long to the west of the man being only three seconds behind him. Chain Pier, almost, therefore, in the very cen- There was a strong tide and a considerable tre of Brighton. It was roped off, being reserved swell on at this time, and although the numfor the competitors, and for the umpires, and ber of yards per minute does not look large committee, and their friends. On each side on paper, the best swimmer amongst our of this space the beach was lined with just readers will find it a pretty tough feat if he such a crowd as would gather to races. Boys will go and try it under the same conditions. of course were the prevailing feature; but Only four competitors started for this beat, there were a large number of men and women all of whom came well home, the last being of all ages, chiefly of the laboring class. little more than three-quarters of a minute The raised approach to the Chain Pier, which behind the winner. runs along just above the bathing-station, The great attraction of the day however, was also lined with spectators of a higher was the “sixth match, for females, open to rank, and above that, again, the esplanade all comers, distance three hundred yards, for a was crowded for a distance of about three very bandsome silver-plated tea-pot, value hundred yards, and all the windows of the 558.,”as it was announced on the card. On the houses were full of well-dressed folk. A bet- cliff, the pier, the beach, there must have ter spot for enabling the largest number of been now four or five thousand spectators, a spectators to see the races could scarcely be somewhat awful ordeal, one would think, for chosen ; for at high tide when the swimming the “ females ” in question. “ They must begins, the starting-place is not more than have good heart to come out at all,” said one fifty yards from the top of the cliff along middle-aged woman to another, close by our which the esplanade runs.

elbow, and we quite agreed. After a short The competitors got ready in a long shed delay, however, the door of a bathing-machine, at the top of the station, just under the which had been drawn up to the startingraised walk. They came out as they were place, opened, and out jumped first one, and

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then a second young woman. This was all. I while we are on this point we may add that There were four entries ; but only two came it would be quite as well that women should to the scratch. Mrs. Mary Taylor, who wore not be allowed in the space kept clear for the a scarlet and white headdress, and Miss starting. They have no business there, and Gooding (or Jenny Gooding, as she was can see all that they ought to see quite as called in the crowd), who showed in white well from the esplanade or the pier. and blue. The rest of their persons were After this, the ornamental swimming, as clothed in short blue jackets, not tunics such the card had it, came off, which consisted of as women wear at French watering-places, diving, floating, rolling on the top of the and trousers fitting rather tight, which no water, and other tricks of the same kind, of doubt must be far more easy to swim in than which some were very good. The fact which loose ones. So far as we could observe, from seemed to please and astonish people most a distance of some thirty yards, they seemed was the simple motionless floating on the fine, strong young women, and we gathered back, a fact which shows that the public is from the talk about us that they were sisters, far from being properly educated; for this the daughters of a proprietor of machines, feat is, in fact, not at all a matter of swimaccustomed to attend on ladies bathing, and ming, but of faith. Any person who will both of them first-rate swim r8. After a stretch out his arms above his head and lie short delay, the signal was given, and they still on the water, may do so in the sea for as ran into the water and started for the one long as he feels inclined, even if he cannot hundred and fifty yards flag round which swim ten strokes. But faith is as rare they were to swim. We were disappointed amongst swimmers as it is in other departin the pace, Mrs. Taylor and Jenny taking ments. Then“ Captain Camp, of the Brighthe matter quite coolly, and swimming side ton Swimming Club,” proceeded to " prepare by side quietly until the close, when the and partake of his breakfast, consisting of married lady took a few feet precedence of coffee, ham, and eggs, all hot, thirty yards her sister and came first to ground amidst at sea.” This, the captain, a one-legged much applause. Whether the applause in- man, managed successfully enough, on a cited the young women to prolong their per- small raft constructed on three cork belts, formance, or whether it was a part of the such as they keep on passenger ships to programme, we cannot say, but instead of throw out in case of a man overboard. To going to their machine they now swam out him, when his cooking was nearly finisheci, again for thirty yards or so, and began float- swam out two other one-legged men, one of ing and diving, and were hauled up into a whom upset the raft, and the captain, and boat by a young man, who, we were told, his kitchen apparatus, into a great wave, and was their brother, from which they each there was much rollicking in the water took several very respectable headers. The between the one-legged. Presently, one of Brighton committee had made a great point them scrambled up into a boat, in which were of this match for women, and we do not know a party comprising two well-dressed young that it could have been more properly or women, and sat for a minute or two dripdecently managed, except for the afterthought ping on the gunwale, within a few feet of of scrambling up into a boat for the purpose these damsels. This part of the performance of showing off. At the same time, we con- also, struck us as objectionable, and, ridicufess that we wish this race had been left out. lously enough, seemed to us all the more so It is very desirable that women should learn because the man had only one leg. We have to swim, and we can see no harm in their been unable to satisfy ourselves why it should; practising in the open sea, when decently be so, upon thinking the matter over since, clad. But this is quite another thing from but cannot get rid of the impression that so it taking part in the same matches with men, was. and when Jenny and her sister walked up There were several other matches, includdripping to their machine, through a number ing a steeple-chase, in which the swimmers of men, naked except bathing-drawers, who scrambled over a gate and a boat, and dived were waiting for the next race, we felt that under certain other obstacles, and a race, in the performance was not good “ for example which they started dressed and got rid of of life and instruction of manders.” And their clothes in the water. The whole of the

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races were over by about the middle of the considered absolutely indecent even for men day, and certainly we came away feeling that to bathe undressed, while amongst the Burwe had had a very good morning's amuse- mese, the only really pure Eastern race, by ment.

whom the marriage vow is really respected, With the exception of the one or two points men and women bathe together. We would noticed above, there was nothing whatever not imply too much from this fact and would risqué or objectionable in these matches, and yield to no one in the vehemence of our they are certainly calculated to encourage protest against any custom which threatened very much the useful art of swimming. We in the least degree to undermine the real should be glad to see them under proper modesty of the nation, on the other hand, regulations established and popular at all our we shall always set our faces against mocksea-bathing places. Bathing is a subject on modesty, which is only a thin veil for nastiwhich there exists a good deal of prudery in ness of mind, and for our own parts would the English mind. It may not be out of almost as soon see our women bathing with place to remark that amongst the most im- men as putting frills round the legs of their moral people in the world, the Hindoos, it is pianofortes.

SCIENCE has lately sustained a loss in the ducing skin diseases. The former maintains, in death of Dr. Normandy, who, as a practical chem- accordance with truths already established, that ist and experimental philosopher, has materially the growths in question are essentially vegetable ; contributed to the advance of modern science the latter regards them as being modified ecderThough French by birth, he adopted England as onic or skin tissues. There can be little doubt of his country, and after passing his examination the accuracy of Dr. Fox's views. as a surgeon, devoted himself to chemical experiments, in which, for a time, he was associated with the late Dr. Ure, to the last edition of whose “ Dictionary of the Arts and Manufactures ” he It has been stated that Dr. Grusselback, of the has largely contributed. He gave important evi- University of Upsala, lately restored to activity dence of a startling character before the Commit- a snake which had been frozen to torpidity for ten tee of the House of Commons, on the Adultera-1 years. It is also reported that he proposed to the tion of Food, and has left behind him many Swedish Government to experiment on criminals

. standard works on chemistry. Dr. Normandy He proposes to reduce the individual to complete died on the 10th May, in the fifty-fourth year of torpor by the gradual application of cold, and to

resuscitate him after a year or two.

his age.

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It would appear, from the carefully-conducted

It would seem that electricity as a curative agent investigations of M. Heffelseim, that the heart is gradually stealing into the laboratories and surrecoils after every contraction, somewhat in the geries of medical men. A novel, and (if true) & same manner as a cannon which has just been most important application of it has just been fired. The writer states that the moment the discovered by M. Namias. The latter has found ventricles contract and pour their volume of blood that in

that fearfully destructive malady, into the aorta and pulmonary artery, the double

Bright's disease of the kidneys, electricity liquid jet which is thus produced necessarily de- causes the elimination of urea from the glands. A termines a movement of the heart in the opposite greater step in the cure of the disease could hardly direction ; that is to say, an actual recoil move- have been made. Urea is the substance which ment at every pulsation. The reason why, dur- by its conversion into carbonate of ammonia proing its contraction, it assumes its proper position, duces the cerebral symptoms; and if a means of is that the elasticity of the surrounding structures eliminating it has been arrived at, medicine may neutralizes the effect of the recoil.

congratulate itself on the circumstance. M. Namias states, that the additional secretion of the

urea is accompanied by an increase in the quanDR. TILBURY Fox and Mr. Erasmus Wilson are tity of albumen, but considers this of little iinat war concerning the nature of the fungi pro-portance.

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