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exhibits the best ice curtains, ice floor, and other glacière phenomena in the spring and early summer. And any traveler who has not visited one or more of the big European glacières, and who may happen to stray to Coudersport during his wanderings, will certainly see there a natural phenomenon which, while not in the least unique, yet is a good deal of a rarity and quite different from the phenomena usually met with in every-day life.





(Read February 4, 1921.)

Joseph George Rosengarten, third son of George D. Rosengarten and Elizabeth Bennett, was born in Philadelphia, July 14, 1835.

He received his early education in private schools of this city and for a time came under the influence of a scholarly man in York, Pa., the Rev. Charles West Thomson, who aroused in him a liking for literature that became an abiding habit and accounted for the astonishing voracity in reading that marked him to the end. He passed from the old Academy (the institution out of which grew the College and University of Pennsylvania) to the College itself and received his degree of A.B. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1852 at the early age of seventeen, and three years later the degree of M.A. After graduation he studied law in the office of Henry M. Phillips, one of the leaders of the Philadelphia Bar, and was admitted to practice in 1856. The elder Rosengarten, realizing the extraordinary value of foreign study and travel, sent four of his sons abroad to prepare themselves for their future careers. In pursuance of this plan Joseph Rosengarten went abroad shortly after being admitted to practice, to study history and Roman law at the University of Heidelberg and to engage in travel. In this way he was thrown into contact with men of distinction in various fields and acquired that appreciation of scholarship which grew ever stronger with the passing years. Besides the eminent men at that time at the University of Heidelberg, among them Haeusser, the professor of history, and Vangerow, the professor of law, he met among others during his European studies, James Fitzjames Stephen, the great jurist, and his equally famous brother Leslie Stephen.

Returning to this country in 1857, it was not long before the rumbling of the thunder in the distance was heard. By a curious

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