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worfe by their falling into our hands? No; they have only exchanged one flavery for another; and I may say a better: for here they are brought into a land where the fun of Iflamifm gives forth its light, and fhines in full fplendour, and they have an opportunity of making themselves acquainted with the true doctrine, and thereby faving their immortal fouls. Those who remain at home, have not that happinefs. Sending the flaves home, then, would be fending them out of light into darknefs.
"I repeat the queftion, what is to be done with them? I have heard it fuggefted, that they may be planted in the wildernefs, where there is plenty of land for them to subsist on, and where they may flourish as a free ftate.-But they are, I doubt, too little disposed to labour without compulfion, as well as too ignorant to eftablifh good government: and the wild Arabs • would foon moleft and destroy, or again enflave them. While ferving us, we take care to provide them with every thing; and they are treated with humanity. The labourers in their own countries are, as I am informed, worfe fed, lodged, and clothed. The condition of moft of them is therefore already mended, and requires no farther improvement. Here their lives are in fafety. They are not liable to be impreffed for foldiers, and forced to cut one another's Chriftian throats, as in the wars of their own countries. If fome of the religious mad bigots, who now tease us with their filly petitions, have, in a fit of blind zeal, freed their flaves, it was not generofity, it was not humanity that moved them to the action; it was from the confcious burthen of a load of fins, and hope, from the fuppofed merits of fo good a work, to be excufed from damnation-How grofsly are they mistaken, in imagining
imagining flavery to be difavowed by the Alcoran! Are not the two precepts, to quote no . more, "Mafters, treat your flaves with kindnefs-Slaves, ferve your masters with cheerfulness and fidelity," clear proofs to the contrary? Nor can the plundering of infidels be in that facred book forbidden? fince it is well known from it that God has given the world, and all that it contains, to his faithful Muffulmen, who are to enjoy it, of right, as fast as they can conquer
it. Let us then hear no more of this deteftable propofition, the manumiffion of Chriftian flaves, the adoption of which would, by depreciating our lands and houses, and thereby depriving fo many good citizens of their properties, create univerfal discontent, and provoke infurrections, to the endangering of government, and producing general confufion. I have, therefore, no doubt that this wife council will prefer the comfort and happinefs of a whole nation of true believers, to the whim of a few Erika, and difmifs their petition."
The refult was, as Martin tells us, that the Divan came to this refolution: "That the doctrine, "that the plundering and enflaving the Chriftians "is unjuft, is at beft problematical; but that it "is the intereft of this ftate to continue the prac"tice, is clear; therefore, let the petition be re"jected." And it was rejected accordingly. And fince like motives are apt to produce, in the minds of men, like opinions and refolutions, may we not venture to predict, from this account, that the petitions to the parliament of England for abolishing the flave trade, to fay nothing of other legiflatures, and the debates upon them, will have a fimilar conclufion.
March 23, 1790.
OBSERVATIONS ON WAR.
BY the original law of nations, war and extirpation were the punishment of injury. Huma-. nizing by degrees, it admitted flavery inftead of death: a farther ftep was, the exchange of prifoners inftead of flavery: another, to refpect more the property of private perfons under conqueft, and be content with acquired dominion. Why fhould not this law of nations go on improving? Ages have intervened between its feveral fteps. but as knowledge of late increases rapidly, why fhould not thofe fteps be quickened? Why fhould it not be agreed to, as the future law of nations, that in any war hereafter the following defcription of men fhould be undisturbed, have the protection of both fides, and be permitted to follow their employments in fecurity? viz.
t. Cultivators of the earth, because they labour for the fubfiftence of mankind.
2. Fishermen, for the fame reafon.
3. Merchants and traders in unarmed fhips, who accommodate different nations by communicating and exchanging the neceflaries and conveniencies of life.
4. Artifts and mechanics, inhabiting and working in open towns.
It is hardly necessary to add, that the hospitals of enemies fhould be unmolested-they ought to be affifted. It is for the intereft of humanity in general, that the occafions of war, and the inducements to it, fhould be diminifhed. If rapine be abolished, one of the encouragements to war is taken away; and peace therefore more likely to continue and be lafting.
The practice of robbing merchants on the high feas-a remnant of the antient piracy-though it may be accidentally beneficial to particular perfons, is far from being profitable to all engaged in it, or to the nation that authorises it. In the beginning of a war fome rich fhips are furprized and taken. This encourages the first adventurers to fit out more armed veffels; and many others to do the fame. But the enemy at the fame time become more careful; arm their merchant fhips better, and render them not fo eafy to be taken: they go alfo more under the protection of convoys. Thus, while the privateers to take them are multiplied, the veffels fubject to be taken, and the chances of profit, are diminished; fo that many cruises are made wherein the expences overgo the gains; and, as is the cafe in other lotteries, though particulars have got prizes, the mafs of adventurers are lofers, the whole expence of fitting out all the privateers during a war being much greater than the whole amount of goods
Then there is the national lofs of all the labour of fo many men during the time they have been employed in robbing; who befides fpend what they get in riot, drunkenness, and debauchery; lofe their habits of induftry; are rarely fit for any fober business after a peace, and serve only to increase the number of highwaymen and houfebreakers. Even the undertakers who have been fortunate, are, by fudden wealth, led into expenfive living, the habit of which continues when the means of fupporting it ceafe, and finally ruins them: a juft punifhment for their having wantonly and unfeelingly ruined many honeft, innocent traders and their families, whofe fubftance was employed in ferving the common interest of mankind.
IMPRESS OF SEAMEN.
Notes copied from Dr. Franklin's writing in pencil in the margin of Judge Fofler's celebrated argument in favour of the IMPRESSING OF SEAMEN (published in the folio edition of his works.)
JUDGE UDGE Fofter, p. 158. Every Man.". The conclufion here from the whole to a part, does not feem to be good logic. If the alphabet should fay, Let us all fight for the defence of the whole; that is equal, and may. therefore, be juft. But if they fhould fay, Let A B C and D go out and fight for us, while we stay at home and fleep in whole skins; that is not equal, and therefore cannot be juft. Ib. 66
Employ."-If you please. The word fignifies engaging a man to work for me, by offering him fuch wages as are fufficient to induce him to prefer my fervice. This is very different from compelling him to work on fuch terms as I think proper.
This fervice and employment, &c."Thefe are falfe facts. His employments and fervice are not the fame.-Under the merchant he goes in an unarmed veffel, not obliged to fight, but to transport merchandize. In the king's fervice he is obliged to fight, and to hazard all the dangers of battle. Sicknefs on board of king's ships is alfo more common and more mortal. The merchant's fervice too he can quit at the end of the voyage; not the king's. Alfo, the merchant's wages are much higher.