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INDEX

Abbott, A. C., 79

Anthrax, germs of, 73, 83, 92; protec-
Achatinellidæ, 388, 399

tive vaccination for, 85, 86
Adams, C. C., 253

Antiseptic surgery, 81, 82
Adamsia, symbiosis with hermit crab, Antitoxin, 89-91
237

Ants, 206, 219-225, 228, 232, 233, 238
Adaptation, 8-10, 396, 407, 408

Aorta, 125, 126, 351
Addison, T., 142

Aortic arches, 123-125, 127, 351, 352
Addison's disease, 142

Apes, 231, 340–343, 371-373, 378
Adrenal bodies, 142

Aphids, parthenogenesis of, 200; rela-
Adrenalin, 142, 145

tion to ants, 222
Agar, W. E., 42

Arachnids, 239, 250
Agassiz, L., 353; on Tertiary flora, 364 Archæopteryx, 361, 363
Albinism, inheritance of, 293, 298, 313 Archegonia, 179, 181
Alcohol, derivation of, 102; hereditary Archenteron, 161-164
influence of, 312

Aristotle, on life, 9; teleology of, 13;
Aldrich, 145

of, 41

on evolution, 325
Algæ, 71, 174; symbiosis of, 238-240 Arrhenius, S., 78
Alimentary canal, of earthworm, 115, Artemia, 195, 200

116; of crayfish, 118, 119; of ver- Arteries, 124-127
tebrates, 119-122; development of, Artificial parthenogenesis, 201
161-165

Artificial selection, 393-395, 405
Allodape, social life of, 213

Ascaris lumbricoides, parasitic habits of,
Alternation of generations, 178-184

247
Altmann, R., 16, 17

Ascaris megalocephala, chromosomes
Alytes, care of eggs, 205
Amazon ants, effects of slave-making Aspidium felix-mas, life history of,
habits, 223, 224

178-181
Amia, guarding eggs and young, 205 Assimilation, 4, 5, 105, 111
Amino acids, 18, 122, 125

Asters, 34-36
Amitosis, 33, 37

Atavism, 292-294
Ammonia, 103, 104

Auricles, 124-126
Ammophila, instincts of, 204

Australian region, 376-383, 390
Amoeba, 53, 56-62, 114-117

Avebury, Lord, on Amazon ants, 223,
Amphibia, 120, 121, 129; development

224, 234
of, 189-191, 193, 194, 358, 359;
distribution of, 378, 385, 386

Babcock, E. B., 301
Amphioxus, 134, 156, 334

Babcock, S. M., on metabolic water, 21
Amphipoda, 203, 249

Baboons, 231, 378
Amphithoë, lack of maternal instinct, Bach family, 298
203

Bacillus, 73, 83, 84, 241; structure and
Anabolism, 4

life history of, 73-78; Bacillus
Analogy, 135, 136

botulinus, 88
Ancestral heredity, law of, 299-301 Bacteria, structure and life history, 73–
Ancon sheep, 404

78, 241; resistance to heat and cold,
Andalusian fowl, heredity in, 291

25; in soil, 103, 104
Anemones, 236-238

Baer, K. E. von, law of, 348, 349
Anergates, effects of slavery on, 224 Bagg, H. J., hereditary effects of X-rays,
Annelids, 127, 131

311
Anopheles, 69

Bailey, F. R., and Miller, A. M., 166
Anther, 181, 183, 185

Bailey, L. H., 397
Antheridia, 179, 181, 182

Bali, fauna of, 383, 384

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in crayfish, 118; in vertebrates, 138,

139
Brauns, H., on Allodape, 213
Brehm, A. E., social sympathy in birds,

228, 229; in monkeys, 208, 231
Brewer, W. H., alleged transmission of

mutilations, 307
Brontosaurus, 360
Brown, A. P., Reichert, E. T., and, 18
Brown, R., 29
Brown-Sequard, C. E., on internal

secretions, 141, 142
Buffon, G. L. L., on evolution, 325
Bütschli, O., on structure of protoplasm,

16, 27
Bullowa, J. G. M., 27
Bumblebees, social life of, 213, 214
Burbank, L., production of new vari-

eties, 394
Burlingame, L.L., 147

Ball, W. P., 322
Banting, F. J., and Macleod, J. J. R.,

on insulin, 145
Barnacles, 202, 237, 249, 250
Barry, M., 29
Bast, 96, 98
Bateson, Wm., on cell division, 38; on

laws of heredity, 270, 301
Bats, wings of, 338; distribution of, 378,

386, 388
Bayliss, Wm., 27, 146, 147
Bear animalcules, revival after dessica-

tion, 26
Bears, species of, 332
Bees, 206; solitary, 212, 213; bumble,

213, 232; hive, 192, 200, 215-217, 232
Behring, E. von, discovery of antitoxin,

89
Beriberi, cause of, 19
Berman, L., 146
Bernard, C., on vital activity, 1, 14, 24;

on glycogenic function of liver, 122,
123; on internal secretions, 141; on

anæsthesia oi piants, 108
Bethe, A., olfactury reactions of ants,

233
Bichat, M. F. X., definition of life, 10
Bile, function of, 122
Bioblasts, 17
Biogenetic law, 349
Biology, defined, 1
Bi 12 207, 208; social life of, 228-

230; change of sex in, 287; secondary
sex characters, 289; fossil forms, 354,
361-364; distribution of, 378-380,

382-385, 388, 389
Birth rate, 420-426
Bladder worms, 246, 247
Blastopore, 157, 159, 160
Blastula, 156, 157, 159, 160
Blending inheritance, 295, 296
Blood, 53, 54, 122-129; corpuscles of,

53, 54, 124
Blood tests, 347, 348
Blumenbach, J. F., 284, 307
Böhm, A. A., and Davidoff, M. A., 54
Bone, 47, 48
Bonnet, C., views on preformation, 148
Borneo, fauna of, 380, 383
Borradaile, L. A., 253
Bos, J. R., experiments of heredity of

mutilations, 307
Bose, J. C., on response in living and

non-living, 8, 14
Boyle, R., on fermentation and disease,

81, 82
Brachiopods, fossil species of, 357, 359,

406
Brain, 49, in earthworm, 115, 136, 137;

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Cæcum, 119, 343
Calkins, G. N., 79, 147
Calyx, 181, 183
Cambium, 96-98
Cambrian period, 355-357
Camels, geographical distribution of,

390; extinct species of, 370
Camp, C. L., iii
Campbell, D. H., 110
Candolle, A. de, on classification, 336
Cannon, W. B., internal secretion and

emotion, 142
Capillaries, 125, 126
Carbohydrates, 30, 53; composition of,

19; use of, 11, 49, 99-102, 119, 121–

123
Carbon, 3
Carbon dioxide, 49, 52, 99-102
Carboniferous period, 358, 359
Carrel, A., on tissue culture, 46
Carr-Saunders, A. M., 427
Cartilage, 47, 48
Castle, W. E., 276, 296, 301, 312, 409
Castration, effects of, 141
Catalzsers, 102
Cattell, J. McK., families of American

men of science, 421
Celebes, fauna of, 380, 383
Cells, 28-42
Cell theory, 28-30
Cellulose, 30, 35, 100, 101, 117
Centrosome, 31
Cephalopods, 357, 360
Cercaria, 244
Cerebral hemispheres, 139
Cestodes, 245–247
Chambers, R., micro-dissection, 39
Chandler, A., 254

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Child, C. M., on metabolic gradients, Cross breeding, 186–188, 296
267, 268

Crossing over, 281-283
Chimpanzees, similarity to man, 340, Crustacea, 116, 133, 189, 202, 203,

341, 347, 348; fossil remains of, 371; 249, 250, 257, 258, 337, 338, 357
distribution of, 378

Crystalloids, 22
Chitin, 116, 133

Crystals, growth of, 5; regeneration of,
Chlorophyll, 65-67, 95, 99-101, 240 6,7,265, 266
Cholera, of fowls, 84-86

Cuticle, 44, 45
Chondriosomes, 32

Cuvier, G., 326
Chordata, 334

Cyanophyceæ, 71
Chromatin, 33–35

Cynthia, development of isolated cleav-
Chromomeres, 42

age cells, 260, 261
Chromosomes

, 40-42, 64, 151-154, 170, Cysts, of protozoa, 60, 61, 66, 69, 175,
200; behavior in cell division, 34-37; 177, 244, 246, 247, 384
continuity of, 41-42; relation to Cytoplasm, 30-40, 154, 155
heredity, 277, 278, 281-289
Cilia, 43, 44, 130, 131

Dahlgren, U., 54
Ciona, self-sterility of, 202

Dandelion, dissemination of seed, 8;
Circulation, 123, 132; in plants, 99; in opening and closing of flowers, 109

earthworm, 123, 124; in insects, 124; Daphnids, parthenogenesis of, 199
in vertebrates, 124-127

Darwin, C., 299, 325-330, 390; on
Classification, 332-337

insectivorous plants, 109, 110; on
Clausen, R. É., 301

cross and self-fertilization, 185–187,
Clepsine, protection of eggs, 203

209; on sexual selection, 196–198; on
Coagulation, 21-23

sympathy in apes, 208, 231; on inter-
Codfish, skeleton of, 134, 135; fccundity relationships of organisms, 253; on
of, 393

reversion, 292; on pangenesis, 303,
Calenterates, 113, 114, 123, 127, 136, 304; on the geological record, 355; on
211, 243

geographical distribution, 376, 381,
Cælom, 115, 116, 130, 160, 162

386, 387; on natural selection, 392–
Canurus cerebralis, 246

398, 401, 404, 405, 407, 408
Color blindness, inheritance of, 288, 289 Darwin, E., 299, 325
Colloids, 22, 52, 53, 61

Darwin family, 299
Commensalism, 236, 237

Darwin's tubercle, 341
Complementary factors, 292, 293 Davaine, C., on bacteria of anthrax, 83
Conjugation, 65, 66, 168–175

Davenport, C. B., 409, 427
Conklin, E. G., 157, 260, 261, 322, 427 Davenport, C. B., and Muncey, E. B.,
Connective tissue, 47, 48, 165

inheritance of Huntington's chorea,
Consanguineous matings, 297–299

317, 318
Convoluta, symbiosis with algæ, 238, Death, relation to life processes, 7, 23-25
239

Degeneration, 349-352
Cope, E. D., 307

Dendy, A., 147
Coral polyps, 114, 133, 168, 237, 357 Dentalium, development of isolated
Cork, 28

cleavage cells, 260
Corn, heredity of, 282, 283, 297

Desmids, 71
Corolla, 181

Desmognathus, care of eggs, 206
Correlation, coefficient of, 316

Determinants, 263
Correns, C., 271, 272

Devonian period, 358, 359
Coulter, J. M., 110, 409

De Vries, H., 271; on mutation theory,
Courtship, in spiders, 198, 199; in birds, 403, 404, 409
196-198

Dextrose, 102, 121, 122, 125
Cowdry, E. V., 42

D'Herelle on ultra-microscopic organ-
Crampton, H. E., 390

isms, 242
Crayfish, 118, 119, 129, 130, 203 Diabetes, 145
Cretaceous period, 361, 362

Diatoms, 71
Cretinism, cause and cure of, 143, 144 Digestion, 102, 103, 113, 114, 118-122,
Crew, F. A. E., change of sex in fowl, 132
287

Dinornis, 382
Crô-Magnon man,
373, 374

Dinosaurs, 360–362

Diphtheria, 87; bacilli of, 88, 89; efficacy Erepsin, 122

of antitoxin treatment for, 89-91 Erlich, P., on transmitted effect of
Diplodocus, 360

poisons, 308
Discosoma, commensalism with fishes, Escherich, K., on termites, 225, 227
236

Estabrook, E. A., mental defect in the
Dodder, 242, 243

Juke family, 415
Dominance, 271-276, 290, 294, 295 Ethiopian region, 376-378, 381, 390
Doncaster, L., 42, 301

Eudorina, life cycle, 68, 173-177
Draba verna, elementary species of, 403 Eugenics, 411-426
Drelincourt, C., theories of sex, 284 Euglena, 59, 67
Drepanidæ, species of, 389

Eurypterids, 358, 359
Driesch, H., 268; on vitalism, 14; on Eustachian tube, 349
fate of cells, 264

Evans, H. M., on vitamine E, 20
Drosera, 109

Evolution, 324 ff
Drosophila, 280-283, 289, 298, 307, 308 Excretion, 57, 58, 111, 130-132
Dubois, E., discovery of Pithecan- Exogenous stems, 97-99
thropus, 371

Eyes, 192, 341
Duckbill, 190, 379

Eyelid, rudimentary third, 339, 340
Duclaux, E., 93
Dugdale, R., on the Jukes, 414, 415 Fabre, J. H., sense of smell in moths,
Duggar, B. M., 110

191, 192; instincts of solitary wasps,
Duvaucel, A., on sympathy in apes, 208 204, 218

Fantham, H. B., 254
Eanthropus, 372

Fasciola hepatica, life cycle of, 243–
Ear, form of, in man and apes, 340- 245

342; rudimentary muscles of, 340, 341 Fats, 19, 53, 121, 122
Earthworms, 115, 116, 133, 136-138, Feeble-mindedness, heredity of, 298,
202

319,415-418, 423
East, E. M., 296, 297, 301, 409, 427 Felis, genus, 333
Echinococcus, 246, 247

Fermentation, 71-73, 81, 101-103
Echinoderms, 334, 357, 359

Ferns, life cycle of, 178–182; fossils of,
Ectoderm, 112-116, 157-165

358; distribution of, 384, 387
Ectoplasm, 56, 57, 63

Fertilization, 149, 151, 155-157, 176,
Egg, 30, 148-159, 179, 188-191

177, 179, 182–191, 202
Elderton, E. M., on birth restriction Fibrillæ, 49, 50
among English workers, 422

Fibrovascular bundles, 96-99
Eimer, O., on orthogenesis, 409

Fierasfer, commensalism with holo-
Elephants, evolution of, 368-370; dis- thurians, 236, 237
tribution of, 378

Filial regression, law of, 299-301
Embryo sac, 182, 183

Filterable viruses, 5, 73
Embryology, 148-166; relation to evolu- Fishes, 124-126, 130, 134, 135, 189, 349-
tion, 348-352

352, 357-360
Endamæba, 62

Fiske, J., meaning of infancy, 208, 209
Endocrine glands, 139–146

Flagella, 65, 113, 174-177
Endogenous stems, 97

Flagellates, 65–68, 174-177
Endomixis, 173

Flukes, 243-245
Endoplasm, 56-58, 64, 117

Foraminifera, 62, 63, 133
Endosperm, 183

Formaldehyde, 99
Entelechy, 266

Fossils, 352 ff.
Enterokinase, 121

Frogs, 51; development of, 157–165,
Entoderm, 112-115, 157-165

260; breeding habits, 189, 190, 193,
Environment, influence of, 302–322

195; artificial parthenogenesis, 201;
Enzymes, 101-103

on oceanic islands, 386
Eocene, 366-371, 381

Fundulus, effect of salt solution on
Eohippus, 366-368

development, 21, 301, 311; effect of
Epidermis, 95-98

alcohol on germ cells, 312; chro-
Epigenesis, 149

mosomes of, 41
Epithelium, 43-47, 112-115; regenera- Fungi, 103, 239; reproduction of, 177,
tion of, 258

178: symbiosis with algæ, 240, 241;

parasitism in, 242; as causes of dis-

ease, 241, 242
Funk, C., 27

Goring, C., heredity of tuberculosis, 317
Govaerts, D. A., 317
Grabau, A. W., 356, 357, 362, 390
Graham, T., on colloids, 22
Grape sugar, 103
Gray, A., 97, 182, 184, 327
Grew, N., 29
Grinnell, J., iii
Gulick, J. T., effects of isolation, 401
Guyer, M., 427; hereditary effect of

lens extract, 309

Gager, C. S., 110
Galapagos Islands, fauna of, 387, 399
Gallardo, A., 39
Galton, F., 299, 301, 427; on instincts

of wild cattle, 230, 231; on law of
ancestral heredity, 299, 300; on filial
regression, 299–301; on transmission
of acquired characters, 305; on nature
and nurture, 314; on heredity of
ability, 319, 322, 323; on eugenics,

412,427
Gametes, of Hæmatococcus, 66, 168,

169; of malaria parasite, 69, 70; of
Volvox, 176, 177; of Pandorina, 175,
176; of Eudorina, 176, 177; in hered-
ity, 273-278
Gametophyte, 179-183, 189
Ganglia, 136-138
Garbowski, M. T., 262
Garrison, f. H., 93
Gastric juice, 117, 121
Gastrula, 156-160
Gates, R. R., 409, 427
Geddes, P., and Thomson, J. A., 209,

390
Gee, W., effect of alcohol on germ cells

of Fundulus, 312
Gemmules, 303, 304
Gene, 274, 277-279, 404
Genotype, 276
Genus, 332, 333
Geographical distribution, 374-390
George, H., on heredity and ability, 314
Geotropism, 105, 106
Germ plasm, 279; continuity of, 300,

304, 305
Germ theory of disease, 81-93
Gesell, A., on twins, 320-322
Gibbon, 371
Gill arches, 135, 349–352
Gills, 126-130, 164, 165, 350, 351
Gill slits, 130, 164, 165, 349–351
Glacial period, effects on distribution,

389
Glands, 116–119
Glucose, 102
Glycerin, 19, 102, 121, 122
Glycogen, 122, 123
Goddard, H. H., inheritance of feeble-

mindedness, 415-417
Goethe, J. W. von, on metamorphosis of

plants, 184; on evolution, 326
Goldschmidt, R., 301
Gonium, 68
Gorilla, 371, 378

Haeckel, E., 166, 390; on evolution,

327, 343; on the biogenetic law, 349
Hæmatococcus, life history, 65-67, 168,

169
Hæmophilia, heredity of, 288
Hæmosporidia, 68-70
Hair, 336, 341-343
Haller, A., on preformation, 148
Halliburton, W. D., 144
Hapalocarcinus, commensal habits of,

237
Harrison, R., on tissue culture, 46
Hartmann, M., 173
Heart, 123-126
Hegner, R. W., 147, 209, 254
Heidelberg man, 372, 373
Heidenhain, M., on mechanism of

mitosis, 38
Heliotropism, 106, 107
Helmholtz, H., 11, 78
Hemocyanin, 54
Hemoglobin, 18, 19, 53, 54, 128
Henking, H., 284
Hepatic blood vessels, 125, 126
Herbst, C., 267
Heredity, 270 ff., 412 ff.
Hermaphroditism, 201, 202
Hermit crabs, 237, 345, 346
Herms, W. B., 254
Heron, D., on decline of birth rate and

social status, 424
Herrick, C. J., 147
Herrick, F. H., 209
Hertwig, O., 15, 42, 166, 268
Hertwig, R., 147
Heteromorphosis, 257
Hinshaw, H. C., iii
Hippocrates, 80, 81
Histogenesis, 165
Histology, 43
Hive bee, eyes of, 192; instincts of,

215-217
Holarctic region, 376
Holman, R. M., 110
Holmes, O. W., 300
Holmes, S. J., 72, 93, 166, 209, 427
Homology, 135, 136, 338, 339

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