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Hookworm, life history, 248, 249
Hooke, R., 28
Hooker, J., 327
Hormones, 141-146
Horse, evolution of, 364-368; distribu-

tion of, 380
Howard, H. E., territory in bird life,

229, 230, 235
Howell, W. H., 147
Huber, P., on effects of slavery in ants,

224
Huestis, R. R., 404
Humming birds, distribution of, 376,

380, 388
Huntington's chorea, inheritance of,

317, 318
Huxley, T. H., attributes of living mat-

ter, 2, 3; on protoplasm, 3, 14, 15-
27; on the crayfish, 119, 147; on

evolution, 327, 390; on man and
Hydra, 112-114, 167, 188; symbiosis
with algæ, 238; regeneration of, 6,

255, 256
Hydractinia, 211
Hydroids, 167, 168, 188, 189, 210, 211,

256, 257, 261
Hydrophobia, Pasteur treatment of,

85, 86
Hydrotropism, 106
Hyoid arch, 350
Hyoid bone, 350

apes, 371

Jenkin, F., on swamping effects of

intercrossing, 398
Jenkinson, J. W., 268
Jenner, discovery of vaccination, 85
Jennings, H. S., 58, 61, 79, 173, 209
Johnson, R. H., 427
Jordan, D. S., 390; isolation and the

formation of species, 399
Jordan, E. O., 79
Jordan's law, 399
Juke family, 414, 415, 418, 424
Jurassic period, 354, 361, 362
Kallikak family, 415-418, 424
Kammerer, P., 323
Kant, I., 324
Karyokinesis, 34
Karyosome, 33
Katobolism, 4
Keeble, F., symbiosis of Convoluta, 238,

239, 254
Kellicott, W. E., 166
Kellogg, V. L., 390, 409
Kelvin, Lord, on origin of life, 78
Kepner, W. A., 54
Kidneys, 118, 125, 131, 132
King, H. D., 298
Kingsley, J. S., 147
Klebs, E., 88
Koch, R., culture of anthrax bacillus,

83; criteria of causes of disease, 84;

discovery of tubercle bacillus, 84
Kofoid, C. A., iii
Köhler, W., mutual aid in apes, 234
Krakatoa, peopling of island, 387, 388
Kropotkin, P., mutual aid in animals,

230, 234, 235
Lævulose, 102
Lamarck, J. B., on biology, 1; on

inheritance of acquired characters,

302 ff.; on evolution, 326, 392
Lamarckism, 302–312, 392, 409
Lang, A., 296
Langerhans, islands of, 145
Lanugo coat of hair, 343
Leaves, 94-96, 98-101
Lecithin, 22
Le Conte, J., 357, 360, 390
Leeuwenhoek, A. van, descriptions of

one-celled organisms, 29, 55
Leibnitz, G. W., 324
Lemurs, 378, 382
Lens, regeneration of, 266; hereditary

defects of, 309–311
Lepidoptera, 286, 289
Leuckart, R., 246, 247
Leucocytes, 53, 54, 88
Lewes, G, H., definition of life, 10

Ichneumon fly, 251, 252
Ichthyornis, 364
Immunity, 85-87, 89-91
Inbreeding, effects of, 186–188, 296,299
Infusoria, 63-65, 136, 170-173
Insanity, inheritance of, 298, 316, 317,

320
Insectivorous plants, 102, 109
Insects, 129, 130, 133, 138, 185, 186,

189, 191, 192, 251-253, 337, 358
Insulin, 145
Internal secretions, 140-146
Intersexes, 202, 287
Intestine, of earthworm, 115, 116; of

crayfish, 118, 119; of vertebrates,

120-122
Iodine, 143, 144
Iron, 104
Irritability, 7, 8, 108
Islands, life of, 383–388
Isolation, influence on formation of

species, 387, 398-402
Isopods, 195, 203, 249

Jelly-fish, 114, 136, 188, 189; fossil

remains of, 353, 357

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Lichens, 240

Mammary glands, 9, 190, 208
Light, S. F., iii

Mammoth, 370
Lillie, F. R., 17, 166, 255

Marshall, A. M., 159-164, 166
Lillie, R. S., 27

Marshall, C. E., 79
Lingula, 406

Marshall, F. H. A., 209
Linin, 32

Marsupials, 190, 378, 379, 382, 389, 390
Linkage, 281–283

Mastodon, 369, 370
Linnæus, C., 105; on classification, 332, Maternal impressions, 313, 314

333, 335; on creation of species, 332, Mather, C., on pestilences, 92, 93
336

Mathews, A.P.,
Lipase, 102, 121

Maturation, 151-155, 170
Lister, J., antiseptic surgery, 81, 82 Maupas, E., 169, 171
Lithodidæ, evolution of, 343-346

Medullary folds, 160, 161, 259
Little, C. C., hereditary effect of X-ray, Medullary groove, 160, 161, 259
311

Medullary rays, 97
Liver, of crayfish, 118, 119; of ver- Medusæ, 114, 188, 189, 210, 211, 259

tebrates, 122, 125, 132; development Meliponinæ, social life of, 214, 215
of, 161

Melos piza melodia, distribution of sub-
Liver fluke, 243–245

species, 400
Lizards, regeneration in, 255, 258; circu- Mendel, G. J., 270-273, 299

lation of, 352; distribution of, 387, 388 Mendel, L, B., 27
Loeb, J., 14, 268; on antagonistic action Mendel's law, 273-301, 313, 317

of salts, 21; on artificial parthenogen- Merriam, C. H., on connecting links,
esis, 201

401
Löffler, F., culture of diphtheria bacil- Mesoglcea, 112
lus, 88

Mesoderm, 114, 115, 159-165
Lombok, fauna of, 383, 384

Mesozoic era, 359-362
Lombroso, C., on criminal man, 417 Metabolism, 3-5, 11, 22, 26, 103, 127,
Loos, A., 248

132
Lull, R. S., 369, 391

Metazoa, 112, 188
Lungs, 126, 128-130; development of, Metcalf, M. M., 391
163

Metchnikoff, E., theory of phagocytosis,
Lung-fishes, 126

88
Lutz, F., effects of disuse of wings in Meyer, K., 111
Drosophila, 307

Micro-dissection, 39, 40
Lycosa, care of eggs, 205

Microgametes, 176
Lyell, Sir Chas., relation to theory of Micronucleus, 64, 169, 170
evolution, 327, 391

Mimosa, responses of, 108

Minchin, E. A., 79
MacCallum, W.G., 93

Minot, C. S., 14
Macleod, J. J. R., on insulin, 145 Miocene period, 364, 368, 371
McClung, C. E., on sex chromosomes, Mitchell, P. C., 209
284

Mitochondria, 32
Macronucleus, 64, 169, 170

Mitosis, 34-42
Macrogametes, 176

Maritherium, 369, 370
McDougall, W. M., 427

Mohl, H. von, 29
McFarland, J., 147

Molds, 177, 178
Madagascar, fauna of, 382, 388

Molluscs, 44, 54, 133, 190, 202, 203, 236
Malaria, 68-70

Monkeys, 208, 231, 343, 360, 371, 378,
Malpighi, M., 29

390
Malpighian corpuscle, 131

Monotremes, 150, 190, 378, 379, 382
Maltase, 103

Moore, B., 27
Malthus, T. H., on population, 392, 393 Moose, breeding habits of, 195, 196
Maltose, 104, 121

Morgan, T. H., 158, 164, 166, 202, 259,
Mammals, 9, 190, 201, 208; social life 281-283, 301, 409

of, 230-234; classification of, 334, Morphallaxis, 257
336; extinct species of, 362, 364-371; Morphology, relation to evolution, 337–
distribution of, 378, 379, 381-383,
386, 388

Morula, 157, 159

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Mosquitoes, 69, 70, 192, 204
Moths, sense of smell, 191, 192
Mucor, life cycle of, 177, 179
Muir, R., and Ritchie, J., 79
Mulattoes, heredity of skin color, 296
Multiple factors, 294-296
Muscle, 48, 49, 132, 133
Mutations, 280, 283, 402-405
Mutation theory, 403-405
Mycelium, 177
Mycorhiza, 241
Myelin, 49
Myxædema, cause and cure of, 143, 144
Nägeli, K., on orthogenesis, 409
Nasuti, use of, 226
Natural selection, 327, 328, 392-398,

man, 373

man, 286

401-409
Neanderthal man, 372, 373,411
Nearactic region, 376-378
Needham, T., on spontaneous genera-

tion, 76
Nematocysts, 112, 113
Nematodes, 246-248
Neotoma fuscipes, subspecies of, 400, 401
Neotropical region, 376, 377, 390
Nephridia, 115, 130, 131
Nernst, W., on permeability of mem-

branes, 22, 23
Nerves, 49-52, 136-140, 258
Nerve cells, 49-51, 113, 114, 136-138,

140
Nervous system, 51, 113, 136-140, 146
Nettling cells, 112, 113
Newman, H. H., 147, 391
New Zealand, fauna of, 383
Nictitating membrane, 339, 340
Nilsson-Ehle, H., on multiple factors,

294
Nitrates, 74, 103, 104
Nitrites, 74, 103, 104
Nitrogen, 3, 18, 74, 103, 104
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 74, 104, 241
Nitrogen cycle, 103, 104
Notochord, 134, 161-163
Nucleolus, 29, 33, 35
Nucleus, 29-41; röle in heredity, 277,

288
Nuttall, G. H. F., on blood tests of

relationship, 347, 391
Oceanic islands, life of, 385-388
Oligocene period, 371
Oöcyte, 150
Oögonia, 150, 152
Opossums, distribution of, 376, 388

rang-utan, 371
Ordovician period, 357
Oriental region, 376, 377,379, 382, 383

Orohippus, 367, 368
Orthoceratites, 357
Orthogenesis, 409
Osborn, H. F., 391, on Neanderthal
Osler, W., mortality from diphtheria, 90
Osmia, habits of, 212, 213
Osmosis, 98
Osterhout, W. J. V., on injury, recovery

and death, 24, 27
Ostracoderms, 357
Ovules, 182, 183
Ovum, 148 ff., 177, 179, 181, 188
Oxalis, response of leaflets, 108
Oxidase, 102
Oxidation, 4, 5
Oxygen, 3, 99-102, 114, 128
Packard, A. S., 323
Pagurus, commensalism with anemones,

237; assymetry of, 346
Painter, T.S., chromosomes in
Palæarctic region, 376-378
Paleontology, evidences for evolution

from, 352-374
Paleozoic period, 355-359
Pancreas, functions of, 119, 121, 144-

146; development of, 161
Pandorina, life cycle of, 68, 174-177
Pangenesis, 303, 304
Paramecium, structure of, 63, 64;

fission, 64; conjugation in, 65, 169,

170, 172, 173
Parental care, evolution of, 202-209
Parker, G. H., 147
Parker, T. J., 147
Parrots, social life of, 228, 229
Parthenogenesis, 176, 199-202
Pasteur, L., on diseases of silkworms,

68; on diseases of wine and beer, 72,
73; on spontaneous generation, 76,
77, 81; discovery of attenuated virus,
85; work on anthrax, 85, 92; dis-
covery of cure for hydrophobia, 85,

86
Payne, F., effects of disuse of eyes in

Drosophila, 307, 308
Pearl, R., 317, 323
Pearson, K., 317, 422
Peas, chromosomes of, 41; heredity in,

271–278, 291, 292
Pébrine, 68
Peckham, G. W., 198, 204, 218, 235
Pepsin, 121
Peptones, 121
Peritoneum, 115
Permian period, 359
Petals, 181-185
Phænotypes, 276, 277

Phagocytes, 88, 91

Rabies, 85, 86, 92
Pharynx, 115, 119, 136, 164

Radiolaria, 63, 133
Phloëm, 96, 99

Rau, P. and N., 235
Photosynthesis, 99-101, 238

Ray, J., on species, 332
Phototropism, 106-108, 179

Recapitulation theory, 349–352
Pigeons, change of sex in, 287; origin of Redi, F., on spontaneous generation, 75
domestic varieties, 395

Rediæ, 244
Piltdown man, 372, 373

Reflex action, 137-139
Pineal eye, 340, 341

Regeneration, 6, 7, 255-268
Pineal gland, 341

Regression, filial, law of, 299-301
Pinnotheres, 236

Regulation, 255-268
Pistil, 181-186

Reichert, É. T., and Brown, A. P., on
Pithecanthropus, 371, 372

hemoglobins, 18, 19
Pituitary body, 144

Reinheimer, H., 254
Placenta, 190

Remora, 237
Plague, 73, 92, 93

Reptiles, 359–362; distribution of, 378,
Planaria, regeneration of, 256-258, 261 383, 385
Plasma, 53

Respiration, in plants, 100; in animals,
Plasma membrane, 20, 23

126-130
Plasmodium of malaria, 70, 169

Reversion, 292–294
Plasmosome, 33

Rhinoderma, care of eggs, 205
Plastids, 31

Rhodesian, skull, 373
Pleistocene period, 368, 371

Richards, A., 41
Pliocene period, 368, 371

Rickets, cause of, 20
Podocoryne, 210

Riddle, O., on change of sex, 287
Polar bodies, 152, 154, 155, 200

Ridgway, R., on the distribution of
Polistes, nest of, 218, 219

song sparrows, 400
Pollen, 181–187

Rignano, E., 323
Polyergus, slave-making habits, 223, Ritter, W. E., 14, 78
224

Rivas, D., 254
Popenoe, P., 427

Romanes, G. J., 338–342, 391
Portal vein, 125

Roots, 98, 99, 101, 106
Portuguese man-of-war, 211, 212

Roux, E., discovery of diphtheria
Pouchet, F. A., on spontaneous genera-

toxin, 88
tion, 76

Roux-Weismann theory, 263-265
Preformation, 148, 149

Rudimentary organs, 336, 340–343, 352
Primates, 371, 378
Proctodæum, 163

Sacculina, degeneracy in, 249, 250
Protective coloration, 396, 407

Sage blossom, adaptations for cross-
Proteins, 16, 18, 19, 53, 101-104, 121, fertilization, 185, 186, 306
122

Saint-Hilaire, G., 326
Prothallus, 178–181

Saleeby, C. W., 427
Protococcus, 71

Saliva, 120, 121, 185, 186
Protophyta, 55, 71

Salivary glands, 120
Protoplasm, 3, 4, 15-25, 101

Sandwich Islands, fauna of, 388, 389,
Protorohippus, 368

399
Protozoa, 55, 132, 167, 168, 241, 384 Saprophytes, 73, 240
Pterodactyls, 338, 339

Scale bugs, 194, 251
Pugnacity, 141; function of, in relation Schæffer, A. A., 58, 59
to social evolution, 232-235

Schelling, F. W. J., definition of life, 10
Pulmonary artery, 126, 127, 351 Schleiden, M. J., on the cell theory, 29,
Pulmonary veins, 126

55
Punnett, R. C., 291, 301

Schultze, M., definition of a cell, 29
Purkinje, J. E., 29

Schwann, Th., on cell theory, 29, 55;
Putrefaction, 74-77

on the egg as a cell, 30
Pycraft, W. P., 209

Scott, W. D., 391
Pyloric constriction, 119-121

Scurvy, cause of, 20
Python, care of eggs, 206; rudimentary Sea lions, breeding habits of, 196
limbs of, 342; dispersal of, 388

Secretions, 116-122

Sedgwick, W. T., 147
Self-fertilization, effects of, 186–188
Semilunar fold, 339, 340
Sepals, 181-184
Seward, A. C., 410
Sex, evolution of, 168–202; meaning

of, 170–173; determination of, 284-

288
Sex-linked inheritance, 288–290
Sexual dimorphism, 141, 191-197
Sexual selection, 195–199
Sharks, 130
Sharp, D., 235
Sharp, L. W., 42
Shelford, V. E., 254
Sherrington, C. S., 147
Shull, A. F., 147
Sieve tubes, 96, 98
Silurian period, 357
Sims-Woodhead, G., 79
Siphonophores, 211, 212
Sladen, F. W. L., 235
Slavery in ants, 223, 224
Sleeping sickness, cause of, 67
Smeathman, H., on termites, 227, 233
Smith, G. E., 372, 373, 391
Smith, G., 347
Song sparrow, subspecies of, 400
Spallanzani, A., 76
Spencer, H., 14, 391, 393, 410; defini-
tion of life, 10; on regeneration, 265;
early advocacy of evolution, 326; on
morphological evidences for evolu-

tion, 337
Sperm cells, 30, 149, 152, 155, 156, 188,

189
Spermatocytes, 152
Spermatogenesis, 152, 153
Spermatogonia, 152
Spermatozoa, 30, 149, 152, 155, 156,

177
Sphærella, life history, 65-67
Sphenodon, 341, 383
Spiders, 189, 198, 199, 203, 205, 385
Spiracles, 129
Spireme, 34
Spirogyra, 174
Sponges, 123, 127, 133, 261
Spontaneous generation, 75-79
Sporangia, 178
Spores, 60, 66, 68–71, 73, 177-180, 182,

183
Sporophyte, 178-181, 183, 184
Sporozoa, 68–70, 168, 243, 250
Sprengel, C., on cross-fertilization, 185
Stamens, 181-186
Starch, 19, 95, 99-101, 120, 121
Starling, E. H., 146
Steapsin, 121

Steinach, E., experiments on trans-

planting gonads, 141
Stentor, regeneration of, 255
Stigma, 182, 183
Stockard, C. R., 310, 311
Stocking, R., 172
Stoddard, L., 427
Stomata, 95
Stomodæum, 162
Strasburger, E., 95, 106, 107, 110,

180-182
Strong, L. H., iii
Style, 182, 183
Subspecies, 399-401
Sugar, 99, 101-103, 122
Sumner, F. B., 404
Suprarenal gland, 131, 142
Sutherland, A., 209
Sutton, W. S., 153
Symbiosis, 237–241, 266
Synapse, 51
Synapsis, 151–155
Syphilis, 87, 317
Tachinidæ, parasitic habits of, 251
Tapeworms, 245-247
Tapirs, distribution of, 390
Tardigrada, 26
Tashiro, S., 52
Tasmanian tiger or wolf, 379
Taylor, C. V., iii
Teeth, 120; rudiments of, 352
Telegony, 312, 313
Teleology, 12, 13
Tendrils, 107, 108
Termites, habits of, 206, 225-228, 233
Tertiary era, 362, 364–370, 381, 382, 390
Tetanus, bacilli of, 73; serum for, 90, 92
Tetrabelodon, 369, 370
Tetramorium, habits of, 224
Texas fever, transmission of by ticks,

68, 250
Thalessa, parasitic habits of, 251, 252
Thompson, D. W., 269
Thomson, J. A., 14, 284, 323; on unity

of colonial animals, 212
Thyroid gland, 142-144
Thyroxin, 143
Ticks, relation to Texas fever, 68, 250;

to spotted fever, 250, 251
Tissue culture, 46, 47
Tissues, 43-54
Toads, 190, 193, 195, 386
Tongue, 120, 121
Torrey, H. B., iji
Torrey pine, distribution of, 389
Tortoises in the Galapagos, 387
Tower, W. L., 402, 409
Tracheæ, 129, 130

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