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of the European officers who had been sent to its assistance, was even now such as would admit of very little doubt as to the fatal result of an engagement in the field; for the Russians, the formidable appearance of the fortifications probably influenced them to try a blockade before they attempted an attack. A blockade they soon succeeded in establishing most effectually. In one after another of the surrounding villages their camps sprang up in quick succession; and finally "a cordon of Cossacks" completely environed the unfortunate city: August saw it entirely invested. Meanwhile the sufferings of the garrison were very great :

"The weather," says Colonel Lake, "was becoming every day much colder, particularly at night, and the soldiers on duty, owing to the ragged state of their clothes, suffered most severely. The consequence was that the hospitals were getting gradually more crowded. Many of the troops were unprovided with great-coats, but fortunately some sheep-skins had been kept, and these, stitched roughly together, served as cloaks for night-work, the sentries going on duty taking them from those whom they relieved. In many cases the red stripes had been taken off the men's trousers to patch their jackets with, and, in short, nothing could exceed the miserable condition of their clothing. Some few regiments, it is true, were rather better off than the others, but they were all more or less in the state described. Their shoes were even more dilapidated than their coats, and the soldiers were only too glad to get strips of leather and sew them together as a covering for their feet."

And these evils were not the only ones, or even the worst ones, that had to be endured. The provisions, in spite of the diminished rations, began rapidly to fail; all hope of fresh supplies was at an end, and starvation stared the devoted army full in the face; already the appearance of the men began to tell, with painful distinctness, of small allowance and unsuitable diet. The provender for the horses was almost wholly exhausted, and these wretched animals died off by hundreds; indeed, it was soon found to be impossible to pretend to keep up a cavalry-force at all.-In this way August passed, and the greater part of September.

The morning of September 29th comes at last. Early, whilst it is yet dark, one of the advanced sentries on the Tachmas gives an alarm; he fancies he hears an unusual sound in the valley beyond the works. General Kméty gives heed and listens. He too is, at last, distinctly conscious of an unusual sound, which grows minute by minute more unmistakeable in its character, and approaches nearer;—a dull sound, as of the measured footsteps of multitudes and of heavy wheels,—

"A sound as of the sea,"

murmuring monotonously, afar off. Word is passed through the camp that the foe is come: every gun is manned; every officer is at his post; everyone is on the alert, in feverish expectancy. Order is given for a volley from the Tachmas, and a volley is fired accordingly; and the muffled sound in the dark valley is succeeded by a fearful yell from "twenty thousand throats:" the Russians are close upon the works. The first column of the advancing force had been divided by the violent fire by which it had been met, and had swerved on either side,-one portion attacking Yarim Ai, the lunette on the left of Yuksek tabia, and the other marching up stealthily to the rear of Yuksek tabia itself. Yarim Ai was quickly overpowered, and its garrison put to flight and replaced by Russians; who, however, were soon, in their turn, compelled to evacuate their position, and content themselves with keeping to the reverse side of the parapet, where they continued to harass Yuksek tabia with a most galling fire. Meanwhile, the other portion of their column, having made its way round, commenced a vigorous attack upon the redoubt in the rear; whilst still another

body of Russians were perceived hastening up to the support of their companions. There was no time to be lost, scarcely, indeed, any time for thought it was fortunate Yuksek tabia was in the hands it was. Leaving his post for an instant, Major Teesdale seized upon the first unemployed gun in his way, ran it to the place of action, and commenced forthwith an incessant fire upon the hostile masses, distant now only a few yards from its mouth. The deadly engine did its work effectually; the Russians broke, and finally fled down the hill. But Yuksek tabia was too important a position for them to relinquish their efforts to carry it, here. The force outside Yarim Ai still maintained their stand, and continued to harass the unfortunate place with their fire; whilst sixteen guns, by this time brought up on to the plateau, attacked it from another point. Presently, however, the guns of Vassif Pasha tabia and Têk tabia getting into play, began to do good execution in its service, and General Kméty, coming up, too, on his way to the assistance of the Tachmas tabia, scattered the remaining force without Yarim Ai. Until this time General Kméty had been engaged at the Rennison lines, to which a second column of Russian troops had advanced simultaneously with the one which had attacked Yuksek and Yarim Ai. The struggle in this breastwork had been bloody; but, owing to the early fall of many of the Russian superior officers, it had not been continued with such pertinacity as at the other points of the attack. The Turkish loss was comparatively small, and General Kméty was soon able to quit his station and repair to the relief of the more pressed positions. Therefore, having dislodged the troops about Yarim Ai, he hastened to the Tachmas tabia, where Hussein Pasha was completely surrounded; both from front and rear, and from right and left, the battery was being assailed. It was to the breastwork to the right of the redoubt that General Kméty directed his first efforts. This, with a small band of gallant followers, he was not long in clearing. Meanwhile, within the redoubt, Kerim Pasha and Hussein Pasha had acted their part well. Their own ammunition being expended, they carried on the fight with supplies taken from their slain adversries:

"Incredible as it may appear," says Colonel Lake, "the last hour of the battle was sustained by the ammunition of the Russian dead. Sallies were made for no other purpose than to obtain the needful supply, and at one time part of the garrison were employed in stripping off the pouches of the fallen on one side of the redoubt, and throwing them to their comrades, who were thus enabled to repulse the enemy on the other side."

The game was prolonged, and the result seemed dubious. At length two separate reinforcements arrived-the one from General Williams, and the other from Colonel Lake. Nearly at the same time, Captain Teesdale, who was now disengaged, led a furious charge from Yuksek tabia; whilst Hussein Pasha himself made a vigorous sortie. The contest was now, as it were, hand to hand and i raged with terrible fierceness;—a fearful din there was of clashing steel, of musketry, of confused groans and shoutings, made to English ears the more appalling by the recurrence, ever and anon, of the strange, fanatic war-cry, God is God, and Mahomed is the Prophet of God." At last the Russians gave way, and ere long beat a precipitate and final retreat.

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Whilst these events had been passing on the Tachmas, a persevering contention had been going forward for the possession of the Ingliz tabias. Teesdale, Thompson, and Zohrab redoubts had been all three lost, and all the three splendidly re-won. Nothing could have been more honourable than

the conduct of all those who took part in the defence of these important positions. Colonel Lake himself commanded in the fort which bears his name, with a courage and an address to which all his fellow-officers unite in bearing eager testimony; whilst the able manner in which Captain Thompson and Lieutenant Koch directed the artillery from their respective stations of Karadagh and Arab tabia, contributed also no small part towards the triumph of this remarkable day. Remarkable we say advisedly, for it was remarkable, no less than memorable; and it is no mean boast for us, that such a day should have owed so much of its glory to the ability, and coolness, and valour of Englishmen. Nevertheless, whilst the great praise due to our countrymen is undeniable, it behoves us to be careful not to overlook the claims of other officers, to whom belongs, perhaps, still higher merit. It is particularly painful that General Kméty, that daring soldier and fine strategist, should have had to make a public complaint of neglect, especially as it must be indisputable to every candid inquirer into the subject, that it was to his genius and courage that this 29th of September was in reality mainly indebted for its victory.

The Ingliz tabias were retaken, and their assailants put to flight; the besieging multitudes on the Tachmas had been routed; and between ten and eleven o'clock in the morning, after seven hours' fighting, the Russians finally relinquished the attack. There is a horrible sublimity in the following sketch which Dr. Sandwith gives of the scene presented within the Turkish garrison after the battle :

"I rode round the batteries," he says, "soon after the action-and seldom had the oldest soldier witnessed a more terrible sight. There were literally piles of dead, already stripped of their clothes by marauding soldiers, and lying in every posture; while the plaintive cries of men with shattered limbs arose from time to time from amidst these acres of defaced humanity. Every ghastly wound was there,-deep and broad sabrecuts, letting out the life of man in a crimson flood, limbs carried off by round-shot, and carcasses of man and horse torn and shattered by grape. I urged our men to carry off the wounded, but this work proceeded slowly, for the distance to the town was nearly three miles, all, or nearly all, our horses and mules were dead, and our ambulance corps thereby rendered useless. Suddenly a band of music strikes up; it is the Rifle band, and the tune is a wild Zebal melody. At once a dozen of these mountaineers spring up from their repose, join hand-in-hand, and dance amidst the dead, the dying, and the wounded."

The exultation of the Turks at their victory was but transient; they had suffered too much already, and had too much yet to fear, to be long triumphant. They laid their fallen comrades in the ground, and perhaps did not congratulate themselves very highly upon having escaped a similar fate;could they have foreseen the whole extent of the misery in store for them, they would assuredly have bitterly bewailed their sad lot in yet surviving. From the day of investment until that of its surrender, the history of the garrison of Kars is one of the most harrowing histories in the annals of sieges. There was not a kind or a degree of suffering that it did not experience;-cold, starvation, disease, all the worst evils that material nature can endure, were meted out to the unhappy army in overflowing measures. But perhaps the part of their sufferings which was really most grievous, was the state of alternate expectation and disappointment in which they were kept by the rumours and counter-rumours which reached them from without, respecting the efforts which were being made for their relief. Although they attempted no further offensive movements, the Russians were even more vigilant in their blockade after the attack than they had been before; and day after day, during the two

months that they were thus held in durance, the Turks were being tantalized with reports of the rapid advance either of Omer Pasha or of Selim Pasha to their assistance; whilst day after day passed, and neither Omer Pasha nor Selim Pasha came. The hope was, had these Generals arrived, that by engaging the enemy in the field they would have forced him to raise the siege; but Omer Pasha tarried on the coast, and Selim Pasha was too comfortably quartered at Erzeroum-where stores of provisions had arrived, just too late to be of any service to Kars-to care to move, even on an affair of life and death; so the weary watchers in the beleagured city watched in vain. No wonder that they began at last to grow sceptical altogether about the pretended succour, and to give way to utter despondency;-truly has the Wise Man said, that "hope deferred

maketh the heart sick."

Meanwhile, although the Pashas stood afar off from Kars, famine and pestilence were near, even within its walls. "No animal food for seven weeks," is the pathetic announcement in one of General Williams' dispatches. "I kill horses in my stable secretly, and send the meat to the hospital, which is very crowded." Colonel Lake says :—

"The effects of starvation were becoming daily more and more apparent. Men were seen digging up small roots out of the ground, which they eagerly devoured, the earth still clinging to them, their hunger not even allowing them to wait whilst they washed it off. The quarters of the English officers were literally besieged by the inhabitants of the town, craving most piteously for a morsel of food. As much as could be spared was given to them each day, but their anxious countenances and emaciated appearance plainly shewed how insufficient it was. Women were seen at night tearing out the entrails of dead horses, over which-the men being too weak either to bury them or drag them out of the lines-a light coating of earth had been hastily thrown. Some of the women even took their children to the Medjlis, and laid them down at the feet of the officers, saying they had no longer any means of supporting them."

Pestilence followed, of course, as an inevitable consequence of this continued deprivation; and it is almost to be marvelled at that the whole population of camp and town were not swept away together. The garrison had been visited by cholera before the Russian attack, but at the immediate time of the engagement the disease had abated; quite in the beginning of October, however, it broke out again, and carried off great numbers, as many as seventy or eighty dying in a day. Nor was this the only cause of death. Multitudes perished purely of exhaustion, sank down at their posts, were taken into the hospital, and died there, without a murmur or a struggle, often within an hour of their admission: Dr. Sandwith, at one time, records a hundred of these deaths in the twenty-four hours.

But it is not necessary to dwell upon these horrors; it suffices to know that they were actually endured, and endured with a grand fortitude and devotion which will give to the "Siege of Kars" a memory through time. It was not until it became evident that a longer resistance would occasion the total destruction, not only of the whole army, but of the whole of the inhabitants of the town, that the gallant garrison were at length prevailed upon to agree to a capitulation, honourable alike to the subduers and the subdued. It was upon the 28th of November, 1855, that the Turkish troops in Kars laid down their arms.



GALLIC history, it would seem, has found high favour with English literature of late. Already have two large and learned volumes come under our recent notice, their subject-our Norman forefathers, as viewed before their appearance, with such world-wide results, upon British ground. Here, again, thanks to the learned author, who, if we may be allowed so to say, has successfully united the zeal of the enthusiast with the toilsome research of the student, we have the cradle history of another race; one which, centuries after its removal to a foreign soil, was equally destined to take its great share in controlling the future fortunes of the earth. How world-renowned the Frankish name, how enduring the part played by those who have borne it in the great events of history, may be sufficiently estimated from the simple fact that, at the present moment even, in the mouth of the Turk, the Arab, and the Greek, the word "Frank" is all but the synonym for Christian," and is the universal designation, whatever his country, for "West-of-Europe man."

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Mr. Perry, in our opinion, merits the thanks of those who take an interest in the records of the past, for having so patiently and so lucidly unravelled some of the few entangled threads of the world's history which are now discoverable, at a period when much of it is buried in fathomless oblivion, and the little that is left to us is misrepresented by writers all but incapacitated by ignorance or partizanship for their task. Kings and queens, warriors and potentates, flit across his pages by the dozen; their eccentric paths, amid the darkness of the darkest ages, only lighted up from time to time by the glimmering taper that has been held to them by the literary panegyrist or partizan, or by the fitful and lurid glare of their singular and transcendent crimes.

If we may form a judgment from the character of his Notes,-the most amusing part, perhaps, of the book, if not the most instructive, the author, or we are much mistaken, has been an attentive reader of Gibbon; the footnotes of whose "Decline and Fall" not unfrequently, like the P.S. of a lady's letter, contain the most telling and most pithy portions of his narrative. His style, too, and, in our opinion, this is no slight commendation, wants nothing towards rendering his meaning always intelligible, and so recommending his subject, despite the sameness of its ever-recurrent wars, cruelty, and perfidiousness, to the historical reader's undistracted notice and consideration. A good story is too often spoilt in the telling of it.

Introduced with an elaborate review of the tribes, usages, and superstitions of ancient Germany, the first six Chapters are devoted to the history of the Franks, from their earliest appearance on the page of history to the death of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne, A.D. 768. The remaining Chapters treat of the institutions, laws, usages, and religion of the Franks, after their establishment on Gothic soil. It is to these last, more particularly, that we shall devote our notice, so far as our limited space will permit.

With reference to the German origin of the Franks-an origin little dreamt of, perhaps, by most English readers—the following detached passages are to the purpose :

"The Franks, from their first appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. By Walter C. Perry, Barrister-at-Law." (London: Longmans.)

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