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of Dioscorides, the most ancient of all the MSS. of that author; and which, belonging to the fifth century, may fairly be presumed to convey what were understood to be the plants specified by the author at a period not very long subsequent to that at which he flourished. This MS. was prepared for Juliana Aricia, daughter of the Emperor Flavius Anicius, and who lived about the end of the fifth century, at Constantinople; from whence the book was brought to Vienna by Busbequius about 1560. The Empress Maria Theresa, in the last century, caused copper-plates to be taken of the accompanying drawings, but from them only two impressions were allowed to be struck off. One of these came into the possession of the author's learned predecessor, Dr. Sibthorp; and the engravings, 409 in number, are now in Dr. Daubeny's hands.

The most curious drawing in this MS., perhaps, is the one here placed before the reader. It represents Euresis, the goddess of Discovery, presenting to Dioscorides the root of a mandragora or mandrake, remarkable for its resemblance to the human figure. At the same moment, a wretched dog is represented in the agonies of death; an evident allusion to a superstition described by Josephus, who, after mentioning the danger of taking it up, proceeds to say,

"There is one way, however, in which this may be done with safety. It is as follows:-They dig all round the root, so that it adheres to the earth only by its extremities. Then they fasten a dog to the root by a string, and the dog striving to follow his master, who calls him away, easily tears up the plant, but dies upon the spot; whereas the master can take up this wonderful root in his hand without danger."

Josephus adds, that the great use of the plant was to disperse demons, who cannot endure its smell or its presence. In our opinion, the mandrake of Scripture, which caused such rivalry between the wives of Jacob, was the Eryngium; the root of which, Pliny says, was considered to bear a strong resemblance to the organs of either sex, and is known to be possessed of certain stimulating properties.

Though pressed for space to the utmost, the useful "Catalogue of Plants noticed by Dioscorides, which have been determined by Sibthorp, Lindley, and others," with the handsome illustrations borrowed from Castell's" Villas of the Ancients," must not be allowed to pass unnoticed.

In taking leave of this interesting work, it would have been more satisfactory for the purposes of reference, we are constrained to say, had the learned author, in quoting his authorities, invariably given book and chapter, section and verse.

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Adjoining the north side of the choir, and close to the external wall of the church, an anchorite's cell was attached, whence from an aperture in the wall near the right, or Gospel side, of the high altar, the enclosed anchorite could behold the performance of the divine mysteries.

"The choir of the church of St. Canice is ample and splendid enough, adorned by a wonderfully large eastern window, than which I know not of any, in all this kingdom, of greater size or more replete with ornament. It is divided by two piers furnished with columns of solid stone, and the light streams in through painted glass, on which is most skilfully depicted the history of the entire life, passion, resurrection, and ascension of the Lord. Such is the elegance and splendour of this work, so great is the ornament it affords to, and so much does it become, the building, that when the new iconoclasts, who sprang up under King Edward, and again under his sister Elizabeth, offered violence to the holy images, and that shameless miscreant John Bale had broken and violated all he could find of the statues and effigies of the saints, nevertheless both he, and the other intrusive bishops after him, restrained their violent hands from these windows.

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On the left side of the choir, as you enter, the bishop occupied an apse near the altar, elevated on steps of hewn stone. Then the minor prelates, separated by a short space, had their stalls in the circuit of the presbytery, each according to their dignity, -the dean first, next sat the precentor, in the third place the chancellor, and fourth the treasurer, to whom is added the archdeacon, for he also, in right of his prebend which he holds annexed to his office, enters the presbytery and sits with the other dignitaries. Nor is the chapter of Ossory composed of those dignitaries alone-it possesses also canons or prebendaries, to the number of ten, who have vote and suffrage in the chapter. The churches which were allotted to them we shall recount hereafter.

"The church itself is of considerable size, and comprises within its walls both a chapter-house and chapel of the Blessed Virgin, which serves for the parish church. The nave of the church, no less than the choir, contains sepulchral monuments of men of rank both in Church and State.

"Before we pass on to the architectural description of the cathedral, it may be well to offer a few observations on the foregoing. Of the anchorite's cell described by the author of the MS., the foundations still remain. The floor of the cell was nearly four feet below the level of the choir, and the remains of the earlier church had evidently been adapted for that purpose; at the south-west angle there is a niche in the choir-wall three feet eight inches wide, and of shallow depth; this is approached by three steps, and if entirely freed from masonry, would, doubtless, be found to contain the fenestella lapidea, or low side window,' commanding a view of the high altar. In the north-east angle is a rude circular cavity cut into the old wall, apparently for a fireplace, and there are three rude lockers or niches cut into the north wall, each about two feet wide. There must have been some superstructure, now removed, to raise the roof above the window

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fiction. The same legends, or, at least, legends so very similar, are told of many other places and other saints, that they can scarcely be supposed to be all true, and readers may believe as much as they think proper. The authors of this work have, however, done their best to separate the truth from the fiction; but as this first chapter relates to the history of the bishopric rather than of the cathedral-for it relates to matters previous to the selection of the present site-it has very little to do with the Cathedral of Kilkenny. The origin of this city is coeval with the English conquest of Ireland. A church was burned here in 1085, and again in 1114: both these were timber structures. Some foundations and fragments of Norman character shew that a stone church was then built, but has entirely disappeared. The present structure was commenced by Bishop Hugh de Mapilton, A.D. 1251-1256 :

"The MS. Catalogue of the Bishops of Ossory calls him the original founder, adding, that he put the first hand to it, and, at his own proper labour and cost, nearly brought the pile to a completion; having been alone prevented from so doing, according to Wace, by his untimely death. And to Geffry St. Leger, who succeeded in 1260, belongs the honour of having completed the cathedral at great cost: hence he has been called the second founder.

"In 1332 the belfry fell, along with great part of the choir, breaking down the side-chapels, and involving the roofing and bells in the ruin, so that it was a horrid and pitiful spectacle to the beholders, as Friar Clyn relates (and no doubt he was an eye-witness). It was not until 1354 that Bishop de Ledride set himself seriously to improve his cathedral, and repair the damage inflicted on the fabric by the fall of the tower, and newfurnished the windows with painted glass of the most exquisite design.”

The following description of the cathedral, written in the early part of the seventeenth century, presents so many points of interest, that we are tempted to extract it :

"And that I may present to nearer view an actual representation of that munificent holiness which had its birth in times of old, it will be permitted to take at least a hasty survey of the cathedral church, with its appurtenances and component parts, to the end that the faithful of our time may learn and admire the piety of their ancestors.

Situation has its advantages in displaying the proportions and magnificence of a fabric; for a building which possesses a situation moderately lofty, and enjoys a free air, is wont to appear more exhilarating and beautiful. So this church of St. Canice, as well from its situation on a gentle eminence from whence, as from a watch-tower, it looks freely abroad on the city lying beneath, and wide-spread surrounding district, as well as because it rises from its foundation a structure of the most solid nature, composed of cut and polished stone, commends itself to the near beholder.

Adjoining the north side of the choir, and close to the external wall of the church, an anchorite's cell was attached, whence from an aperture in the wall near the right, or Gospel side, of the high altar, the enclosed anchorite could behold the performance of the divine mysteries.

"The choir of the church of St. Canice is ample and splendid enough, adorned by a wonderfully large eastern window, than which I know not of any, in all this kingdom, of greater size or more replete with ornament. It is divided by two piers furnished with columns of solid stone, and the light streams in through painted glass, on which is most skilfully depicted the history of the entire life, passion, resurrection, and ascension of the Lord. Such is the elegance and splendour of this work, so great is the ornament it affords to, and so much does it become, the building, that when the new iconoclasts, who sprang up under King Edward, and again under his sister Elizabeth, offered violence to the holy images, and that shameless miscreant John Bale had broken and violated all he could find of the statues and effigies of the saints, nevertheless both he, and the other intrusive bishops after him, restrained their violent hands from these windows.

"On the left side of the choir, as you enter, the bishop occupied an apse near the altar, elevated on steps of hewn stone. Then the minor prelates, separated by a short space, had their stalls in the circuit of the presbytery, each according to their dignity,—the dean first, next sat the precentor, in the third place the chancellor, and fourth the treasurer, to whom is added the archdeacon, for he also, in right of his prebend which he holds annexed to his office, enters the presbytery and sits with the other dignitaries. Nor is the chapter of Ossory composed of those dignitaries alone it possesses also canons or prebendaries, to the number of ten, who have vote and suffrage in the chapter. The churches which were allotted to them we shall recount hereafter.

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The church itself is of considerable size, and comprises within its walls both a chapter-house and chapel of the Blessed Virgin, which serves for the parish church. The nave of the church, no less than the choir, contains sepulchral monuments of men of rank both in Church and State.

"Before we pass on to the architectural description of the cathedral, it may be well to offer a few observations on the foregoing. Of the anchorite's cell described by the author of the MS., the foundations still remain. The floor of the cell was nearly four feet below the level of the choir, and the remains of the earlier church had evidently been adapted for that purpose; at the south-west angle there is a niche in the choir-wall three feet eight inches wide, and of shallow depth; this is approached by three steps, and if entirely freed from masonry, would, doubtless, be found to contain the fenestella lapidea, or low side window,' commanding a view of the high altar. In the north-east angle is a rude circular cavity cut into the old wall, apparently for a fireplace, and there are three rude lockers or niches cut into the north wall, each about two feet wide. There must have been some superstructure, now removed, to raise the roof above the window

already described, but it is probable that there was no door, as the anchorite was inclusus, shut up in his cell. .

"The anchorite's cell at Fore still remains; St. Doulough's, near Dublin, a remarkable example, and that of St. Munna, of Taghmun in Westmeath, may be added to the instances enumerated by the writer of the MS. Marianus Scotus, the celebrated annalist, was an incluse.

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It seems to be a misnomer to call such inclusorii anchorites, who have their name from avaɣwpéw, because they usually retired to a desert place. They are more properly ascetics, who lived apart in a cell. The Rules promised in the MS. are still desiderata; but by a Rule drawn up by Grimlaïc, an anchorite priest of the ninth, or, at latest, tenth century, anchorites were required to live near churches. A Bavarian Rule directs the cell to be of stone, twelve feet square, with three windows-one opposite the choir, by which the Eucharist was to be received, the second for admitting food, and the third for light, to be closed by horn or glass. Of this kind appears to have been the cell at Kilkenny. The cell at Aghure' (Freshford), about seven miles from Kilkenny, has been totally removed. In England, a few 'ankerhouses' remain, as in the south transept of Norwich Cathedral, and at Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire, in the tower. Many ankerhouses were wooden structures close to the church, so that their occupants dwelt, as the author of The Ancren Riwle' of the thirteenth century, published by the Camden Society, says, under the eaves of the church. These ascetics were of both sexes. The ceremony of inclusion was attended with a solemn service, of which an example, with rubrical directions, is preserved in the Harleian Collection, No. 873, Mus. Brit. In cases of great strictness (which was voluntary on the part of the incluse), the anchorite was locked in for life, and the bishop, whose consent was necessary, placed his seal upon the cell. Occasionally the entrance was closed up with masonry. The incluse lived upon the alms of the pious. So we find Henry II. bequeathing gifts to the incluses of Jerusalem, England, and Normandy. In a will of the fifteenth century there is a bequest to the Anker in the Wall beside Bishopsgate,' London; and St. Richard, Bishop of Chichester, makes bequests to the incluses (in one instance a female) of Pageham, Hoghton, Stopeham, and Heringham. A contemporary Bishop of Norwich mentions several 'ankers' and incluses in his will, and especially his niece Ella, in reclusorio at Massingham."

The subject of the anchorites' cells is one of considerable interest, to which we hope to return on a future occasion; and MR. URBAN will be obliged to any of his numerous friends who will supply him with information respecting them. He believes that remains of them exist in many churches, which have hitherto escaped observation or record.

The arrangement of the choir described in this survey is evidently the same as the ancient Basilican arrangement, which we had recently occasion to notice as having been retained at Norwich in the twelfth century; GENT. MAG. VOL. CCIII.

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