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and it is very curious that we should find it again at Kilkenny in the thirteenth. The bishop's throne has fortunately been preserved, and is traditionally called "St. Kieran's Chair," but the arms are carved in Kilkenny marble, and in the style of the thirteenth century.

The architectural details generally are fine examples of the Early English style: the woodcut illustrations are beautifully executed and carefully printed.

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"The annexed woodcut shews the base, capitals, and a portion of the

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shafts (which are filleted) of the north-eastern respond. The capitals of the angle-shafts are sculptured with the foliage of the period; the stems of the leaves being represented as running up the neck of the capital, and the foliage clustering on the bell.... Generally the foliage curves outwards; but frequently, as in this last example, it is upright and recurved. The bosses which corbel off the terminations of the hood-moulds are peculiarly elegant in design, and of excellent workmanship. We give an example from the south arcade, representing the head

of an ecclesiastic peeping out from amidst foliage, the stalks of which he holds in his hands. The arches by which the side aisles open into the transept are, comparatively speaking, plain, the edges of the soffits and piers being simply chamfered; and the soffitribs, semi-octagon in section, are carried by engaged filleted shafts on one side (that abutting on the belfry piers), whilst on the other side they are corbelled off about three feet below the neck-mould of the capital. The nave has a fine group of three lancets, separated by massive piers, in the west gable: originally a multifoil of some size pierced the apex of the gable, but it is now closed. The lancets are neither splayed nor hollow in the head, the arrises of their jambs being merely chamfered continuously. There are five large quatrefoil windows in the clerestory at each side, which have upright, unsplayed sides, and segmental escoinson ribs internally; they are hollow in the head, and the sills are very much splayed, to allow the light to fall freely into the nave. The side aisle windows afford an early example of plate-tracery, but seem, from the inferiority of their execution, to have been the work of other hands than those employed on the remainder of the church."

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CORBEL.

"Near the western end are four short lights, two in each wall, close together, which, though retaining in other respects the characteristics of the Early English lancet, are flat-headed externally, the lintel being carved into a sort of inverted ogee; these lights have rear vaults and chamfered segmental escoinson ribs, and are widely splayed, especially in the sill, to allow the light to fall freely into the choir; they are set high up in the wall, in order to be free from the side-chapel roofs."

We way observe en passant that square-headed windows teenth century are far more common than is usually supposed :

the thir

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"The entrance doorways are at present four in number, viz., one to the west, one to the south, and two to the north. Of these, the western entrance is, as usual in all cathedrals, the most elaborately adorned. The view

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given above, which has been engraved after a careful drawing made from a photograph, shews that this doorway consists externally of a recessed pointed arch, with a double aperture beneath; the arch is enriched with two orders of mouldings deeply undercut, in both of which the roll and fillet occur; each group springs from a capital charged with the peculiar foliage of the period, and these again rest on detached nook-shafts. The heads of the doorways are cinquefoiled, and a slender engaged shaft runs up the face of the central pier, from the capital of which branch off the hood-moulds of each doorway. The tympanum is enriched with a recessed and moulded quatrefoiled panel, within which is a small pedestal, no doubt originally intended to support some piece of sculpture, most probably the Virgin and

Child, as the mutilated figures of adoring angels, with their faces turned towards the large panel just described, still remain in two smaller ones at each side in the spaces between these are four well-sculptured bosses of foliage. The material employed is the gray limestone of the district, intermixed with freestone; wherever the former occurs, the sculptures are nearly as sharp and well preserved as if but lately executed; while the latter, from its porous nature, has yielded to our moist and varying climate, and is much decayed. Still, taken as a whole, the lapse of six centuries has left this beautiful doorway in good preservation. The engraving on the opposite page illustrates some of its most characteristic details."

"The entrance-door of the north transept, which, although not by any means the most beautiful, is, perhaps, the most interesting feature of its kind in the church. It is constructed altogether of soft yellow sandstone, and has, in consequence, suffered very much from time and ill-usage. The drawing, which is here engraved, represents a careful restoration of this doorway, made with scrupulous fidelity, and to an accurate scale. Of its present condition it will be sufficient to observe, that the nook-shafts are removed, their bases and capitals much

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defaced, and that all the floral ornaments, save one, are gone from the deep hollow in the arch-mould. It was found impossible to give a clear representation of the corbels which carry the hood-mould, but their remains prove them to have been human heads, carved with flowing hair, and beardless. The feature of a round arch beneath a pointed one, which this door presents, is one of its chief peculiarities; but this does not prove it to be of earlier date than the remainder of the structure, as the ornaments of this very round arch are strictly Early English in their character, consisting of an attached and filleted roll of large size, banded at short intervals, and carried round the jambs" and arch continuously.'

HANLON

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DOORWAY OF THE NORTH TRANSEPT.

Besides numerous details, there are general views of the exterior and the porch, and a section of the interior of the nave looking west, with the pro

posed new roof, which has very much the look of cast-iron; and we venture to hope that this proposal will never be carried out.

The most ancient part of the church is evidently the Round-tower, which stands detached at about six feet from the end of the south transept, and clearly belongs to an earlier building than the present one, but to what precise period is still an undecided question. Dr. Petrie has proved that the Irish Round-towers in general are Christian, and in all probability served for the threefold purpose of-1. belfries; 2. places of refuge for the clergy and the treasures of the neighbouring churches; 3. occasionally as watch-towers. It is probable that they are not all of the same date, but range over a long period, beginning, perhaps, with the earliest Christian missionaries, and continuing as late as the thirteenth century, with belfry-storeys added in some cases in the fourteenth and fifteenth. The necessity of having some place of refuge against fire or robbers was felt in all disturbed countries or districts, and this necessity was provided for by the Pele-towers in the border counties of England and Scotland, which have a strong analogy to the Round-towers of Ireland. Better material and more skill is required for building the corners than any other part of a tower or other structure. The necessity for these corners was avoided by building the towers round; they could be erected of any material, and by workmen of little skill. The Round-tower of St. Canice is one hundred feet in height, while the diameter is only fifteen feet six inches at the bottom, and eleven feet two inches at the top. It is divided into eight storeys, by internal sets-off: in the first storey no aperture was found; the second contains the doorway; the third a large window nearly over the door; the fourth, fifth, and sixth storeys are each furnished with one small window; the seventh is quite dark; but the eighth is a complete lantern, being pierced by six large openings. The masonry is ashlar work, accurately dressed; the materials those of the neighbourhood; the mortar extremely compact, and abundantly used.

This description does not read like the work of a rude age or a barbarous people. We have seen that there was no stone church at Kilkenny until the time of the English conquest; but this Round-tower may have belonged to the wooden church which was burned in 1085. It appears to bear more resemblance to work of the eleventh century in other parts of Europe, than to any other. The details, which are minutely described, and carefully engraved by Mr. Hanlon, of Dublin, in the work before us, all agree very well with that period.

The foundations of the tower consisted of a plinth of about two feet in depth, with a projection of about six inches. This plinth rested "not on the gravel, but on a black and yielding mould, from which protruded human bones, in an east and west direction; a fact in the architectural history of the tower which was fully confirmed by a careful examination in the presence of several credible witnesses, including the writer." A careful description of the diggings, and the different strata, is given by Mr.

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