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own expense. At the battle of the Boyne, Sir Neil defended the passage of the river at Slane, against the troops detached by King William, and bore a heavy fire for upwards of an hour. In this battle Sir Neil met his death, from a wound in his thigh. In his portrait he appears in armour, wearing a long flowing wig, and holding a truncheon. The painter is Gamly.

Near him hangs a pleasing picture of his widow, Frances %, daughter of Molyneux, third Viscount Sefton. Her countenance is sad, but placid, as though time had softened down deep grief; she leans on a tomb sculptured with a scull and cross-bones; she has laid by her weeds, for her robe is red, over a frilled dress of white lawn; her neck is open, her hair raised, powdered, and curled; her eyes dark, and very fine. She was married in 1677, and widowed in 1690.

In a small ante-room is a picture of Queen Elizabeth when a child, standing in front of her governess; whole-length figures. The little princess is rather a homely child, dressed in red; the governante (Margaret, lady of Sir Thomas Bryan, a kinsman of the Boleyns,) is in black, and looks sufficiently prim for her onerous office.

The drawing-room is rich in objects of vertu, cabinets, porcelain, &c.

Among the pictures are the beautiful but meretricious Louise de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, the French mistress of Charles II., fondling a dove. Her son, the first Duke of Richmond ;-both by Sir Peter Lely.

The Duke of York (afterwards James II.) and his first wife, the Lady Anne Hyde, who is represented as by no means handsome; but her hair is very unbecomingly dressed in thin, ugly, little flat curls. By Sir Peter Lely. Charles I. (when Prince of Wales), dancing a minuet with the Spanish Infanta, at the Escurial. The slow movement is very well expressed. The Infanta is in white, the Prince in a dark suit, and wearing a plumed hat; courtiers, gaily dressed, are looking on.

A very fine piece, in three compartments, by Albert Durer, representing the Nativity, the Circumcision, and the Adoration. It was an altar piece from a small oratory belonging to Mary Queen of Scots, and was given by Charles II. to the Duchess of Portsmouth, who presented it (together with the above-named portraits of herself and her son) to Mrs. Wogan of Racoffey, county Kildare, grandmother of the late Colonel Talbot, (whose widow was the first Baroness).

The Lady Catherine Plunket, daughter of Lucas Plunket, Lord Killeen (created first Earl of Fingal in 1628), and wife of John Talbot of Malahide, who died 1672; a three-quarter-length figure, life-size, seated; the face handsome, the hair brown, and drawn up; the dress, an open, ambercoloured robe over a blue petticoat.

In the small room of a circular turret are two remarkable miniatures,— one of John Talbot, Lord Furnival, and first Earl of Shrewsbury; and his second wife, Margaret Beauchamp, eldest daughter and co-heir of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. This is the great soldier Talbot of Shakespeare, the hero of the French wars of Henry VI., when French mothers used to hush their refractory children by threatening them with "that great dog Talbot." He was, however, defeated by Joan of Arc in 1429. Previously he had been Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (in 1414), as Lord Furnival, but seemed to have thought it not worth his while to display the

Lady O'Neil's daughter, Rose, married Nicholas Wogan of Racoffey, county Kildare, Esq, and was grandmother of Col. Talbot, the grandfather of the present Lord Talbot de Malahide.

best points of his character in poor Ireland; for Marlburugh says of him, in his Chronicle, that when he left Ireland (in 1419), he took with him the curses of many; for he, being run much in debt for victual and things, would pay little or nothing at all:" accustomed to the freebooting habits of foreign wars, doubtless he deemed it all fair to quarter upon the "Irish" enemy. Gaining fresh laurels abroad, he was in 1442 created Earl of Shrewsbury by Edward IV. Becoming again Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, he was created Earl of Waterford and Wexford in 1446. But he returned to the wars in France, and in his eightieth year was killed at the battle of Chatillon (or rather was mortally wounded), in 1453, having been victorious in forty battles. His son John, Lord of Lisle, was slain with him. His sword was found upwards of a century after, in the river Dordogne (running by the scene of action): it bore his name, and the date 1443. The face in the miniature has a keen expression; the figure is wholly clad in armorial bearings.

The miniature of the Countess (who is very plain) is quite grotesque, especially the head: no hair is visible, being covered by a very flat, very close white cap, with yellow oval wings standing erect at each side;-the robe of the lady, like that of her lord, is wholly composed of coats of arms. She died in 1468.

From the castle we proceed to the small ruined church, fenced in by a a low battlemented wall, and darkened by the spreading branches of lofty trees. The building is open to the weather, for the regicide Miles Corbet, with as little respect for a consecrated edifice as for an anointed king, took off the roof to cover a barn. The chancel is divided from the nave by a rounded arch. The east window has mullions and tracery in the Perpendicular style. Beneath the belfry (which is pierced for three bells) is another Gothic window, in two divisions, with crocketted ogee canopies. Near the chancel, a side door, with a pointed arch, leads to some apartments formerly appropriated to ecclesiastical purposes, such as a vestry, book-room, &c. Among the tombs, the most interesting is that of Maude Plunket. It is an altar-tomb, with the full-length effigy of the thricewidowed lady, attired in the full-plaited gown and the high, heart-shaped head-dress of the fifteenth century. There is no date or inscription on the monument, but it is sufficiently marked by its armorial bearings. At one side, the arms of Talbot impaling Plunket; at the other side, Plunket impaling Cusacke (the arms of Maude's father and mother). At the head of the tomb is a shield charged with the seamless garment of our Lord, and the instruments of His Passion; at the foot, a heart transfixed by two swords in saltire, (emblematic of the heart of the Virgin Mary, in allusion to the text, "Yea, a sword shall pierce through thine own soul also," (St. Luke ii. 35).

The sea-side walks around Malahide present the rambler with lovely panoramas at different points. There is the fine and lofty promontory of Howth, green to the top, with its pier, and its little town and scattered dwellings; and the neighbouring rocky isle of Ireland's Eye, now invested with a tragic interest, from the murder of the unfortunate Mrs. Kirwan; and the more distant island of Lambay, and the undulations of the coast far away northwards. A headland within a pleasant walk of the village is appropriately crowned by the ruin of a small, dark castle, commonly called Robswall, and Robert's-wall Castle, a corruption of Roebuck's Wall. It was erected in the fifteenth century, by Roebuck de Birmingham, one of a family with whom the Talbots, as is traced in their early history,

were on friendly terms (when Ireland was distracted with feuds among neighbours), and contracted alliances. This small castle and its lands passed into the possession of the religious house of the Virgin Mary at Grace Dieu, near Dublin. At the dissolution of monasteries it was granted to the Barnwall family; and lately, we believe, Lord Talbot de Malahide has become the proprietor.

We must not quit the shores of Malahide without a mention, en passant, of the oyster-beds. "Malahide oysters" enjoy a gastronomic reputation not confined to their own locality. M. E. M.

THE BAND WHICH FASTENED ARCHBISHOP CRANMER

TO THE STAKE.

MR. URBAN,-Hallowed as Oxford is by the names and labours of holy and learned men almost without number, it is a singular fact that so few tangible relics remain to us of those who in many cases have spent life, and energy, and fortune in her interest. The birthplaces, the habitations, or the tombs of men whom the world still honours in death, have each in our day their own peculiar interest-interest the more touching because of its reality -each has its relic or tradition to shew, binding our thoughts more closely to the memory of the past; but it is without that we must look for all personal traces of the heroes of theology and science whom Oxford has bred, and in whose memory lies her chiefest glory. And perhaps in no instance is this more strongly exemplified than in the case of the three Protestant Bishops who in Oxford sealed the faith of Christ with their blood. Their memory still lives, for no ignorance or neglect can erase the names of Cranmer, of Ridley, and of Latimer from the brightest page of England's story; but of them personally, even during their last dreary sojourn in Oxford, when, facing death for the Redeemer whose pure faith they had vindicated in life, they waited bravely and patiently till they were called to give that latest sharpest proof of their faith, even then, when we might not unreasonably have expected some slight personal memory of them to have remained even to our day, we find that every trace of their presence has passed away. Others have died in England as nobly and as unjustly, but the relics which remain to us of their latest days on earth are neither few in number nor deficient in interest. The chair from which Mary of Scotland rose to meet her death at Fotheringhay, the napkin which enfolded the gory head of the Martyr-king on the scaffold, the seat which tradition assigns to Wycliffe as its possessor,-hundreds of such relics mark throughout England the interest which England feels in all which bears on the memory of the good or remarkable persons who from age to age have shone forth in her. Even in our prisons, though in a debased and degraded form, the same desire to connect ourselves tangibly with past deeds is brought strongly out. Few prisons throughout the land, from the state fortress of the Tower to the petty borough gaol, but can shew some memento of men notorious in their time for misfortune, who have died or been imprisoned within their walls.

But in Oxford, where, for all these reasons, we might have looked for some relic of the Protestant martyrs, we meet with nothing but a recently erected "Memorial" to tell us how nearly connected is the ground on which we stand with that chapter in the religion of our country.

A broad street passes over the city ditch, whither the old bishops went out that cold October morning to meet their fate. The gaol which witnessed their latest contests with their enemies, their latest consolations to each

other, no longer stands, and every trace of their captivity, save only the door of one of the cells of the prison, now in St. Mary Magdalen Church, has vanished as though it had never been.

But one relic was exhibited at the last meeting of the Oxford Architectural Society, which shews at least that, if this state of things has so long existed, it has been rather through the ignorance or neglect of later officials than of those who preceded them. It would seem that no less an object than the iron, or rather steel, band which confined Archbishop Cranmer to the stake was once preserved in Bocardo, the gaol whence he was taken to his death, and that this band has been now recovered and identified. The history of this band since it left the gaol is clearly made out, and in presenting your readers with a sketch of so interesting a relic, it only

remains for me to lay before them some of the most prominent features in the evidence which identifies it. The band itself is of steel, of early and careful workmanship, and, as the drawing shews, of most singular form. Indeed, the first idea which strikes the spectator is the almost impossibility of assigning any other use to such an instrument than that which attaches to it in the account given of it by its present possessor. It is furnished with four apertures, through which a staple passes to confine it by a padlock round the body of the criminal; and thus, when stapled by the two small chains pendent from each side to the stake, it forms at once the simplest, the most secure, and the most durable instrument which could have been contrived for the purpose.

The history of its loss from the gaol, and subsequent recovery, seems to be as follows:-Some eighty years since, as all Oxford historians know, the old gaol called Bocardo, which was indeed but one of the city-gates of Oxford, was pulled down, and a new gaol rebuilt in a distant part of the city. By some singular neglect of the authorities, all the old iron-work of the gaol, comprising manacles, bolts, chains, keys, and other fittings, many of them of singular and curious construction, were, by contract or otherwise, allowed to be taken from the old gaol, and new ones supplied in their places. Nothing was left. No single spark of interest seems to have attached, in the minds of the Oxford city magnates of the day, to the associations which such objects in such a place might have suggested to any thinking man. All were taken away, and in the present gaol at Oxford nothing can be found by the antiquary of the slightest historical interest whatever.

We do not pause to moralize on the facts which these few words convey, or to pay more than a passing tribute of respect to the private liberality which rescued the old door of the bishops' cell from its threatened destruction, and placed it in its present position in the nearest church. Suffice it to say that thus passed all the ironwork of the gaol into private hands, and amongst it the band in question. Nor was this done in ignorance. The legend which attached the name of Cranmer to the instrument of death went with it to its new possessor, and he was, as we are informed, for many years in the habit of exhibiting the relic to curious persons at a small charge. Years passed on. Children were born to him, and in course of time he died, leaving his children to follow his trade of blacksmith in a little town near Oxford.

The interest which at first had attached itself to the band, even in the uneducated minds of those into whose hands it had fallen, became more and more weakened by time. Several times it was on the point of destruction for some purpose of the blacksmith's trade, but still there it hung on the wall of the old forge, and there, in 1847, it was found by a collector of curiosities in his monthly travels round the country.

He bought it as the band which had "confined Cranmer in the prison at Oxford," that being the form which eighty years had given to the tradition with the Ensham blacksmiths, and with that legend it was sold, in 1855, to its present possessor, Mr. Benneta, of University College.

Mr. Bennet, to whom the greatest credit is due for the care and diligence with which he has made the necessary investigations, has attached to this interesting relic the following documentary statement :

"I, the undersigned, Henry Couldrey Smith, of Abingdon, in the county of Berkshire, do hereby certify that I have this day sold to Mr. Edward Kedington Bennet, of University College in Oxford, for a certain consideration, whereof these shall be a full and sufficient discharge, a certain ancient iron collar, or band, hinged in the midst, and having a short chain pendent from each side; which chains and band I received about the year 1847 from Mr. Burden, locksmith, of Ensham, whose father being employed to amend and restore much of the iron-work in the gaol at Oxford about the year 1770, received the said band amongst other old iron-work from the turnkey of the said gaol, as being the very and true band used in the confinement of the Lord Archbishop Cranmer when he was confined in Oxford in the year 1555. And from time immemorial the said band had been always regarded and acknowledged in the said gol as the same and very band used in the confinement of the said Archbishop. And I further declare that I received all the above particulars concerning the said band from the said Mr. Burden on his father's express and explicit information to him delivered; and that, fully believing them to have been honestly and truly given, they are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, true in all particulars. In witness whereof I have hereto set my hand and seal this sixteenth day of November, 1855.-Signed, H. C. SMITH.

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Completing the chain of evidence, we have also the following statement, drawn up in the same manner by Mr. Bennet :

"We hereby declare that on Wednesday, the fifteenth day of April, 1857, we called upon and interrogated two brothers named Burden, living together in the town of Ensham, and practising the trade of blacksmiths, one of whom is referred to in a certain writing signed by Henry Couldrey Smith, of Abingdon, and dated the sixteenth day of November, 1855, as the person from whom the said Henry Smith received a certain iron collar, or band, particularly described in that writing, and sold on the day and year last mentioned to Mr. Bennet, of University College, in Oxford. That the said brothers Burden, being asked by us for some account of the band referred to, did of their own accord give the same account thereof as that contained in the writing above

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