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According to his notion, King James was the only person to be looked upon as conquered.

Still resolved to face his enemies, on the 6th of February following Bohun duly took the Test oaths, to qualify as justice of the peace for Middlesex, Surrey, and Westminster; with the view of "putting an end," he says, "to the slander that I had never taken the oaths to this govern

ment."

On the 14th of the same month we find him waiting upon Lord Nottingham, for the twofold purpose of surrendering his commission, and of calling his Lordship's attention to money matters; but with the following unsatisfactory result:

"I shewed him an account of the money I had received, and that I was money out of purse, besides my labour for five months. He said he would take care to reimburse So I proposed something for the future; which he said he would consider of. Cætera fideli memoria. In May following, I waited upon my master for the money promised me as above, but I got not one farthing of it.""

me.

Still another call upon the money-less or money-loving peer; the "Dismal" of Swift and his brother wits in after-days :—

"May 25, 1693. After a small stay in the country, I returned to London, where I waited upon my master, the Earl of Nottingham, and tendered him an account of the money received and expended; expecting to have had about £50, then due to me, paid me. But I got nothing but my master's displeasure; so that I was afterwards affronted in the office by the waiters."

When too late to gain any benefit by proving the contrary, he is informed that, previous to his downfall, his enemies had raised the following reports to his disparagement:

"Underhand they had raised a report that I was, at first, a tub-preacher; (2.) an enemy to the government in the Church; (3.) L' Estrange's amanuensis, or a hackney writer under him; a beggar, and a man of no reputation. These were whispered so secretly in the House, that I heard nothing of them till the blow was given."

In August, 1694, as was to be expected from the tender mercies of the now dominant Whigs, Bohun was finally removed from the commission of the peace for Suffolk.

Our closing extract not inaptly affords the key to the source of most of Bohun's misfortunes. In preference to casting in his lot with a party, he chose, with almost as much wrongheadedness, perhaps, as honesty, to think for himself, and to attempt to reconcile political opinions that were the very antipodes of each other. Isolated alike from all parties, " he formed," as Macaulay says, a class apart; for he was at once a zealous Filmerite and a zealous Williamite." Placed between the two, he followed the usual laws of gravitation, political as well as material, and came to the ground:

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"I was turned out before, in James II.'s time, for my over-zealous defence of the Church against the Popish party; and now, by the republican party, for my adhering to a tottering throne."

With the spring of 1697, at which period he was living in seclusion at Ipswich, the Diary abruptly ends.

It is only proper to add, in conclusion, a word or two in commendation of the form in which Mr. Rix has placed this work before the privileged few who are intended to be its readers. In everything that bears reference to the Autobiographer's branch of the Bohun family, the scrupulous care of the Editor seems to have exhausted the field of research; and it would be

hardly too much to say that, to the historian, the value of the work is more than doubled by the elaborate notes with which the text is elucidated throughout. The numerous illustrations, too, pictorial and heraldic, are graceful specimens of art, and the beauty of the typography does great credit to the youthful press of Beccles; indeed, we very much doubt-and no slight compliment is implied by the doubt-if the better known press of its next-door neighbour, Bungay, could turn out a handsomer book.

Medio de fonte leporum

Surgit amari aliquid”—

Why does Mr. Rix indulge in such typographical Quakerism as "sunday," "tuesday," "christian," "english," "dutch," "latin," " esquire," and the like?

LIVINGSTONE'S MISSIONARY TRAVELS a.

HERE, at last, in an authentic form, is the work which has been so long expected with impatience even by readers who are not often clamorous for new and costly books. The publication will be welcomed by every class, -by rich and poor; by the learned and the illiterate; by men of science and by simple-minded well-wishers to the spread of Christian truth. By each and all of these the volume will be found full of entertainment and instruction. But to those who look on the diffusion of the Gospel as one of the most sacred duties of a people who are themselves profiting by its divine lessons, an unusually high enjoyment will be given by this interesting work. They will rejoice with a delight far deeper than the joy of geographers, and botanists, and zoologists, that a new field of Christian enterprise has been explored by a missionary of the right stamp, who has enforced by his own example the admonitions and injunctions of the faith he sought to promulgate, who has cheerfully endured the severest hardships, and faced the most appalling dangers, and who has left behind him, in more than one heart, the quickening seeds of a conviction which bids fair to be communicated far and wide. This is the great issue of his strange and perilous journey, for which Dr. Livingstone has reason to be-and we have no doubt is—in his own secret consciousness, most grateful; but it is, at the same time, not the issue on which the multitude will be most eager to admire and applaud him. His labours in that cause are sure of a reward, though not a temporal one. In the meantime, his volume is, in an extraordinary degree, rich in those qualities which make the best charm of books of travel, and most certainly take captive the imaginations of the mass of readers. It records his interesting expeditions amongst the uncivilized tribes of a strange land; his dangerous adventures; his observations and discoveries in the new regions which he visited; his wise and kind companionship with the native race, and the salutary influence which his judicious conduct often gave him over their teachable and tractable natures; the extensive and exact knowledge which his long experience allowed him to obtain in all the departments of the natural history of the countries he resided in; and a large accumulation of important rules for carrying on successfully the civilizing

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Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. By David Livingstone, L.L.D., D.C.L., &c. &c." (London: John Murray.)

work which his own self-sacrificing labours have so well commenced. And this record, while it is most agreeably interspersed with instructive and amusing anecdotes, and with graphic descriptions of noteworthy persons, and events, and scenes, is made in the easy, masculine language of an able man, who cares far more for the substantial worth of what he tells than for petty ornaments and nice proprieties of speech in telling it.

Dr. Livingstone has prefixed to the history of his Missionary Travels an introductory account of his own early life, for which all his readers will be thankful. It is a modest, manly sketch, full of instinctive beauty. The memory of his aged grandfather, with the stock of old stories wonderfully like those which the traveller heard long afterwards "while sitting by the African evening fires," the grandmother's Gaelic songs, and the childhood's home, in which a dear and pious father realized the calm delights of the poet's "Cottar's Saturday Night," have a charm about them eminently Scottish in its character; and so, also, has the boy's employment at the age of ten years as a piecer in a factory, and his purchase of Ruddiman's "Rudiments of Latin" out of his first week's earnings. After fourteen hours of daily labour, the young student spent four more over his books, toiling for many years with unabated ardour to master the Latin language, and to make himself well acquainted with the works of many of its classical writers. Books of every kind-excepting novels and treatises on doctrinal religion-were perused with eagerness, but books of travel and of science were the boy's chief favourites; and these were placed upon the spinning-jenny, that he might catch sentence by sentence as he passed by on his monotonous occupation. By his ampler earnings as a cotton-spinner, to which he was promoted in his nineteenth year, he found means to attend the Divinity Lectures of Dr. Wardlaw, and the Medical and Greek classes at Glasgow, and from that University he obtained in due time his medical degree. It was a hard and resolute struggle with untoward fortune, yet one which left, apparently, no scar behind it. Reverting to that life of toil from the eminence which he has now won, Dr. Livingstone says, "I cannot but feel thankful that it formed such a material part of my early education; and, were it possible, I should like to begin life over again in the same lowly style, and to pass through the same hardy training.'

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The immediate aim of all this high endeavour was a missionary's life, upon which, after a more extended course of theological study in England, Dr. Livingstone finally engaged. His general instructions from the London Missionary Society were, on arriving in South Africa, to proceed northwards from their farthest inland station from the Cape. Amongst the mass of important matter which is contained in the Doctor's volume, he has not given prominence to his religious labours in the strict and narrow sense of set instruction in religion. As must be the case with every genuine missionary, he appears to have depended less on formal lessons than on the influence of the Holy Writings, with the salutary help of a word spoken in season, and the example, and as far as possible the enforcement, of a large-hearted Christian life. His confidence in the good cause, if it be wisely furthered, is as complete as it is consolatory. He says,―

"Protestant Missionaries of every denomination in South Africa all agree in one point-that no mere profession of Christianity is sufficient to entitle the converts to the Christian name. They are all anxious to place the Bible in the hands of the natives, and, with ability to read that, there can be little doubt as to the future. We believe Christianity to be divine, and equal to all it has to perform: then let the good seed be widely sown, and, no matter to what sect the converts may belong, the harvest will be glorious."

And then he adds:

"I never, as a missionary, felt myself to be either Presbyterian, Episcopalian, or Independent, or called upon in any way to love one denomination less than another. My earnest desire is, that those who really have the best interests of the heathen at heart should go to them; and assuredly, in Africa at least, self-denying labours among real heathen will not fail to be appreciated. Christians have never yet dealt fairly with the heathen and been disappointed."

In addition to these liberal views of missionary labour, our author loudly urges the adoption at the same time of measures which, by promoting commerce and increasing the comforts of the natives, should do away with "the sense of isolation which heathenism engenders, and make the tribes feel themselves mutually dependent on, and mutually beneficial to, each other." He would promote civilization by means of a free commercial intercourse, not simply as an absolute good, but also as an unequalled help in promoting Christianity by means of the Word of God. In his conception, the two blessings are inseparable.

Dr. Livingstone judiciously began his work by laying a secure foundation. At an early period of his residence in South Africa he withdrew himself entirely, for six months, from all European society, in order to become the better versed in the habits, ways of thinking, laws, and language of the people amongst whom he was to live. This was the Bakwains-a tribe of the Bechuanas-of whom Sechele was the chief. This intelligent individual was after a time, in spite of the apprehensions and regret of his people, baptized by our author, who had the gratification to see in him a consistent and sincere convert. But before this happened, the Doctor had travelled far on ox-back and afoot in search of an appropriate site for a new missionary station. In the beautiful valley of Maboton an event occurred which was near cutting short his travels and his life together. The village was sorely troubled by lions, which entered the cattle-pens by night, and even attacked the herds in open day, and this unusual boldness in the animals led the people to believe that they had been bewitched, and "given into the power of the lions by a neighbouring tribe." In a foray against the marauders, the men of the village took fright and returned in anything but triumph. On the next occasion the Doctor bore them company, in order to encourage and support them. But their courage could not be brought to the sticking-point, and Livingstone was on his way back to the village, when a solitary lion, sitting on a piece of rock, met his sight. Taking good aim, at a distance of thirty yards, he fired both barrels into it. Seeing the animal was wounded, but not killed, he began to load again; but-as his own narrative relates it,

"When in the act of ramming down the bullets I heard a shout. Starting and looking half-round, I saw the lion just in the act of springing upon me. I was upon a little height; he caught my shoulder as he sprang, and we both came to the ground below together. Growling horribly close to my ear, he shook me as a terrier dog does a rat. The shock produced a stupor similar to that which seems to be felt by a mouse after the first shake of the cat. It caused a sort of dreaminess, in which there was no sense of pain nor feeling of terror, though quite conscious of all that was happening. It was like what patients partially under the influence of chloroform describe, who see all the operation, but feel not the knife. This singular condition was not the result of any mental process. The shake annihilated fear, and allowed no sense of horror in looking round at the beast. This peculiar state is probably produced in all animals killed by the carnivora; and, if so, is a merciful provision by our benevolent Creator for lessening the pain of death. Turning round to relieve myself of the weight, as he had GENT. MAG. VOL. CCIII.

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one paw on the back of my head, I saw his eyes directed to Mebalwe, who was trying to shoot him at a distance of ten or fifteen yards. His gun, a flint one, missed fire in both barrels: the lion immediately left me, and attacking Mebalwe, bit his thigh. Another man, whose life I had saved before, after he had been tossed by a buffalo, attempted to spear the lion while he was biting Mebalwe. He left Mebalwe and caught this man by the shoulder, but at that moment the bullets he had received took effect, and he fell down dead. The whole was the work of a few moments, and must have been his paroxysm of dying rage. In order to take out the charm from him, the Bakatla on the following day made a huge bonfire over the carcase, which was declared to be that of the largest lion they had ever seen. Besides crunching the bone into splinters, he left eleven teeth-wounds on the upper part of my arm. A wound from this animal's tooth resembles a gun-shot wound it is generally followed by a great deal of sloughing and discharge, and pains are felt in the part periodically ever afterwards. I had on a tartan jacket on the occasion, and I believe that it wiped off all the virus from the teeth that pierced the flesh, for my two companions in this affray bave both suffered from the peculiar pains, while I have escaped with only the inconvenience of a false joint in my limb. The man whose shoulder was wounded shewed me his wound actually burst forth afresh on the same month of the following year."

:

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Crusoe himself was hardly more indebted to his own ingenuity and his own exertions for all the appurtenances of a home, than the Livingstone family were. The Doctor, besides his professional occupation in doctoring and preaching, was smith, carpenter, and gardener of the establishment, and Mrs. Livingstone made candles, soap, and clothes. Looking cheerfully back upon the labours and privations of his life amongst the Bakwains, our author sets it down as the indispensable accomplishments of a missionary family in central Africa, that the husband should be a jack-ofall-trades without doors, and the wife a maid-of-all-work within." Even, however, with these accomplishments assiduously exercised, neither comfort nor security were constantly attained. Year after year of excessive drought-during which "needles lying out of doors for months did not rust," and "the leaves of indigenous trees were all drooping, soft, and shrivelled, though not dead, and those of the mimosa were closed at midday the same as they are at night," was a sore enough endurance for the family to pass through, but even this affliction was made worse to them by the invincible superstition of the tribe. The kind-hearted missionary was made to feel that the common suffering was in some degree attributed to his influence. The chief, Sechele, had been before his baptism a noted rain-doctor, and the people in their tribulation believed that, but for the spell cast over him by Christianity, he would still be able to call down the rain. Deputations of the old counsellors visited the Doctor, with their entreaty that he would permit only a few showers to be made. "The corn will die if you refuse, and we shall become scattered. Only let him make rain this once, and we shall all, men, women, and children, come to the school, and sing and pray as long as you please." Argument-and Dr. Livingstone records a long one which he maintained against a rain-doctorwas just as powerless in shaking this conviction of the people as their own medicines were in making rain.

There is, we think, a very admirable, though very unintentional, illustration of the Doctor's fitness for the enterprise he went on in the gentle, unresenting tone in which he tells of the misdoings of the Boers. The selfcomplacent cruelty of these persons would make the sternest forms of objurgation not unwarrantable. The colony of them among the Cashan mountains assume to themselves the extremest privileges of lords of the soil-compelling the native tribes to labour in their fields without pay, kid

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