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He first observed it in an upper room of the collector's house, among old clocks, scraps of old armour, rusty fire-irons, and all the thousand and one pieces of rubbish which make up the iron-work department of a country dealer's emporium.

After making some few enquiries in Oxford, the probability of its really being not, as the dealer, in his ignorance, represented it to be, the band which confined Cranmer in his prison, for it is needless to say that no such band ever could have existed, but-the identical instrument with which the Archbishop was confined to the stake, seemed to him so strong, that he at once purchased it. Every enquiry has been made since then, which could in any way tend to throw light on the subject, and all have, directly or indirectly, tended to support the original theory. No documentary evidence can be found in the city archives which directly identifies the chain; but the accounts rendered of the charges incurred in burning the bishops are still extant, and afford one singular ground of belief in the existence, at least, of some such instrument as that before us.

From these it will be seen that in the case of the first executions two chains are provided for the purpose required. In the case of Cranmer's execution, no such charge is made. There would seem to be something singular in this very fact. The expense of a piece of chain was not great, and there is no reason why one of the chains used in the burning of Ridley or Latimer should have been carefully stored up from October to March, on the speculation of Cranmer's guilt being proved, and his consequent execution. But a reason may be found in the circumstances of the time. The Marian persecutions were raging with their utmost fury. The royal mandate of 1555 was in full force, and justices of peace throughout the country were "diligently searching out heretics," and superintending their execution. The great fountains of learning were deeply infected with the "Protestant heresy," and the executions of the two bishops in October, 1555, seemed a too portentous sign of what Oxford might expect to see ere Mary's reign ended. What, then, would be more likely than that the authorities of the city would in such a conjuncture order precisely such an instrument as the present to be made, which would serve, not for Cranmer's execution only, but for all others which they might be called on to carry out?

So far as has been ascertained, no execution by fire has taken place in Oxford since Cranmer's death, and the expectation of the Oxford aldermen was, happily, never fulfilled. But the band remained, with the name of him for whose sole use it had unwittingly been made firmly attached to it in the

mentioned, and did fully corroborate all the statements made by Mr. Smith aforesaid in that writing; save only that in respect of the manner by which the said band came into their father's possession, they, the said brothers, were not able to say whether their said father received the band immediately from the turnkey of the gaol at Oxford, or from one Mr. Bush, ironmonger, sometime of Oxford, who had considerable dealings with the authorities of the said gaol and with their said father, both in matters connected with his trade. And they further declared that the said band had been in their said father's possession from a time beyond their own memory, and that he constantly and invariably gave the same account thereof as they have given to us. And we further declare that both these men, the brothers Burden aforesaid, made all these statements freely and voluntarily; and that in our judgment all the statements made by them in the matter are true and credible.

"Signed at Oxford, the seventeenth day of April, Anno Domini 1857.

"ROBINSON DUCKWORTH, Univ. Coll.; Liverpool.
"ED. KEDINGTON BENNET, Univ. Coll.; Cheveley, Suffolk."

prison traditions; and we can only again express our regret that a body of men should have ever held the reins of civic authority in Oxford, who could have had so little regard for the duties, at least, which they owed to the city and the country in preserving the relics entrusted to their care, if not for the memory of him whose death has done so much for the religion which they professed.-Yours, &c. OXONIENSIS.

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.

Biskupa Sögur, gefnar út af hinu Islenzka Bókmenta fèlagi. Kaupmannahöfn, 1856, 7.

The Sagas of the [Icelandic] Bishops; published by the Icelandic Literary Society. Parts 1 and 2, 8vo. (Copenhagen.)

AN elegant and most acceptable book, which we have great pleasure in introducing to our readers, as another year will elapse before the continuation appears. All who have in any way followed the civil and ecclesiastical history of the North during the middle ages, or who collect the curious traditions connected with the great Icelandic saints, will be most grateful for this work. A complete collection of the records of the Icelandic Church and State, the Lives or Sagas of its great Bishops, as they have been for five or six hundred years inscribed on the smoky parchment tomes which enrich the northern libraries, has been a desideratum. The two volumes now before us are an instalment of this contribution to "Scandinavian History." They are edited, like the "Diplomatarium Islandicum," by the indefatigable Jón Sigurdsson, are handsomely and correctly printed, and are published at a very moderate price.

Part I. opens with Kristin Saga, a well-known source of the earliest history of the Icelandic Church. Next comes the Páttr (sketch) of Porvald the Widefarer, a most charming piece of contemporaneous picture-writing. Then the pattr of Isleif Bishop, and thereafter the famous Hungrvaka (Hunger-waker), written, as the author himself tells us, to excite hunger for our native history, and love to our OldNorse mother-tongue. This is followed by the older Bishop Porlaks Saga, a man whose praise was in all the churches, so that great gifts came to his shrine in Skalholt from all the northern lands, or, in the words of the Saga, "principally from Norway, largely from England, Switheod (Sweden), Denmark, Gautland, Gotland, Scotland, the Orkneys, the Færoes, CatGENT. MAG. VOL. CCIII.

anes (Caithness in Scotland), Hjatland (Shetland), Greenland, and most of all from within the land (from Iceland itself). And thereby may we know the love men had to him, that the first time mass was said in his chapel there were burning one hundred and thirty wax-lights." We next have the curious Saga of Bishop Pál (Paul), who died in 1211, followed by the older Bishop Jón's Saga, from the great Skalholt MS.

Part II. gives us another recension of this saint's life, and the younger Saga of Bishop Thorlak, together with the oldest recension of Bishop Gudmund's Saga, who died in 1237.

These lives, in the genuine Icelandic style, are filled with civil history, often in minute detail; but they also contain numbers of the miracles and wonders of the age, and open a clear insight into the homogeneous character of stern superstition.

Many of these Sagas are now printed for the first time from the original MSS.; all are carefully corrected, and notes and readings are appended, and they will, we hope, find many British readers.

Islenzkt

Diplomatarium Islandicum. Fornbrèfasafn, sern hefir inni ad halda Bref og Gjörninga, Dóma og Máldaga, og adrar Skrár, er suerta Island eda Islenzka Menn. Gefid út af hinu Islenzka Bókmenta fèlagi. I. Kaupmannhöfn, (8vo. pp. 320.) -This noble commencement of a noble task, the publication of all the letters, rescripts, deeds, and other documents, whether in Latin or Icelandic, which concern Iceland, will be hailed with gratitude by all who are interested in the literature and history of a country which is so intimately bound up with the language and annals of our own. It is edited by that excellent scholar Jón Sigurdsson, a gen tleman profoundly versed in northern literature, and now speaker of the Icelandic Parliament (the All-thing). It is beauti

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fully printed, and is published by the Icelandic Society, costing its members only a couple of shillings.

This first half volume opens with the doubtful letter of the Emperor Ludovicus in 834, and goes down to 1200. The oldest documents are of course in Latin, the rest in Old-Norse, carefully collated and printed, with various readings, introductions, and critical notes where required. The manuscripts have been faithfully followed, no attempt made to "doctor" the text, and every correction of possible clerical errors at once signified. It is therefore of no less value to the philologist than the historian, and will be a boon to all who take any interest in this attractive branch of archæology.

Inscription Runique du Pirée interprétée par C C. Rafn, et publiée par le Société Royale de Antiquaires du Nord. (Copen hagen, 1856, pp. 254.) With numerous wood-engravings.—Who has not heard of the famous marble lion of Venice, inscribed with mystic characters? Who has not longed for an interpretation of the wondrous secret?

It is this which Her Rafn, the learned secretary of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, has here attempted.

He traces the history of this lion from the time of Pericles, or shortly after, and its erection in Athens, its removal to Venice in 1687 by Morosini, and the various theories with respect to the marks upon it, which gradually ripened into a conviction of their being Scandinavian Rimes. After numberless attempts and kind assistance, he at last succeeds in decyphering them, and here lays before us the result.

He attributes the inscription to Harald Sigurdsson, the renowned king of Norway, but during his youth, when he was out as a Véringer in the service of the Greek Emperor. It is intended to commemorate his exploits in the Pireus and Athens.

We have not space to go into details, nor is it necessary. The book is easily accessible. It is highly interesting, and, as far as we can judge, Herr Rafn has been eminently successful in the main facts. The result may be considered as a new triumph of modern research. The inscription is therefore from the year 1040 or thereabouts.

The book also contains a number of Runic monuments in various parts of the North, read and commented, and a valuable Runic Glossary.

The English of Skakspeare Illustrated in a Philological Commentary on his Julius Cæsar. By GEORGE E. CRAIK. (London: Chapman and Hall). In a clear and unpretending preface Mr. Craik makes us acquainted with the purpose and extent of his endeavours as a commentator on Shakspeare. His commentary is, as the title of the volume indicates, merely philological:

"The only kind of criticism which it professes is what is called verbal criticism. Its whole view, in so far as it relates to the particular work to which it is attached, is, as far as may be done, first to ascertain or determine the text, secondly to explain it; to inquire, in other words, what Shakspeare really wrote, and how what he has written is to be read and construed." Mr. Craik has very generally confined his observations within these self-appointed

limits.

But whilst he has done this in the case of the commentary, he has wisely allowed himself a wider course in that admirable collection of prolegomena which he has prefixed to the philological commentary. This, probably, will be regarded as the most useful and important portion of Mr. Craik's volume. Under the several sections which are devoted to Shakspeare's personal history-his works, the sources for the text of his plays, his editors and commentators, the modern texts, the mechanism of English verse, and the prosody of the plays; and, finally, the play of "Julius Caesar,"-there is a comprehensive mass of valuable information on the respective subjects, which is communicated to the reader in a clear and pleasant, though concise manner, and is likely to be of incalculable use to all those whose attention is, in beginning an earnest study of the great dramatist's productions, directed for the first time to the special themes on which these prolegomena dwell.

Of all Shakspeare's plays the "Julius Cæsar" has come down to us in the least unsatisfactory state, and Mr. Craik has therefore made use of the received texts, with a few amendments, as the basis of his commentary. He has adopted sixteen of the twenty six new readings in Mr. Collier's corrected folio, and has added two or three of his own unobjectionable emendations. His annotations are, upon the whole, of great value, both in their immediate application to the play he has selected, and their obvious bearing on the great body of Shakspeare's other dramatic works; and they are, moreover, always interesting, often ingenious, and sometimes clearly indicative of a habit of composition which will prove a serviceable clue through many an intricacy of the other plays. The one obvious fault of some redundancy of

annotation is thus extenuated by the author:

"I confess that here my fear is that I shall be thought to have done too much rather than too little. But I have been desirous to omit nothing that any reader might require for the full understanding of the play, in so far as I was able to supply it."

In his references to the text of Shakspeare, Mr. Craik has adopted the simple and singularly convenient expedient of numbering the speeches in the play, and then making his reference, not, as is customary, to the scene, but to the number of the speech. The advantage of this mode of reference is unquestionable: Mr. Craik makes out by calculation that it is, in the case of the "Julius Cæsar," "between forty and fifty times more precise, and consequently more serviceable, than the other." The example is worthy of all imitation in new or newly edited commentaries on any of the writings of the glorious company of our old dramatists.

It is Mr. Craik's good fortune that all his books are popular, and this, we are sure, will be no exception to the rule.

Life of Dr. Kitto by Mr. Ryland, we en-
tered at considerable length into the per-
sonal history of that good and learned
man, whose strength of character and
courage raised him from a condition of
almost hopeless wretchedness into a high
and influential rank amongst the biblical
scholars of his age. Mr. Ryland's bio-
graphy of that extraordinary person did
justice to his positive attainments, both in
Christian goodness and in scholarly Ire,
but it dwelt with cold and scant recog-
nition on the terrible impediments by
which poor Kitto's path was rendered
hard and rude. Here, however, in Dr.
Eadie's record of the same life, we see the
shield on its other side. Entering with a
genial sympathy into that struggle with
adversity which made the eminence of Dr.
Kitto's subsequent learning so marvellous
-contemplating his character as one that
had been tested and proved true in the
fiercest fires of disaster and distress-Dr.
Eadie, by this very insight in investigation,
does ampler and far higher justice to the
subject of his biography than his prede-
cessor had done, and gives to the admirers
of the late Dr. Kitto a memorial of him
far more accordant with that noblest
truth which is more conversant with the
spirit than the letter.

Life of John Kitto, D.D., F.S.A. By
JOHN EADIE, D.D., LL.D. (Edinburgh:
William Oliphant and Sons.)-In our
Magazine for October last, in noticing a
Reviews of several works are in type, and will appear in our next Magazine.

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. May 21. Edward Hawkins, V.-P., in the chair.

Mr. George Robert Wright was elected Fellow.

M. Morgan, V.-P., exhibited three pedometers for registering the number of steps taken in walking; the workmanship of the seventeenth century.

Mr. Fairholt exhibited a knife-blade, a key, and a pair of shears, all of iron, found in Lothbury, close to the spot where the copper bowls engraved in the twenty-ninth volume of the Archæologia were discovered. The latter are ascribed to the eleventh century, but the relics now exhibited Mr. Fairholt considers somewhat later in date.

Mr. Henry Norman exhibited a quantity of Roman and medieval pottery, discovered during excavations made for the foundations of the new banking-house of Messrs. Jones, Lloyd, and Co., Lothbury.

Mr. B. Wilmer exhibited several drawings executed by himself, of buckles, fibulæ, etc., found in the Frankish cemetery of

Rambouillet, and now in the collection of
M. Montie.

Mr. A. W. Franks exhibited a swordblade, a blade of a knife, and a spear-head, found recently in the Thames. The first resembles in form the scramasax of the Franks, of which examples are very rare in England, and bears a row of Runic characters, inlaid in gold.

Mr. W. M. Wylie communicated a translation of the first portion of the Abbé Cochet's further report on his excavations in the desecrated cemetery at Bouteilles near Dieppe, the remainder being reserved for a future meeting.

Mr. Octavius Morgan exhibited a silver disc inscribed with amuletic characters, and read some remarks on the use of these objects.

May 28. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., in the chair.

The Rev. J. Silvester Davies, Incumbent of St. Mary extra, Southampton, and Mr. Hans Claude Hamilton, of her Ma

jesty's State-Paper Office, were elected Fellows.

Mr. Franks exhibited two astrolabes in brass, the work of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Mr. Evelyn Philip Shirley, M.P., local secretary for Warwickshire, communicated an account, which had been furnished him by Mr. Jesse Kingerlee, of the discovery of Roman coins in the parish of Kineton. Four of these coins were of brass, and of the age of Constantine, one of silver of the Emperor Julian the Apostate, and a sixth of the Emperor Claudius I.

Mr. Akerman, Secretary, exhibited a dagger of the fifteenth century purchased by him at the recent sale by auction of the antiquities and curiosities of Major Macdonald. On the pommel, which has three faces, are engraved two shields of arms, the first being, Bendy of six; in base, a human face: on a chief, a dragon on its back?-legend, above, DONEC, NVPSERO. The second, Quarterly; 1. A castle, triple towered; 2. A wolf salient; 3. An eagle displayed; 4. Three bars. On the third face is engraved a male figure in the costume of the fifteenth century, holding in his left hand a dagger, his right foot trampling on a globe-legend: NON VELVT

AGESILAO.

Mr. Edward Stone communicated a detailed account of certain British and Saxon remains lately discovered at Standlake and Brighthampton, Oxon, of which a notice was read from Professor Phillips at the meeting of the 7th of May. Mr. Stone also exhibited a model, and plans of the pits, and the remains found in them and in their vicinity, comprising fragments of urns, of apparent British origin, bone implements, and knives, etc., of the Saxon period.

The secretary then read the concluding portion of Mr. Wylie's translation of the Abbé Cochet's report of his excavations in the Norman cemetery of Bouteilles. The Abbé sent for exhibition specimens of the pottery discovered on this occasion, together with examples of the leaden crosses inscribed with the formula of absolution.

The Society then adjourned over the Whitsun holidays to Thursday, June 11.

June 11. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., in the chair.

A donation of nearly 500 volumes of books chiefly relating to the history and topography of London and its suburbs, from Mr. J. R. D. Tyssen, a Fellow of the Society, to whom an unanimous vote of thanks was returned.

The Rev. Frederick Hill Harford, residing at Croydon, was elected Fellow. The Secretary exhibited a number of relics, obtained by Major Campbell, of the 71st Highlanders, from the ancient catacombs at Kertch. They consisted of some interesting examples of pottery and glass, beads, coins, and fragments of the blades of swords. Mr. Akerman remarked that these weapons had been discovered in the tombs of men, as he was assured by Major Campbell. It would be in the recollection of the Society that several fibulæ of a decidedly Germanic type had been found by Dr. Macpherson in the excavations prosecuted by him at Kertch, and these had, by some antiquaries, been at once assigned to the Varangian Guard,-mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantine princes. The finding of the swords appeared to furnish a proof that the individuals here interred had been consigned to their last restingplaces, more Germanorum. The coins comprised several examples of the ancient kings of the Bosphorus, but others were as late as the reign of Constantine the Great. Major Campbell had promised him a detailed account of his excavations, which he trusted might be laid before the Society in the ensuing session.

Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. exhibited a large and very interesting collection of astronomical, astrological, and horometrical instruments, consisting of astrolabes, viatoria, or portable sun-dials, and a very curious dial in the form of a hexagonal gilt cup, accompanied by a verbal explanation of their several uses.

The Rev. J. Montgomery Traherne exhibited drawings of Roche Castle in the county of Pembroke, and communicated some account of the ancient lords of this strong-hold. A note was read from Mr. J. H. Parker describing its architectural characteristics.

Mr. George Chapman exhibited two antique Chinese silver enamelled vases of peculiar form, which he stated had long been in the possession of an English family.

Mr. J. Jackson Howard presented to the Society's collections a proclamation of King James II. dated January 31, 1687, granting to the distressed French Protestants "the benevolence of all loving subjects."

Mr. William Bollaert then read a communication entitled "Antiquarian Re searches in the Province of Sarapaca, and discovery of the pintados or ancient Indian pictography."

Mr. Bollaert as early as 1827 noticed these "pintados" sculptured in the sides of arid mountains in the province of Tara

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