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sharpest was at Abingdon. In the middle of the tenth century, by favour of the kings Edred and Edgar, the abbey, which ha been destroyed by the Danes, was rebuilt by Etheiwold, who became the first abbot of this resto ed monstery; and now it was that the Benedictine rule was establ shed in this and other mona-tie bodies in England, ch efly through the influence of Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. Nearly fifty abbots pre-ided over this house from the time of Ethelwold to that of Thomas Pentecost or Rowland, the last abbot, by whom it was surrendered to the commissioners of Henry VIII., in the year 1538. This abbey was formerly rich and powerful, and its revenue at the Dissolution was £1876 10s. 9d. The buildings of it have been almost entirely destroyed, and no hing of it remains that would lead us, unaided by history, to conceive its ancient grandeur and importance.

June 10. The third meeting was held at their room in Holywell, the Rev. the Master of University College, Vice-President, in the chair.

The proceedings of the Kilkenny Archæological Society for March were presented by the Society. The annual audit d accounts of the Society were subinitted to the Meeting.

It was

A Paper was read by Mr. J. T. Jeffcock, of Oriel College, on "Gothic Architecture, a National Style." He explined his conception of the term "national style." It was a style adapted to the physical nature of a country, to its climate, to the terrestrial and meteorolog cal phenomena to which it was subject. It was one for which suitable materials to carry it out could be found on the spot, or be imported without too great expense. one which could be employed for buildings civil and religious, public and private, large and small. Lastly, it was no use that it should be proved theoretically suit d to a na ion, it at the same time the nation did not practically endorse the proof by commonly adopting the style. He proceeded then to shew how far Gothic in England came up to this description, and to weigh its claims with those advanced by Classic architecture. He considered that the climate of England, as contrasted with that of Greece and Italy, demanded an essentially different style of architecture. "Our climate is essentially one which requires damp-excluding buildings; and in such, if light is to be admitted, but not the chill damp air, windows must ever form a most prominent characteristic. An English national style, therefore, must be one in which the win

dows form a grand feature. And which style, the Gothic or the Classic, is best calculated to employ windows with beautiful effect? Greece and Rome scarcely had windows at all, in our sense of the word; hence they made no provision for them in their architecture; and, pace Sir Christopher Wren be it spoken, none of the classic architects, in my opinion, have ever introduced windows in their buildings with grace and elegance. Their windows look, as indeed they are, interlopers" In point of materials to be employed, he instanced All Saints' Church, Margaret-street, as making use of brick, tile, marble, and stone, all in one edifice, a proof of the universality of materials allowed in Gothie architecture. He thought that large towns like Liverpool or Bradford might build their Public Halls of stone, but the poor parish in which clay only is found ought not to be required to expend its funds on the carriage of stone, but should be enabled, so far as architectural style is concerned, to build its church from bricks furnished by the soil itself.

Gothic architecture was equally suited to the church, the college, the nobleman's seat, (as the Marquis of Breadalbane's, at Taymouth Castle,) and the public building, like the new Houses of Parliament, or the new Museum at Oxford. He maintained that whereas Classic architecture admitted only of the sublime, and therefore required large buildings to set it off, otherwise it ran the risk of falling into the ridiculous; Gothic architecture aimed in the first instance at the beautiful, and so was equally adapted to the small edifice as to the large; and in the case of large buildings, in addition to all the beauty of detail, there were proportions vast and magnificent as any the Classic style could produce.

Next as to the matter of fact; it was admitted that classical ecclesiastical buildings, so much in vogue in the days of Sir C. Wren, had gone out with classical pedantry and full-bottomed wigs. The debased Gothic of the Reformation era, and the Classic of the subsequent period, had given way to genuine Gothic; and this not in Oxford only, not among churchmen only, but among dissenters in England, and among members of the National and Free Churches of Scotland, whose known detestation of æsthetics was proverbial.

That it had been so success ul in civil edifices he was not prepared to assert. He thought the new Houses of Parliament, though a bad example of Gothic, were a good proof that Gothic was not unpopu lar; otherwise Parliament would not have

adopted the style for their houses of assembly. He thought the popular feeling was in favour of Gothic. Consider the many thousands who year after year on sunny days stroll among our ruined English abbeys; the intense interest which attaches to these buildings; and this not from the picturesqueness of the scene only, or the associations connected with it, but from the intrinsic beauty of the edifice. The peaceful valley and meandering stream were adjuncts, but it was architectural beauty which rendered the abbey so great a favourite. No doubt Mr. Ruskin might be the hierophant of Gothic architecture; but, he contended, the p aceful valley with the ivy mantling round the ruined pillar, with the beautiful clerestories still remaining in many instances, in some with them just disappearing, had done more to educate the popular mind, to give it a due appreciation of Gothic architecture, than many books. Gothic architecture was a style of home growth; it was William of Wykeham who invented the Perpendicular. English Gothic is purely an Eng lish style. We live in an eclectic age; the Crystal Palace gives us in theory, and London affords in practice, examples of all the styles that ever flourished on the globe. He preferred the American with his " 'my country," of which he was so roud, and held him up as an example to the Englishman in the matter of English Gothic. In architecture, at least, he felt bound to cry out with Sydney Smith, save us from too much Latin and Greek."

Mr. Freeman, while expressing his approval of Mr. Jeffcock's remarks, calle attention to the d fficulties which modern architects had to contend with in adapting Gothic windows to modern requi ements. He alluded at some length to the designs which were now being exhibited in London for the Government offices, and while admitting the superiority of the Gothic designs over the Palladian, he could not but regret that in all of them a sort of wild attempt at combining incongruous forms in one design, seemed to mar their general effect, destroying that purity which is so remarkable a feature in English Gothic, and especially so at the period when the Perpendicular style was introduced by that great architect, William of Wykehan, into this country. He said that, in a word, they all exhibited those mistaken theories of architecture which had recently obtained so much influence in the country, and which he expressed by the word "Ruskinism," as he cons dered that Mr. Ruskin in his unintelligible volumes had been principally their promoter. He spoke of the Houses

of Parliament as so many walls erected according to Palladian rules and on a Palladian plan, with pieces of Gothic stolen from Henry VIIth.'s chapel nailed on to them, without any regard to principle or effect.

He referred also to many buildings on the continent, in illustration of what he considered were the requirements which should be taken into account in adopt ng a national style.

Mr. J. H. Parker, referring to that part of Mr. Freeman's remarks which related to win lows, begged to observe that Gothic windows, by being splayed, in reality gave as much light as Palladian windows with much larger apertures. He also suggested that the difficulty of the mullions intervening was easily surmounted, by having the framework and sashes placed within, and entirely independent of, the mullions, which plan, while no dis-sight, afforded all the convenience required.

These remarks were corroborated by Mr. Bennet, of University College, who cited the New Buildings of the Union Society as a case in point. He also, while speaking on the subject of windows, suggested a plan of constructing the building so that the sashes might be made to slide into apertures in the thickness of the wall.

After a discussion upon this point some interesting remarks were offered by the Chairman upon the general bearing of the contest as to the superiority of the Gothic over the Palladian for domestic buildings; he instanced the buildings of the New-street in London leading from St. Paul's to London-bridge, the architecture of which he considered admirably adapted to the purpose for which it was required. He spoke of the necessity of rearing houses in towns to four or even five stories in height, and which he thought was scarcely in accordance with a Gothic design. In reply to this, Mr. Parker quoted some instances, both in England and also on the continent, (where we have principally to look for authorities for medieval town-houses,) in which buildings of four stories were found.

Mr. Bennet then exhibited what he believed to be a most interesting relic, viz. the steel band with which Archbishop Cranmer was bound to the stake. He brought forward most clear and conclusive evidence in support of his theory, shewing how it had passed from Bocardo into his possession, and had always bo ne the name of Cranmer's band. The exhibition excited considerable interest and promoted some discussion, after which, at a very late hour, the meeting separated.

The annual Excursion took place on June 15, and from the beginning to the end was as successful and satisfactory as could be wished. The members and their friends started from the Society's Rooms in Holywell at ten o'clock, and in the course of half an hour reached the parish church of Eynsham, where they were received by the Vicar. Some judicious restorations in the nave of the church were generally approved, especially the renewed clerestory and roof. The Secretary, however, felt it necessary to enter a public protest in the name of the Society against the extraordinary arrangement of the chancel. The communion-table (in accordance with a long antiquated rubric, and after the example of some miserable churches in the Channel Islands) stands under the chancel-arch; while within the altar rails, in the usual position of the altar, is an old barrel organ! There is another organ immediately opposite this, at the west end of the church. At about noon the party reached Northleigh, where they were joined by the Rev. J. L. Petit. They were received by the Rev. Cyrus Morrall, the Vicar, who had invited the members of the Society to inspect his church previously to its restoration. The curious old Saxon tower, and the fine chapel of the Wilcote family, were greatly admired, and much sympathy was felt and expressed for the Vicar in his earnest desire to clear his ancient church of the accumulated rubbish of centuries, and make it once more worthy of its sacred purposes. After the members of the Society had completed their inspection of this church they partook of the refreshmen's which had been bountifully provided for them in the vicarage, and proceeded, accompanied by the Rev. Cyrus Morrall and his family, towards Witney, which they reached at half-past one. the entrance of the town they noticed with considerable approbation, a small chapel of ease in the Early English style, which was built a few years since, by Mr. Ferrey. It was considered, however, that the bell-turret was disproportionately small. The church of Witney is a very fine cruciform building with a central tower and spire of great beauty; the interior is decidedly disappointing, as the area is not only very irregular and unmanageable, but sadly encumbered with pews. The south transept attracted great attention, especially the beautiful monuments under the south window. The graduated wooden platform is modern, but it is evident that there was originally an altar-platform at the end of the transept.

At

The carriages left Witney at half-past two for Minster Lovell, where some time was spent in the inspection of the fine old church, and the interesting ruins of the manor-house-the scene of the Old English Baron. The hall of the latter is very well worth a visit, and has a good entrance with a groined roof. The part of the ruin which adjoins the bank of the little river Windrush has a singularly picturesque newel staircase in the south wall. The church was built at the same time as the manor-house and by the same man. It is a very good specimen of 15th century work, cruciform, and retaining its original "canted" roofs- -the portion over the sacrarium panelled and painted-in a good state of preservation. The central tower is supposed to be unique; it is carried on arches across the angles, similar to the Pembrokeshire "squints," but loftier and better.

Returning by the outskirts of Witney, the party reached Ducklington at four o'clock. The church is a fine one of the 14th century; the north chapel being of extremely rich work, and remarkable for some curious groups of sculpture let into the wall in sunken panels. At the vicarage the members of the Society partook of a dinner, which had been very kindly provided by the Rev. Dr. Farley.

The next church visited was Standlake, where Mr. Petit again joined the party, and exhibited one of those admirable sketches for which he is so famous, which he had just made of that very interesting church. The building is of the 13th century, and in a very fair condition; the great attraction, however, was its tower, which is octagonal from the ground, and has a short octagonal spire. Shortly before entering this village, the excursionists drew up for a few minutes beside a large wheat-field, and inspected the site of some ancient "pits" recently discovered in this parish.

The next church was Northmore, which was built in the 14th century, and, with the exception of the addition of a tower in the 15th, has evidently never been altered in any way. Nearly adjoining it is a picturesque pigeon-cote, a little beyond, the parsonage-house, a fine old moated structure, built in the latter part of the 15th century, and in a very perf ct state. is now occupied by a private family, and the parson's quarters are limited to a couple of comfortable rooms in the northeast wing.

It

At about a quarter to eight o'clock the carriages entered Stanton-Harcourt, which is so well known as to render unnecessary anything beyond a bare allusion to its

noble church (with the Harcourt chapel, and the old rood-screen, the earliest woodwork known to exist), the remains of the fine old manor-house, the noble kitchen, and "Pope's Tower." All of these points of interest having been carefully examined, the whole party assembled on the lawn of the vicarage-house, where a tent had been erected, and tea had been provided by the liberality of the Rev. W. P. Wa`sh.

The Society reached Oxford at half-past nine o'clock, having thoroughly enjoyed, and, without doubt, learned much from what they had seen during the day, and all were grateful for the kind and cordial hospitality which had been shewn them everywhere.

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, NEWCASTLEUPON-TYNE.

THE June meeting was held on Wednesday, the 3rd instant, in the castle of Newcastle, John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., in the chair.

FAMILY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON.

Mr. Hylton Longstaffe brought before the meeting a copy of a curious and interesting letter, found among the papers of a deceased barrister, addressed to Washington Smirk, of Butterknowle Colliery, October, 1836 :—

"DEAR BROTHER.-I write this to inform you of our decent, the papers I have seen, and what my dear mother told me respecting it. Our grandfather's nae was Thomas Washing on, brother to General George Washington, of North Ameri a. Our grandfather was a planter of Virginia, Nevis, and St. Kits, and that he traded in his own vessel to England. The ports he used were Liverpool and Newcastle. The last ship he came to Newcastle in was the "Duke of Argyle " He died sudd nly, at Gateshead, without a will, leaving our grandmother with three daughters, Mary, Sarah, and Hannah, who at her death were taken by Alderman Baker, Alderman Peareth, and Alderman Vernal, each one with a promise of bringing them up according to their decent, but were made servants of, and they remained so until marriage. Our grandmother's name was Mary Smith, a native of Alnwick, Northumberland. She had an annuity from N...wick [partially illegible] estate for her life; but how that was left I do not know. Mr. William Peareth never let the sisters rest until he got the papers from them to do them justice, but he never would confess with them after. He sent them to America. A gentleman belonging to Burn Hall, near Durham, told our aunt Mary he had seen a letter wrote by the G neral's own hand concerning three orphan sisters, a sum of £20,000 for them. Mr. Peareth would never conf ss anything after that, which caused my father to go to London. He could make nothing out, but that the money came, received by who they would not say; and having no one to advise him, came home and would never see after it again; so it was lost. I read myself, in the Newcastle paper. put in by a Mr. Wilson, of N wcastle, son of Rector Wilson, that the niece of General Washington called upon him, and he presented her with £5 as a token of respect; and that per

son was Aunt Mary. I have to inform you Rector Wilson married our father and mother in the year of our Lord 1780, the 23rd of May, at Washington Church, near Usworth. Our mother was up mostly at Usworth Hall.

"Our father, Edward Smirk, was respectfully decended from the Wylams family. The Miss Peareths always looked upon Aunt Mary's son, and always gave him whenever he went on our mother's account; but we never went. They are all dead but an old lady, the last time I heard of them. My dear mother many a time has sat and wept when she looked at her sons and daughters, to think how they were wron ed. She always committed her case to the God of her salvation, and she used to say He would always avenge the case of the innocent. Our hairs are numbered, and a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without His permission. I know what I have said to be truth. "So dear brother, farewell,

"SARAH ADDISON."

The seal, Mr. Longstaffe stated, was a crest-a demi-lion holding a cross patée fitchée. Motto, "Labor omnia vincit."

Mr. White remarked that the letter was a very important contribution to local hisHe had read an article in the tory. Quarterly Review" claiming the Washington family for Northamptonshire.

Mr. Longstaffe said, the Washingtons were connected both with Northamptonshire and Lancashire, and had a knighthood in the fam ly. The General's ancestry went out to America about 1657, in the persons of two brothers, John and Laurence, whose names occur as younger sons in the English pedigree at that period. The traditions of the American branch gave the North of England as their former home. The family had removed from Washington, county Durham, the cradle of the race at a remote period; and the marriage of Thomas Washington there, in 1780, may only be a coincidence; but, as the bride came from Alnwick, it was, perhaps, connected with sentiment. Longstaffe had paid no particular attention to the family. The letter, however, was so suggestive and interesting, that he produced it to elicit further information.

A CELLARER OF THE FIFTEENTH
CENTURY.

Mr.

Mr. Raine read extracts, which had been made during the progress of Mr. Surtees's history, from the accounts of John Barley, cellarer of the convent of Durham. Date, 1424. John disbursed weekly 6s. 6d. for 666 red herrings-(that is, 6 long hundreds, of 120 to the hundred) He also bought white herrings. Dogdraves" occurred among his purchases, an item unknown to the accounts of other monasteries.-[It was suggested that codfish from the Doggerbank, dried, was meant.] "Fishes of Iceland" also occurred, (Iceland being the great emporium of

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stock-fish). Salmon the monks had all the year round. There was "close time." Bywell was the chief source of supply; and there was a case on record of four salmon slipping from the hands of the bearer in crossing the Derwent, and being no more seen. For a pound of rice John Barley paid a penny; and for three lbs. of almonds, 74. The total disbursements of a month were £23 3s. 5d.

COLDINGHAM PRIORY.

The Very Rev. Chas. Eyre read a letter which he had received from an intelligent artisan :

"Berwick-on-Tweed, May 11th, 1857. "REV. SIR. AS I know you take some interest in ecclesiastical architecture, and al-o in antiquarian matters, I have taken the liberty to trouble you at present with some account of the old priory of Coldingham. We have at present a house painting there, and I am down at the old ruins whenever I am out at the job. You are perhaps aware that they have been making alterations in what rem ins of the priory, and which has been used as the parish church for two or three hundred years. I think they have done the work tolerably well, exe p that, in rebuilding the west end, they have merely repeated the east end. They are both now similar. I think it is to be deplored that they did not make some variation. But the inside, now, is remarkably fine. The north side and east end (which are original) can hardly be surpassed. They have stripped all the old galleries away, and there is little to obstruct the view. The restorations which have been made are very carefully done; and I think that if you c uld see it, you would be much pleased with it. They have laid bare, on the outside, the foundation of the sout transept. There is, in some parts, four or five feet of the wall and pillars standing. There are also the bases of the pillars of the centre tower They have leveiled the ground in the churchyard. Indeed, that is not finished yet. In doing all this they have found some curious cut stones, &c.; but the most remarkable discovery was made last week. In clearing away some of the rubbish and debris where the great tower bad been, they came on the tombs of two of the priors. They lie nearly side by side. The one wanted the top cover to the grave, but the other is most perfect, and the i. scription on it runs down the centre,- ERNALDUS PRIOR.'

"The graves are built with thin stones set on edge, the stones perhaps six or eight inches thick, with one large stone for the head, cut out as they usually are in stone coffins for the head and shoulders. The body seemed to have been enwrapped in something that bad the appearance of leather, but perhaps it is some sort of woollen, steeped in pitch or wax. The bones were not disturbed. They closed them again very carefully.

"Ay object in writing this to you, Sir, is to ask the question, Can you tell me anything of the priors of Coldingham, or when Prior Ernald lived? and whether there was more than one of that name? The letters are tolerably well cut, and are incised on the stone:- does that lead to the period about which he died?

"I fear that you will scarcely make out this scrawl of mine.

"I am Sir, your most obedient Servant, "The Very Rev. Charles Eyre." "J. D. EVANS." Mr. Raine observed that one very important fact was stated in this letter. He

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A PAPER-OF TOBACCO."

Dr. Bruce said, when the circular convening the meeting was issued, there was no paper in prospect, and he had therefore written a short one, not anticipating the many interesting communications that would be made, and which had filled up the meeting so agreeably. His paper was on the subject of the clay-pipes occasionally found in situations where we should only expect to find remains of a time long anterior to that of Sir Walter Raleigh. To this subject his attention had been turned, within the last few days, by a letter received by the Treasurer (Mr. Fenwick) from a mutual friend, Dr. Daniel Wilson, of Toronto. The Doctor wrote: -"What says he (Dr. Bruce) to the Roman tobacco-pipes now? Tell him I have got a crow to pluck with him for that. I get quoted from his pages, and held responsible for much more than I ever thought, said, or meant to say. Let him

look out for a missive from the land of tobacco." The pas-age referred to in his (Dr. Bruce's) second edition of "The Roman Wall," had, curiously enough, and vexatiously enough, been more quoted and translated, perhaps, than any other. It asked if smoking-pipes must be numbered among Roan remains, such pipes (some of the ordinary size, others of pigmy dimensions, with intermediate sizes) having been found in Roman stati ns, in close association with remains of undoubted Roman origin. Dr. Wilson was quoted on the subject, where, in his "Archæology of Scotland," he speaks of "Celtic," "Elfin," or "Danes'" pipes, occasionally found under circumstances raising the supposition that tobacco was only introduced as a superior substitute for older narcotics. Dr. Bruce produced several specimensone, a tiny bowl, dug from a depth of ten feet, in 1854, at the back of the Assembly Rooms of Newcastle, where, when a sewer under the vicarage-house was in course of construction, he was on the look-out for remains of the Roman Wall. In the Antwerp Museum such pipes were exhibited as Roman antiquities, and some were found in 1853 near the foundations of the Wall of Roman London, when laid bare in 1853. Still, to Dr. Wilson's Translantic enquiry, "What says he to the Roman tobacco-pipes now ?" he had to reply, that he feared they were but medieval,

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