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AN ELEMENTARY ENGLISH GRAMMAR,

CONSISTING OF ONE HUNDRED PRACTICAL LESSONS CAREFULLY

GRADED AND ADAPTED TO THE CLASS-ROOM.

BY

ALONZO REED, A.M.,
FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN-

AND

BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D.,

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN.

REVISED EDITION, 1901.

NEW YORK:
MAYNARD, MERRILL, & CO., PUBLISHERS.

BY

ALONZO REED, A.M., AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D.

REED'S WORD LESSONS. A Complete Speller. Designed to teach the correct spelling,

pronunciation, and use of such words only as are most common in current literature, and as are most likely to be misspelled, mispronounced, or misused, and to awaken new

interest in the study of synonyms and of word-analysis. 188 pages, 12mo. REED'S INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE WORK. A simple, varied, and pleasing, but

methodical series of exercises in English to precede the study of technical grammar. 253

pages, 16mo, cloth. REED & KELLOGG'S GRADED LESSONS IN ENGLISH. An elementary English

grammar, consisting of one hundred practical lessons, carefully graded and adapted to the

class room. 280 pages, 16mo, cloth. REED & KELLOGG'S HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A work on English gram

mar and composition, in which the science of the language is made tributary to the art of expression. A course of practical lessons carefully graded, and adapted to everyday use

in the schoolroom. 386 pages, 16mo, cloth. REED & KELLOGG'S HIGH SCHOOL GRAMMAR. A work dealing with the science

of the English language, the history of the parts of speech, the philosophy of the changes these have undergone, and with present usage respecting forms in dispute. 285 pages,

16mo, cloth. KELLOGG & REED'S WORD-BUILDING. Fisty lessons, combining Latin, Greek, and

Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes, into about fifty-five hundred common derivative

words in English; with a brief history of the English language. 122 pages, 16mo, cloth KELLOGG & REED'S THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. A brief history of the gram

matical changes of the language and its vocabulary, with exercises on synonyms, prefixes, suffixes, word-analysis, and word-building. A text-book for high schools and colleges.

220 pages, 16mo, cloth. KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON RHETORIC. Revised and enlarged edition. Supple

menting the development of the science with exhaustive practice in composition. A course of practical lessons adapted for use in high schools, academies, and lower classes

of colleges. 345 pages, 12mo, cloth. KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON ENGLISH LITERATURE. With copious extracts from

the leading authors, English and American, and full instructions as to the method in which the book is to be studied. 485 pages, 12mo, cloth.

COPYRIGHT 1889, 1894, 1896BM BUBNGORRA AND BRAINERD KELLOGG;
AND 1901 BY FRANCES M. REED AND BRAINERD KELLOGG.

Leland Stanford, Jr.
UNIVERSIT

с

PREFACE.

a

The plan of “Graded and Higher Lessons in English" will perhaps be better understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this course is brought into competition.

Method of One Class of Text-books.- In one class are those that aim chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules, declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing, - work of which a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful, old-time method.

Method of Another Class of Text-books.- In another class are those that present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling, Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some scraps of knowledge ; but his information will be vague and disconnected, and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no justification of its being.

The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.— It is the plan of this course to trace with easy steps the natural development of the sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an

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The Simple Predicate is always a finite verb.
The simple predicate may take the following forms :

(a) A simple verb; as, He teaches.
(b) A copula and its attribute; as, He is a teacher.
(c) A complex verb; as, He laughed at them.
(d) A factitive construction; as, He built the wall high.

а

The Attribute is an adjective, a noun, or some equivalent expression.

The Copula is either the verb to be or some other neuter verb, or a transitive verb in the passive voice.

The Simple Predicate is also called the Grammatical Predicate.

The Attribute may be any word, phrase, or clause.

WRITTEN ANALYSIS. The following seems to be the simplest device for indicating subject and predicate, because most readily made. It consists simply of a perpendicular line crossed by a short horizontal line to separate subject from predicate. Thus,

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It will be seen that, whatever the simple subject, it stands to the left of the upper part of the perpendicular line, and, whatever the simple predicate, it stands to the left of the lower part of the perpendicular. By this arrangement we are enabled to place all modifiers to the right of the words which they modify, and also to write naturally from left to right and in horizontal lines.

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