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methods of expression convey little or no mental impression. Therefore we shall endeavor to present the matter in another form.

In order to obviate this objection astronomers use "light-years"-that is the space traversed by a ray of light in a twelve months-for their unit of time; but perhaps another form of expression will serve our purpose still better:

Picture in your mind if you can the time that has intervened between the birth of Christ and the present moment a period that has witnessed the birth, history, and death of some sixty generations. Now let us adopt this era as our unit, and substitute it for year. Man, then, to attain his present estate-and since he diverged from the parent stem-has required ten thousand, four hundred Christian eras, when reckoned by the lowest scientific estimate. (Many authorities would multiply this computation by five). In our own opinion, and in all human probability, Man, as such, has been roaming the earth, in his present upright posture and possessed of some rude form of articulate speech, for at least twenty thousand Christian eras. Nearly every scientific chronological revision places both the first appearance of life and the birth of Man, at a more remote date. These fundamental truths of geology and anthropology, regarding the almost inconceivable æons of time requisite for natural law to develop Man, with his transcendent intellect, are of prime importance, since such performances are incomprehensible under any other hypothesis.

In former times there apparently existed a great divide or gulf between Man and his brute ancestors, which placed in the hands of the principal enemy of science a mighty weapon which it wielded fiercely and furiously from pulpit and press: but the well

authenticated and abundant evidence of the discovery of the "link," which spans the famous chasm, seems to have paralyzed the strong right arm of dogmatic theology and those who would deny the development of the human kind from lower forms. As a result of this victory, science, with the consciousness of a battle won, is enjoying the proverbial and peaceful calm which follows the mighty storm.

The dominant characteristic of humanity is vanity: "Vanity of vanities, sayeth the preacher; all is vanity." This inordinate egotism even more than religious tradition and superstition, seems to have repelled the masses from the acceptance of the truth. The scientist sees no humiliation or disgrace about the discovery of Man's simian origin, but in the eyes of the masses its only redeeming virtue is the assurance that he is verily the lord and master of creation, preeminently superior to every other living thing. MAN'S EARLY PROGRESS AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT

Having discovered the facts concerning Man's origin, as well as the geographical location of his birth, let us pry into the secret chests that contain the hidden treasures of his early progress and mental development.

In view of our animal ancestry we are forced to conclude that many faculties, formerly computed as strictly human, necessarily had their beginning in prehuman brutes. The cranial capacity of the highest living apes is something like five hundred cubic centimetres; whereas the Javanese link had a capacity of about one thousand cubic centimetres, which latter is approximately half way between the highest presentday ape and the Caucasian, or European white man; thus showing the brute ancestors of our first human parents to have been creatures of no mean intellectual

powers, and that Man, in the outset, inherited a very respectable cranial capacity.

Dr. Ernst Haeckel, in his work entitled "The History of Creation," in the chapter on "Development of Man," says:

"Those processes of development which led to the origin of the most Man-like apes must be looked for in the two adaptational changes which, above all others, contributed to the making of Man, namely, upright walk and articulate speech. These two physiological functions necessarily originated together with two morphological transmutations, with which they stand in the closest correlation, namely, the differentiation of the two pairs of limbs and the differentiation of the larynx. The important perfecting of these organs and their functions must have necessarily and powerfully reacted upon the differentiation of the brain and the mental activities dependent upon it, and thus have paved the way for the endless career in which Man has since progressively developed, and in which he has far outstripped his animal ancestors.

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In his book entitled "The World's Peoples," the famous anthropologist and author, Dr. A. H. Keane, refers in the most confident way to the Javanese "missing link" and speaks of it as if the entire world recognized it to be a creature intermediary between man and the lower animals, in an actual state of metamorphosis.

Clearly then this Javanese man was already fairly well equipped for his long and perilous journeyings

*This standard of cranial capacity, as an index to intellectual powers, is by no means accurate, and cannot be used as a cri terion among individuals; but as a broad general index for comparing fossil remains, lower animals, and present-day human beings, it serves fairly well. Moreover, at least so far as concerns fossil remains, it is practically the only test of relative intellectual capacity at our command.

round the globe. His weapons of offense and defense consisted chiefly of stones, wooden clubs, and the large thigh-bones of his own kind. Gifted, as he was, with mental powers far beyond all other animals, his future success and continued progress were assured.

Since all the facts we can command would lead to the belief that this "first man," as he is sometimes called, had no knowledge of navigation the question naturally arises, how did he, or his progeny, escape from the island birthplace of the race? Geologists assure us that he was not confronted with this barrier; that the physical geography of the period was totally different from the present divisions of land and water; and that there were land connections from the present island of Java to both Asia and Africa. The road was open across the Indian Ocean to Madagascar and South Africa by the Indo-African Continent, now long since submerged. The Eastern Archipelago, which included the island of Java, at that time still formed part of the Asiatic mainland, from which it is even now only slightly separated by shallow waters, in many places less than fifty fathoms deep. Eastward the road was open to New Guinea and across Terres Strait to Australia, thence through the Louisade Islands to the Pacific Ocean, which is now known to be a region of subsidence. Thus Dr. Klaatsch, who in 1904 studied the question on the spot, concludes that the peopling of Australia can be explained only by a former land connection, with a central point of distribution (such as Java) from which in one direction has been distributed the Asiatic races, and in another the Australian aborigines. In the northern hemisphere Europe could be reached by three different routes; one across the Strait of Gibraltar; another between Tunis, Malta, Sicily, and Italy; and a

third from Cyrenacia across the Agean to Greece, and thence from the mainland of Europe to the British Isles via the Strait of Dover and the shallow North Sea. Lastly the New World was accessible from Asia across Bering Strait, and from Europe through the Orkneys, the Shetlands, the Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland. Here were, therefore, sufficient land connections for primitive Man to have spread from his Javanese cradle to the uttermost parts of the earth. That he did so spread in very early (Pleistocene or even Pliocene) times is well established, as will presently be shown. While the routes here suggested may seem speculative to some, it is highly probable that they are correct, since we have the best of evidence that these and no others existed during the Middle or late Tertiary period.

"Much trustworthy evidence has been collected to show that the whole world had really been peopled during this period," says Keane, "which roughly coincides with the Ice Age, when a large part of the northern and southern hemispheres was subject to recurrent invasions of thick-ribbed ice advancing successively from both poles. The migrations were most probably begun in pre-glacial times-that is, before the appearance of the first great ice-wave, then arrested and resumed alternately with the long interglacial intervals, thus advancing and receding with the spread and retreat of the ice-cap, and completed in the post-glacial or early Pleistocene epoch say some two or three hundred thousand years ago. At that time the various wandering groups had already made considerable progress both in physical and mental respects, as is seen in the Neanderthal skull, which is the oldest yet found in Europe, standing midway between the Javanese ape-man and the present low races. All were still very much alike, presenting a

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