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that all the great divisions of the human family had at that time already been fully developed. Even in the New Stone Age the present European type had been thoroughly established as shown by the skeletal remains of the 'Cro-Magnon Race,' so called from the cave of that name in Perigord where the first specimens were discovered. A skull of the early Iron Age from Wildenrot in Bavaria had a cranial capacity of one thousand five hundred and eightyfive centimetres, and was in all respects a superb specimen of the regular-featured North European. In Egypt, where a well-developed social and political organization may be traced back to the eleventh century B. C., Professor Petrie discovered in 1897 the portrait statue of a prince of the fifth dynasty (3700 B. C.) showing regular Caucasic features. Still older is the portrait of the Babylonian King Enshagsagna (4500 B. C.), also with handsome features which might be 'either Cemitic or even Aryan.' Thus we have a documentary evidence that the Caucasic, that is the highest human type, had already been not only evolved but spread over a wide area (Europe, Egypt, Mesopotamia) some thousands of years before the New Era.

"The other chief types (Mongol, Negro, and even Negrito) are also clearly portrayed on early Egyptian monuments, so that all the primary groups had already reached maturity probably before the close of the Old Stone Age.

"But these primary groups did not remain stationary in their several original homes, but have on the contrary been subject to great and continual fluctuations throughout historic times. Armed with a general knowledge of letters and correlated cultural appliances, the higher races soon took a foremost place in the general progress of mankind, and gradu

ally acquired a marked ascendency, not only over the less cultured peoples, but to a great extent over the forces of nature herself." Says Keane.

Now the intelligent application of the foregoing facts can lead to no other than the following conclusions: That evolution-the immutable modus operandi of that great Final Cause-is the real, discovered cause of every change that has ever taken place, and that this is true, not only of earthly changes, but is equally applicable to the limitless universe, coextensive with force and space; that nature requires an almost inconceivably long time to produce even the slightest variation; that Man is the product of natural law; that the superior mental attainment of the modern European is the result of aeons of favorable environment; and by inference, that his laggard black brother is mentally thousands-if not millions -of years behind, and must needs lose out in the conspicuously unequal struggle for existence. Not only because of his mental inferiority, must the American Negro ultimately lose in this contest, but because also of strong and increasing mutual race prejudice and of his relative numerical weakness. Thus it seems to be demonstrated truth that while remotely we started out in an ape-like form and on equal footing, natural law has so favored certain branches of this human family-tree as to cause them to develop out of all proportion to certain other branches; just as we see illustrated, every day of our lives, in the development, and lack of development, in different branches of ordinary trees.

CHAPTER II

The Natural Moulding of the Races From a Common Prototype

E have seen then that Man is only one of the many natural products of orderly change constantly going on about us, and that he has been gradually elevated by imperceptible changes from lower forms. Likewise it has been shown that while his nearest prehuman ancestors were not existing apes they were common ancestors to both Man and ape, and very much closer in form and appearance to present-day apes than to the higher races of Man. As the progeny of this common ancestor have diverged, and finally become so widely differentiated as to constitute a number of separate and distinct species, so each of these latter in turn-under the same fixed law-exhibit this tendency to divergence, including Man himself. Hence the existence upon the earth to-day of the many and widely different types or varieties of the human race. For thousands of years, perhaps it is well within the bounds of conservatism to say hundreds of thousands of years, after the landed portions of the globe became peopled all men were still very much alike; and all were somewhat inferior, mentally, if not physically, to even the lowest existing types. If during the last two or three thousand years progress and development and ready means of inter-communication had not taken place, but instead the several grand divisions of land had permanently remained isolated, and if this condition

could have extended indefinitely into the future, the several varieties of Man, or some of them, would ultimately have developed into distinct species-a remoteness of relationship sufficient to prevent interbreeding. In many respects it seems regrettable that it did not so happen, for it would have been interesting to have had a free exchange of ideas and commodities with a people, possibly our full equals, but with whom our blood would not have mixed. As a matter of fact, however, if extensive racial reversion is impossible and modern progress and intercourse continue, the many varieties of mankind must continually approach closer and closer to a common type. This will take place very gradually of course, but will be much faster than most of the evolutionary changes of the past have been.

In the beginning, as we have shown in the last chapter, Man was the natural product of common ancestors, and consequently they were all of the same variety. The wide variations that have since taken place are the results of respective environments, and if such environments and isolations had continued indefinitely they would unquestionably have produced new species as we have said. The progress of this primitive Man from his tropical birthplace to the remote, and even frigid regions of the earth, both north and south, was necessarily difficult and slow; all routes were beset with obstructions and he had nothing to facilitate his journeyings except his bare feet and grasping hand, with opposable thumb. But this peopling of the earth, slow as it must have been, was fast when compared with the laws of adaptation. Consequently, while we have the best of evidence that it required many thousands of years for the primitive race to occupy all the principal landed portions of the earth, it is

equally well established that evolution required millions to differentiate him into the various groups, or races, as they exist to-day.

It is, however, no easy matter to convince the mass of the people, who have had little or no scientific training, that there was a time when all human beings were as much alike as are the members of a native Sudanese tribe, but it is none-the-less true. The greatest single obstacle in the way of popular advancement along such lines, is the eagerness and energy, with which both the politician and the theologian seek to make capital out of the situation. We once heard a famous politician preach a political sermon which he entitled "The Prince of Peace" in which he went out of his way to introduce the false statement-but popular belief-that modern science made the claim that human beings were nothing but improved, present-day monkeys. He said to his immense audience, in effect, that such claims were both disgusting and insulting, that he, for one, did not believe them and that he preferred to hold to the teaching of the Bible on the subject. Continuing he said, that it was much more likely that monkeys are degenerate men than that men are improved monkeys; and to his mind the latter was a far more plausible theory. Of course this brought him loud applause from an audience composed largely of uncultured people, which he carefully sized up before making the misleading and ridiculous statement. We observed him as he stood silent for a moment, evidently considering how many votes he had probably made by this shameful sacrifice of honesty and truth.

Theologians are constantly misleading the people in a similar manner, but we will modify our criticisms. so far as they are concerned, giving them the benefit of the doubt, and supposing that, on their part, such

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