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neighbors. Improved standards of Negro life in communities composed of both races, certainly contribute to the health of the white element.

If we accept the verdict of statisticians and all others who have given the subject their attentionincluding the government authorities themselves— to the effect that the published figures of the census report covering the decade, 1870-1880, are inaccurate and that the Negro population declined in relative numbers during that period, the percentage of Negro population has declined in every decade since the year 1810; or from the time of the passage of a law by Congress restricting the importation of African captives.

This we regard a most powerful argument in favor of a continuation of a similar decline during the remainder of the present century. When we remember that during the period mentioned above we have had fifty years of Negro slavery, and fifty years of freedom, and that the period covers all sorts of conditions-yet without a single interruption, or reversal, of this declining percentage-and that the percentage of Negroes has fallen (in round numbers) from 19 per cent. in 1810 to 11 per cent. in 1900 (a still smaller percentage will be shown for the census of 1910) we hold that it is highly probable that a similar rate of decline will continue throughout the present century.

If our reasoning proves to have been accurate, the year 2000 will witness a Negro population of less than 3 per cent., which will be too small-especially in view of the then prospect of a continuation of this decline-to give either the Nation, or the individual, the least concern regarding the race question of the future.

We are aware that some still contend that this

decline in relative numerical strength is speedily to terminate, and others yet, who go still further and invent theories by which the tables are to be turned, and a reverse process issue in; but in view of the mass of verifiable evidence herein contained to the contrary we are unable to take them seriously.

If, then, our predictions be true, or even approximately true, it cannot be denied that we have pointed the substantial end of the Negro problem in the United States, and that, too, within the present century.

Let us review the points made in this chapter alone in support of the natural solution of the problem.

Established mental inferiority is given as the basis of the argument and the source of all minor influences tending to reduce the relative numerical strength of the Negro race.

The whites are shown to be better fitted in every way for the various occupations offering a means of earning a comfortable existence. This fact combined with the further fact that there exists a strong mutual race prejudice, prevents the Negro from having an equal chance with the white man. This combination of facts is causing the Negro to scatter into the North and West where conditions are even worse than in the South.

At the same time there is observed a mutual segregation in the country districts, and in the cities. Each race showing a tendency to separate itself from the other. This is illustrated by the Richmond "Africa" and a similar district in Baltimore. Then there is also shown a determined purpose on the part of the whites to force back that smaller element of Negro population who would intrude upon white residential sections. This is illustrated by the very recent in

vention of segregation laws.

The well-established tendency of modern life to cause a closer approach to a common type of Man -which means elimination of the unfit-is decidedly an adverse influence to the survival, or increase, of our Negro population.

Another evidence of a slackening rate of Negro increase, under the pressure of white competition and race prejudice, is the recent complaint of Canada of the large numbers annually crossing her border from the United States.

It is not here contended that the Negro race in America will speedily disappear, but rather that existing adverse influences will cause a continuation of his declining relative numbers. This position is strongly supported by the Hoffman letters introduced. (The Aino race of Japan is the best of evidence that a race can indefinitely endure-in reduced numbers-even in the face of a strong race prejudice).

Selfish motives do not demand that the white race strive to bring Negro hygiene and Negro morality up to the high standards of the former, as some have attempted to make it appear. Negro immorality has little or no bearing on the white man's ethical standards. His physical uncleanliness certainly has some influence on the health of his white neighbors, but it is shown that this is slight under the rigid vigilance of the latter to protect itself against this danger.

On the other hand—and apart from the moral question involved a great many white people in localities having a large Negro population look upon each individual Negro as a source of constant menace to themselves, and therefore have not the slightest objection to the prevalence of pestilence, diseases and death among that race, so long as they

(the whites) feel reasonably safe from contamina

tion.

The white race is not, as a rule, in sufficiently close contact with the Negro for diseases to spread rapidly from the one race to the other; and the bonds of union and association are being continually lessened and severed.

I

CHAPTER XX

Summary and Conclusion

IN THE early chapters of this work we have given the reader an outline of the important facts concerning the origin of the human species and the nature of its early development.

The object of this is to show on the one hand that the Negro type has from the very beginning been the most backward division of the race; and on the other, that the Caucasic type has come to its position of superior intelligence and physical fitness for all climates, by untold ages of slight natural adaptational changes to vastly more varied conditions. This feature of the subject is regarded as one of the fundamental elements concerned in the solution of the Negro problem by natural causes.

After showing that until very recently—and to a great extent even now-the geographic domain of the Negro has been tropical, or semi-tropical, and therefore adverse to mental advancement, we have taken up the subject of the African stock from which our American Negro was chiefly drawn. This stock is shown to be incapable of producing a civilization of any kind. Unassociated with the white man it is believed by some to exhibit a tendency toward greater depths of degradation.

Then it is also shown that the methods employed in the capture of these Negroes tended to supply the African trader with the very lowest stratum of this barbarian race for transportation as chattels to the American colonists-a class largely held as slaves by

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