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and sometimes painfully ignorant, or unmindful, of the great truths of science and philosophy, which so clearly must form the basis of all intelligent efforts to presage the ultimate destiny of the Afro-American Negro.

CHAPTER III

Native African Peoples

T is by no means true, as many seem vaguely to suppose, that-when Egypt is excepted-the Dark Continent is practically the exclusive domain of the Negro race. In addition to the very many tribes and varieties of savage and barbarian black men, there are, and always have been, important indigenous African white or Caucasic races. Despite the fact that these ethnological questions are fraught with interest, they are peculiarly seductive; and when once we allow ourselves entangled in their meshes escape is well-nigh impossible. However, we cannot evade the danger altogether, since the reader must have some outline of the relations of the African Negro tribes-from which our American stock was largely drawn-to their Caucasic neighbors.

The most widely accepted theory of the formation of the Caucasic race—for it is but a theory-is that it was first formed from the primitive stock somewhere in the north of Africa; probably in that vast plateau which at present consists of arid sand wastes, -the great desert of Sahara-for, as we have seen elsewhere, this was certainly one of the most favored regions of the earth during hundreds of thousands of years. This white, or Caucasic people early became differentiated into two famous subdivision: the Semites and the Hamites. The Semitic branch is supposed to have subsequently passed over the Red Sea into Arabia, there to become still further specialized and to have given off various tribes into

other portions of Southwestern Asia; for the Semites who went out from Africa to constitute these races or varieties, are supposed to be the indigenous race of Arabia and certain other parts of Asia. The Hebrews or Jews, perhaps the most versatile of mankind, are also said to be a branch of this Semitic race. The Arabs of North Africa are likewise a Semitic people sent back again from Asia to the land of their earliest nativity.

The Hamites, notwithstanding various interminglings with other peoples, constitute the greater part of the inhabitants of North Africa; including the ancient Egyptians.

The Negro is widely distributed over the African continent, his domain extending from the northern boundary of the Sudan to the Cape of Good Hope, and is as broad as the continent itself; while in the southern hemisphere, and close about the equator, the region of his habitation almost encircles the earth. We are not to deal with him thus widely, however, for his principal numerical strength and purest type are to be found in the Sudan and the territory to the south of it. In that continuous region bounded on the north by the northern boundary of the Sudan; on the east by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Arden, and the Indian Ocean; and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, are to be found more than one hundred million Negroes. It was from the savage and barbarian tribes of the western portion of this vast region that our American slave stock was principally drawn.

The Hamitic and Semitic peoples are believed to have originated in the region of the Sudan immediately adjacent to the Negro domain and with overlappings at certain points. If such be the case it is

inconceivable that intermingling of blood along the border line should not have taken place. In fact it is quite clear that this mixing of blood has taken place to some extent. The ancient Egyptians had a slight strain of Negro blood in their Hamitic veins, and in many of the border tribes of African Negroes both Hamitic and Semitic strains can be traced. Some writers have tried very ingeniously to make it appear that this intercourse and intermingling of blood has been sufficient in the past to greatly improve the Negro intellect and character, but a moment's reflection will suffice to show the absurdity of this. In the first place ready means of communication was not to be had in these early times, and where civilized peoples bordered on the territory of a lower race a state of hostilities perpetually existed; both of which causes tended to limit the mutual diffusion of blood. Then, too, it has been demonstrated that where such admixture takes place between varieties there is a constant tendency toward a return to a pure type in the direction of a preponderance of a given blood. In other words if a human mongrel produced by the admixture of white and Negro blood is less than half white its progeny has a natural tendency to revert to a pure Negro stock. For instance, if the Hamitic and Semitic admixture had caused the entire Negro population of Africa to become one-third white when the supply of white blood was shut off it would finally have returned to the pure Negro type. As a matter of fact this white blood-supply has never amounted to one thousandth part of this indigenous Negro race. In most instances the American supply of African Negroes were free from even this insignificant cross-breeding. The West Coast Negroes, from whom our American stock was chiefly drawn, are the peoples we are

to consider in this chapter.

A little more than twenty-four centuries ago the historian Herodotus explored the west coast of Africa and penetrated the country to a considerable extent. As a result of this he tells us that, in addition to Phoenician and Greek intruders there were two distinct indigenous peoples, the Libyans (Hamitic), in the north and Ethiopians (Negroes), in the south. The ethnical divide between the Libyans and Ethiopians may be roughly indicated by drawing a line across the continent seventeen degrees north latitude.

In the preceding chapter the peculiar physical characteristics of the Negro have been outlined. Among the more notable variations of this type may be mentioned the Bantu, and the Bushman, or dwarfs. The Bantu is distinguished by certain slight modifications of the Sudanese type. The face of the Bantu is certainly less coarse than that of the Sudanese; it may indeed be regarded as relatively refined. The jaws are less projecting and the lips noticeably thinner. In stature the Bantu corresponds with the Sudanese quite accurately, while in color he exhibits all shades of dark brown but is rarely strikingly black. These Bantu tribes are found southward from the Sudan to the Cape. While as we have noted, this variation of the Sudanese Negrothe Bantu-presents many slight variations, his chief distinguishing quality is linguistic rather than physi

cal.

The other chief division of this Sudanese stem is a people of peculiar interest; so extraordinary indeed. as to justify some mention. We refer to the African pygmies, or dwarfs. These little people are almost as wild as lower animals, and make their home in the dense and inaccessible forest lands. Historic

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