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taking thought can add to his stature one cubit? If ye then be not able to do that thing which is least why take ye thought for the rest?" Time alone, combined with ages of favorable environment, is competent to advance the Negro race to that exalted position which the Caucasian now occupies. Moreover the competency of nature herself by long continued favorable conditions, to bring the Negro up to the standard of the Caucasian may well be doubted, for we are by no means certain that the Negro type is fit material for natural moulding into such excellencies.

CHAPTER IV

Evidences of Mental Inferiority

OTWITHSTANDING the vast array of testimony to the contrary and singular as it may appear, there are certain authors, both American and European, who have placed themselves on record as believing that west African Negroes and their direct descendants, possess all the requisite qualities for the immediate reception of the highest Caucasic civilization and culture. In other words, and in their opinion, a certain amount of erudition can qualify these Negro peoples for the advanced thoughts and ideals of the most enlightened white races.

One of these European writers, who seems to have recently gained considerable notoriety, attempts to controvert, among a host of other securely established scientific truths, many of the chief conclusions of both Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. He does, however, do them the honor to apologize, in a preface to his book, for having discovered that they, among a dozen other renowned but lesser lights, were mistaken in many of their fundamental tenets. The particular author to whom we refer is one Doctor Theophilus E. Samuel Scholes (we are glad he has no other names), in his book entitled "Glimpses of the Ages," published in London in 1905. His excuse for dissenting from the deductions of these master-minds-so far as we have been able to discern-is that by some distinctively individual process of reason we know not what-he

has arrived at conclusions fundamentally different from those reached by these admitted sages. We do not know who Scholes is, but after reading his book and reflecting on some of his statements-the one just related included-we are reminded of the wit's sally who said, that, "When Bishop Berkley said there was no matter 'twas no matter what he said."

On account of the periodic circulation of such writings as Scholes's, and the further, and more important circumstance that many people well informed on other subjects have never given their attention to the sciences that have to do with the nature and development of the human intellect, it seems well to incorporate here some of the evidence which constitutes the proof that the natural endowment of these Negro peoples, when compared with the higher Caucasians, is meagre indeed, and that something more than the mere ability to imitate and copy, in a parrot fashion, some infinitesimal portion of our accumulated knowledge is requisite for the uplift of this alien and barbarous, not to say savage, race of mankind. In fact we do not believe that any material and sudden elevation by such means is possible.

In preceding chapters, which are intended to trace the descent of modern Man from his earliest human ancestors, we have had constantly in mind the necessity of impressing the reader with the almost incomprehensibly slow progress of evolutionary change; more especially is this true in the higher orders of animal life. Here again we would call attention to the fact that some millions of years have been required to raise Man from his simian ancestors to the wonderfully superior European type. The hypothesis that this has taken place in a few thousand years is contrary to the teaching of every branch of

learning that has to do, even remotely, with the subject and is, of course, absurd.

It will be found upon investigation that the fabric of aggregated opinion of established authorities is well woven into the postulate, that the exalted mental equipment of the Caucasian is not to be reached by any short roads or near cuts. However, we grant that, if all other factors were equal, the steppingstone of a vast and well-ordered storehouse of knowledge, such as the Caucasian has to offer, is, or would be, of inestimable value to any other race during that long journey from relative mental imbecility to the most superior wisdom. But alas! all things are not equal, for not only is the white man conceded to be at the top while the black man is at the bottom, but there are two other grand divisions of mankind intervening; and with them all, the freed Negro must engage in a perpetual and relentless commercial warfare for the survival of the fittest. Therefore we may well say that if the Negro had not this destructive warfare upon his hands, but instead possessed only the white man's accumulated wealth of knowledge and learning, together with millenniums of leisure and an all absorbing inclination towards learning and wisdom, his upward climb would not only be facilitated, but, so far as we know, assured; and the evolutionary period of incubation, as it were, would apparently be materially shortened provided, of course, that the Negro is, under any circumstances, capable of such development. Even then, when all these impossible things are granted, he would require many generations of inherited improvement in brain-structure, and thousands of years, to reach the pinnacle of wisdom and knowledge upon which the Caucasian stands to-day, waving the sceptre of supreme authority and dominating

the habitable globe.

If it were possible to confer all these advantages upon the Negro race we would be compelled to ask and answer the question: Is the Caucasian to remain inert and stationary and wait to be overtaken; or would he continue, meanwhile, to advance as he has done in the past, and at that continually accelerated rate which is the natural consequence of powers already acquired?

Another conspicuous stumbling-block in the path of the fettered, self-constituted sociological philosopher, espousing the cause of Negro equality, is his singular confounding of learning, with wisdom or knowledge, and the constant mistaking of the one for the other.

No man can afford to rush into print as a teacher of philosophy who is not willing to take the trouble to discriminate sharply between these terms, which are as widely separated as the east is from the west. A man may be extensively learned and still notoriously lacking in wisdom. The one may be acquired by the individual; the other is a natural endowment. No amount of learning can produce wisdom in the lifetime of an individual, or even in a few generations; nor can the former ever be substituted for the latter. A certain amount of erudition can be acquired by members of any race, except possibly certain branches of the Negro race; but it is proverbially true that the educated fool is the most intolerable of all. On the other hand, if an individual or race is endowed with a superior intellect, his or its future is manifestly a matter only of opportunity and application. The trite expression that we cannot make a silk purse out of a sow's ear is inelegant and threadbare, we admit, but its time-worn and time-honored shell contains a rich kernel of truth.

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