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nificent empire. The extravagance of its court, the weakness of its ruler, its decadence and the Spanish succession with French ascendancy and the stirring events which followed are intensely interesting. The Rivalry for European and Colonial Supremacy, is also an interesting chapter. That part which deals with the French, English and Spanish Colonies in North America, and the rivalry between the first two great .nations will prove deeply attractive to American readers.

A feeling of revulsion against absolutism and "reign by divine right" will be strong in the mind of the reader as he comes toward the conclusion of the volume-the partition of Poland. That a people should be disposed of in such a cool and calculating way by the agreement of two individuals is abhorrent certainly to a democratic mind. Absolutism and its fruits are illustrated in the following.

In a conversation with Prince Henry at the Russian court in 1771, the Czarina casually remarked, referring to Poland, "Why should not everyone take something?" This was reported to Frederick II, and he was so pleased with this frankness that later he addressed to the Czarina a memorial "on the most favorable moment for dismembering Poland between Prussia and Russia." He says:

It is best that possession be taken before any negotiation with the Turks is begun, because it will make them swallow the pill gently, if they are informed that it is an equivalent for which Wallachia and Moldavia are restored to them; and further by causing them to see that the Austrians, on their side, have given us the example by acting the same. As for the Poles, we must expect them to cry aloud, for that nation, vain and intriguing, cries out about everything; but the army on the Vistula will cause these clamors to cease; and, after the conclusion of peace with the Turks, it will pacify Poland.

We trust that we are moving away from absolutism, with power in a single man to prevent with armies the crying aloud of a nation that is being dismembered.

To the general reader this volume is perhaps the most interesting of the three which Dr. Hill has written. The others, like this one, are charming in style and crowded with facts. But the present volume deals with that period, so interesting to readers and students of history, when the great nations of Europe were "in the making." It portrays brilliant men, more or less statesmen, wielding unlimited power. Individually these men are intensely interesting, but in the struggle and development of international diplomacy, their powers and skill in empire building form a study that calls forth both admiration and fear. Their

living, and accomplishments, and failures, are as interesting as a romance, and profoundly instructive in the way in which they moved and created international life. The author, in his preface, says, "It is not an exaggeration to say, that for more than a hundred years the destinies of Europe were determined by a half dozen men in each generation, and their motives of action were largely personal." The personality and ambitions of these men seemed at times to overshadow everything. They became the state. Their lives were largely the national life in international affairs. There is, therefore, a human and vital interest in this volume that is not to be found in the preceding volumes. The overmastering thought with these men was a universal temporal empire a phantasm not unknown in our day. The reader of this volume will not want for impulse to continue to the end and, having read it, will have gained much historical knowledge and will have seen the beginning and early development of the science may we call it-of diplomacy.

Dr. Hill, referring to the sources of his knowledge, says, "The extraction of what is important to the international development of Europe from this voluminous mass of documents is a labor of such vast extent as to be beyond the capacity of any single investigator in the course of a lifetime." How well he has done his work in the selection of material and with what accuracy he has presented it will be appreciated and acknowledged by every competent reader. A reviewer in a London paper, not too favorably disposed, has said of Dr. Hill and his work, "He is well acquainted with the literature of his subject and he has selected and arranged his material with care and accuracy." This judgment is truthful and just.



[For Table of references see Chronicle of International Events, p. 221.]

Aircraft. Aircraft in war. Wm. Menkel. R. of R. (N. Y.), 50:455. Oct.

Albania. Azione delle grandi potenze e la formazione dello Stato d' Albania, L'. Venuti, T. de Bacci. R. di dir. int., Ser. 2, 3:165.

Aliens. Aliens and the courts. Economist, 79:873. Nov.

Foreigners and naturalized aliens: neutral opinion. Economist, 79:805.

Oct. Arbitration. Thomas Willing Balch and arbitration. Law M. & R., 40:79. Nov. Armament. Are fortresses valueless? M. A. Gerothwohl. Fort. R., 96:845. Nov. Armamentos y los ejercetos. R. Capitan. Nuestro tiempo, 14:289. Sept. Ultimate disappearance of Austria-Hungary, The. Ellis Barker. 19th Cent., 66:1003. Nov.

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Domaine aérien privé et public et les droits de l'aviation en temps de paix et de guerre, Le. A. Mérignhac. R. gen. de droit int. pub., 21:205. March-April. Personalità giuridica dell' Instituto internazionale di agricoltura, La. Guido Fusinato. R. di dir. int., Ser. 2, 3:149.

Balkans. Balkan Question-the key to a permanent peace, The. Arthur W. Spencer. Am. Pol. Sci. R., 8:563. Nov.

China. Effects of the war in China. Economist, 79:795. Oct.


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England and Germany in Shantung. E. Bruce Mitford. Fort. R., 96:783.

Future of China. J. Beaux. Edinb. R., 220:427.

Rapprochement neerlando-belge, La. Ed. Vlietinck. R. de dir. int. et de

légis. comp., 16:213.

Clausewitz, Carl von. Carl von Clausewitz. Sir John Macdonell. Contemp., 106:106. Nov.

Congress of Vienna. Wiener Kongress, Der. Deutsche R., 39:746.

Contraband. Iron ore as contraband. Law M. & R., 40:81. Nov.

See also International Law.

Conversion of merchant ships. Arming of merchantmen. C. A. McCurdy. Law M. and R., 40:46.

Economics. Blocus économique de l'Allemagne, Le. Vicomte Geroges d'Avenel. R. des deux mondes, 24 (6e):189. Nov.

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Egypt. Some effects of the war in Egypt. Economist, 79:869. Nov.

Enemy Character. Enemy character. Law M. & R., 40:83. Nov.

German endorsements on bills of exchange. Economist, 79:677. Oct. Entente Cordiale. Une campagne d'opinion avant l'entente cordiale. Firmin Roz. R. des deux mondes, 24(6e):304. Nov.


European War. Al margen de la guerra europea? Existo en realidad, el Peligro amarillo? M. Esiebanez. Espana y America, 14(4):12. Oct.

Abrechnung. Freiherr von Jettel. Deutsche R., 39:24. Oct.

Appeal to the universe of America, An. Ernest Haeckel and Rudolph

Eucken. Open Court, 28:659. Nov.

Armageddon and After. Fort. R., 96:728. Nov.

Aus den Anfängen des österreichisch-russischen Gegensatzes. Ernst Molden. Öster. Runds., 41:117. Nov.


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Austro-Servian dispute, The. Round Table, 4:659.
Atrocity and chivalry. Economist, 79:533. Sept.

Australia and the war. Economist, 79:530. Sept.

Belgian and Luxemburg treaties, The. Economist, 79:571. Oct.

Belgische Problem, Das. Alfred Ruhmann. Die Grenzboten, 73:7. Oct.
Belgium's neutrality: opposing views. R. of R. (N. Y.), 50:493.

Can the war last long? Economist, 79:631. Oct.

Conditions in France. Economist, 79:529. Sept.

Conquest of Belgium. Economist, 79:630. Oct.

Deliverance of Belgium. Demetrius Boulger. British R., 8:182. Nov. Deutsch-Englische Seekrieg, 1914, Der. Fritz Hoffmann. Deutsche R., 39:83. Oct.

Deutschen völker heiliger Krieg und ihre Zukunst, Der. B. Lawrence Freiherrn von Mackay. Öster. Runds., 41:104. Nov.

Die deutsche Kunst und der Welt Krieg, Die. Robert West. Preussische Jahrbücher, 158:36.

Deutschland oder England. Herman Oncken. Nationale Kundgebung, Sept. 1914, p. 80.


Diplomacy at The Hague. Sir Wm. J. Collins. Contemp., 106:645. Nov.
Effects of the war on Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Economist, 79:637.

Erlohmen des englischen Erfindungsgeistes, Das. R. H. France. Öster. Runds., 41:128. Nov.

Ethos des politischen Gleichgewichtsgedankens, Das. Fr. J. Schmidt. Preussische Jahrbücher, 158:1. Oct.


Europa, Krieg, Deutschland. Robert Musil. Neue Runds., 25:1303.
France in war times. Economist, 79:670. Oct.

Fundamental aspects of the war. Roland G. Usher. N. Amer. R., 200:520.

Further despatches and correspondence relating to the great war. Britannic R., 1:683. Oct.

Gedanken zum gegenwärtigen Augenblick, Die. Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Öster. Runds., 41:97. Nov.

German and Prussian spirit. Round Table, 4:616.

German cruisers and their work. Economist, 79:632. Oct.

German Imperial Colonial blunder. Sir Francis Piggott. 19th Cent., 76: 941. Nov.


Germany and the Powers. Dr. Bernhard Dernburg. N. Amer. R., 200:833.

Germanism and Prussianism. Sidney Low. Edinb. R., 220:257. Oct. Germany and her place in the African sun. Wm. Greswell. Fort. R., 96:774. Nov.


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Guerre britannique à l'indutrie et au commerce allemands, La.

Le Corresp., 221:258. Oct.

Hegémonie allemande et la guerre présente, L'. Louis Brandes. Etudes, 140:472. Aug.-Sept.

Internment. Law M. & R., 40:85.

Iglesia y la guerre, La. S. Garcia. Espana y America, 12(3):404.

Krieg, Der. Montz Heimann. Neue Runds., 25:1187.

Lois chrétiennes de la guerre, Les. Pierre Battifol. Le Corresp., 221:161.

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Germany through Dutch eyes. Economist, 79:522. Sept.
Germany's destiny. Samuel P. Orth. Century, 89:29. Nov.

Grande croisdade des civilisés, La. Jean Finot. La Revue, 25:525. Oct.

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Luxembourg and Belgium. Law M. & R., 40:77. Nov.

Military gains and naval losses. Economist, 79:514. Sept.

Moltke als Politiker. Rudolf Peschke. Preussischer Jahrbücher, 158:16. Moral in der Politik und die Englische Flotte. Deutsche R., 39:110. Oct. More diplomatic light upon the war. Economist, 79:793. Oct.

Message from Bryce, A. R. of R. (N. Y.), 50:683. Dec.

Neutrality of Belgium, The. A. G. de Lapradelle. N. Amer. R., 200:847.

Objects and precedents of the war. Economist, 79:516. Sept. Official documents concerning finance, banking trade. 1:587, 591, 593, 705. Sept.-Oct.

Britannic R.,

Politik und Kultur. Fredrich Meinecke. Nationale Kundgebung, Sept. 1914, p. 796.

Atlantic, 114:433. Oct.

Reasons behind the war. Roland A. Usher. Reich der Mitte, Das. Johannes B. Jensen. Responsibility for the war. R. S. Nolan. Retrospect and prospect: A note of warning. E. J. Dillon. Contemp. R., 106:598. Nov.

Neue Runds., 25:1316. 19th Cent., 76:980. Nov.

Russen und Wir, Die. George Leinon. Die Grenzboten, 73:1. Oct.
Sidelights on the great war. L. J. Maxse. Nat'l R., 64:377. Nov.
Sir Edward Grey's speech, Aug. 3. Round Table, 4:790.

Situation created in Canada by the war, The. Economist, 79:523. Sept.
Trade in the Baltic. Economist, 79:522. Sept.

Trade routes in war time. Economist, 79:551. Oct.

Über den kriegerischen Charakter des deutschen Volkes. Hans Delbrück. Preussische Jahrbücher, 158:95. Oct.

United States of Europe, The. Sir Harry Johnson and Dean Weldon. R. of R. (Lond.), 50:248. Oct.

Von Krieg und Politik. Dr. Schiemann. Deutsche R., 39:33. Oct.

War and the casualties, The. Economist, 79:826. Nov.

War, The. Harold Cox. Edinb. R., 220:452. Oct.

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