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France relating to, signed at London, March 5, 1915. (Treaty series, 1915, No. 4.) Amended version. ld. Prize Court Rules, 1914. Order in Council further amending. (St.

. R. & O. 1915, No. 387.) 192d.

Prize Courts Act. 5 & 6, Geo. V, Ch. 57. 192d.

Prize Droits. Report to H. M. Treasury on droits of the Crown and of admiralty in time of war, by H. C. Rothery, C. B., Registrar of the High Court of Admiralty, 1853–1878. Revised and annotated by E. S. Roscoe, Admiralty Registrar. 5s. 3d.

Russian Customs Tariff. Translation of the new temporary customs tariff, showing the former and revised rates of import duty. (Cd. 7854.) 9d.

Trading with the enemy. Proclamation concerning China, Siam, Persia, and Morocco. June 25, 1915. (St. R. & O. 1915, No. 609.) 112d.

- Rule made by the Lord Chancellor under the Trading with the Enemy Amendment Act, 1914, as to lodgment of money in court. (St. R. & 0. 1915, No. 386.) 192d. March 13, 1915.

Warlike stores. Order in Council, May 20, 1915, varying proclamation of Feb. 3, 1915, on prohibition of exports. (St. R. & O. 1915, No. 492.) 192d.

Order in Council, June 2, 1915, further varying above proclamation. (St. R. & 0. 1915, No. 530.) 172d.

War Loan Act. 5 & 6, Geo. V, Ch. 55. ld.




Commercial associations in France, with summary of governmental activities in promoting commerce. By A. J. Wolfe. 1915. 75 p. (Special agents series 98.) Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau. Paper, 10c.

Commercial laws of England, Scotland, Germany, and France. (With bibliographies.) By A. J. Wolfe, with E. M. Borchard. 1915. 127 p. (Special agents series 97.) Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau. Paper, 15c.

Copyright. Proclamation extending benefits of Act of March 4, 1909,

2 When prices are given, the document in question may be obtained for the amount noted from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

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concerning copyright controlling parts of instruments serving to reproduce mechanically musical works, to subjects of Italy. May 1, 1915. 1 p. (No. 1292.) State Dept.

Diplomatic and consular service. Classification of diplomatic secretaries, consuls general and consuls. April 20, 1915. 9 p. State Dept.

Embargo. Articles whose export is prohibited by neutral European countries. Corrected to May 1, 1915. 17 p. State Dept.

Foreign tariff notes, No. 15, 1915. pp. 35–70. Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau. Paper, 5c.

France, Customs tariff of, revised to August, 1910. Reprint, 1915, with corrections. Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau. Paper, 15c.

Fur-bearing animals in Alaska, Regulations for protection of. May 24, 1915. 3 p. Commerce Dept.

Fur seals and other life of Pribilof Islands, Alaska, in 1914. (With bibliography.) June 19, 1915. 172 p.

172 p. 18 pl. 24 maps. Fisheries Bureau. Paper, 50c.

India, British India, with notes on Ceylon, Afghanistan, and Tibet. By H. D. Baker and other consular officers. 1915. 638 p. il. 1 pl. 6 p. of pl. map. (Special consular reports 72.) Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau. Cloth, $1.00.

Insular possessions of the United States and two American occupations of Cuba, Government publications sold by Supt. of Documents concerning. June, 1915. 40 p. (Price list 32, 4th ed.) Govt. Printing Office.

International law topics and discussions, 1914. George Grafton Wilson. Naval War College. 1915. 169 p. Cloth, 35c.

Military laws of the United States, 1915. 5th ed. 752 p. (War Dept. doc. 472.) Cloth, $1.10. War Dept.

Neutrality. Diplomatic correspondence with belligerent governments relating to neutral rights and commerce. Printed and distributed May 27, 1915. [The “White Book.”] State Dept. Paper, 50c.

Neutrality, Proclamation of, between Italy and Austria-Hungary. May 24, 1915. (No. 1294.) State Dept.

Opium. Law and regulations concerning. 11 p. (Regulations 16 revised.) Treasury decision 2211.

Panama Canal. Official handbook. 1915. 58 p. il. map. War Dept.

Panama Canal and Canal Zone, List of Government publications for

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sale by Supt. of Documents. May, 1915. 20 p. (Price list 61, 2d ed.) Govt. Printing Office.

Pan-American Financial Congress, Washington, D. C., May, 1915. Addresses of the President of the United States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, the Director General of the Pan-American Union, Chas. S. Hamlin, governor of the Federal Reserve Board, Joseph E. Davies, chairman of Federal Trade Commission, Paul M. Warburg, member of Federal Reserve Board, Samuel Hale Pearson, of the Argentine delegation, and Mortimer L. Schiff; memoranda submitted by Uruguay, Nicaragua, Salvador, Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama, Dominican Republic, Peru, Leopold Frederick, financial adviser of American Smelting & Refining Co., etc., Chile, Venezuela, Colombia, John Clausen, special representative of San Francisco Chamber of Commerce; group conference reports from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, Uruguay, Venezuela; report of committee on uniformity of laws relating to trade, commerce and international commercial court; report of general committee on transportation and communication, summary of group conference reports; concluding address of Secretary of Treasury; letter written by Secretary of Treasury to each delegate on future work of conference. Treasury Dept.

Pan-American Scientific Congress, Second, to be held in Washington, Dec. 27, 1915-Jan. 8, 1916. Preliminary program. April 15, 1915. (English and Spanish editions.) State Dept.

Rio Grande River. Discussion of best mode to render immovable Rio Grande boundary and conserve flood waters. 1915. 14 p. Int. Comm. for Equitable Distribution of Waters of the Rio Grande.

- Supplementary report. 1915. 12 p. International Commission, etc.

Ship purchase bill, Hearings on maintenance of lobby to influence legislation on. 1915. 485 p. Senate Special Committee on Alleged Ship Purchase Lobby.

Trade-marks, Registration of, in Latin-America. Preliminary report. June, 1915. (Tariff series, 31.) 8 p. Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau. Paper, 5c.


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Decided September 16, 1915

The PRESIDENT (the Right Hon. Sir Samuel Evans): In the course of the proceedings in this case various undertakings were given by the parties with regard to the destination of any particular parts of the cargo which must be released. There being no withdrawal of the undertakings, I will assume that they hold good.

The cargoes which have been seized, and which are claimed in these proceedings, were laden on four steamships belonging to neutral owners, and which were under time charters to an American corporation, the Gans Steamship Line. John H. Gans, the president of the company, is a German. He has resided in America for some years; but he has not been naturalized. The general agent of the company in Europe was one Wolenburg, of Hamburg.

The four ships were the Alfred Nobel (Norwegian), the Bjornsterjne Bjornson (Norwegian), the Fridland (Swedish), and the Kim (Norwegian). They all started within a period of three weeks in October and November last on voyages from New York to Copenhagen with very large cargoes of lard, hog and meat products, oil stocks, wheat, and other foodstuffs; two of them had cargoes of rubber and one of hides. They were captured on the voyage, and their cargoes were seized on the ground that they were conditional contraband alleged to be confiscable in the circumstances; with the exception of one cargo of rubber, which was seized as absolute contraband.

The court is now asked to deal only with the cargoes. All questions relating to the capture and confiscability of the ships are left over to be argued and dealt with hereafter.

It is necessary to note the various dates of sailing and capture. They are as follows:

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Upon some of these dates may depend questions touching what Orders in Council are applicable. One Order in Council, adopting with modifications the provisions of the convention known as the Declaration of London, was promulgated on the 20th August 1914, and another on the 29th October 1914. Proclamations as to contraband, absolute and conditional, were issued on the 4th August, 21st September, and 29th October 1914.

It is useful to note here, in order to avoid any possible misconception or confusion, that the later Order in Council of the 11th March 1915 (sometimes called the Reprisals Order) does not affect the present cases in any way.

Before proceeding to state the result of the examination of the facts relative to the respective cargoes and claims, a general review may be made of the situation which led up to the despatch of the four ships with their cargoes to a Danish port.

Notwithstanding the state of war, there was no difficulty in the way of neutral ships trading to German ports in the North Sea, other than the perils which Germany herself had created by the indiscriminate laying and scattering of mines of all description, unanchored and floating outside territorial waters in the open sea in the way of the routes of maritime trade, in defiance of international law and the rules of conduct of naval warfare, and in flagrant violation of the Hague Convention to which Germany was a party. Apart from these dangers, neutral vessels could have, in exercise of their international right, voyaged with their goods to and from Hamburg, Bremen, Emden, and any other ports of the German Empire. There was no blockade involving risk of confiscation of vessels running or attempting to run it. Neutral vessels might have carried conditional and absolute contraband into these ports, acting again within their rights under international law, subject only to the risk of capture by vigilant warships of this country and its Allies.

But the trade of neutrals-other than the Scandinavian countries and Holland-with German ports in the North Sea, having been ren

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