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in a cathedral," or "the corpuscle is to the whole atom as the earth and other planets are to the whole solar system."

These corpuscles are probably gyrating about each other, or about some common center, with velocities approaching that of light. It seems needful to suppose this, for it is hard to imagine that the enormous velocities observed could be imparted to a corpuscle at the instant it leaves the atom to become a constituent of a cathode ray. It is more reasonable to imagine that the corpuscle already had this velocity and that it flew off at a tangent owing to some influence we do not understand.

This may appear, after all, to be little more than pushing back our questions one stage, so that the position occupied in our thoughts but yesterday by the atom, is now occupied by the corpuscle. Quite true, but this is in itself a great step, for the advancement of knowledge consists of nothing else than such pushing back of the boundaries. We dare not assume the end is reached, for there is no proof that the corpuscles are ultimate. They mark the present limit of our imaginings based on experiment, but no one can say but what the next century may possibly witness the shattering of the corpuscles into as many parts as it now appears to take to make an atom.

The question is a legitimate one, do we know any more about these "new fangled" corpuscles than we did about the old atoms? The answer is, yes, we probably do. We can go farther in our reasoning on the basis of the properties of the corpuscles, and arrive at results which are startling when heard for the first time.

Lenard' has shown that the absorption of cathode rays by different substances is simply proportional to the specific gravity of those substances and independent of their chemical properties. It is It is even independent of the condition of aggregation, i. e., whether the absorbing substance be investigated as a gas, as a liquid or as a solid. This is another strong argument in favor of the view that there is but one "mother substance" which consists of corpuscles. The corpuscles of the cathode rays must be considered as passing unimpeded through the interstices between the corpuscles of the atom. Lenard calls the corpuscles dynamides and considers them as fields of electrical force with impenetrable central bodies which then constitute actual matter. He calculates the diameter of this center of actual matter as smaller than 0.3X10-10(0.000,000,000,03) millimeter. Applying these results to the case of the metal platinum, one of the most dense of the metals, one of those with the highest specific gravity, he concludes that a solid cubic meter of platinum is in truth an empty space, with the exception of, at the outside, one cubic millimeter occupied by the actual matter of the dynamides.

If we can thus reasonably and mathematically eliminate the matter

'Wied. Annal., 56, p. 255 (1895), and Drudes Annal., 12, 714 (1903).

of a cubic meter of one of our densest metals to such an extent, it should not be very difficult to make one more effort and eliminate that insignificant little cubic millimeter still remaining, and say, with cogent reasons behind us for the statement, that there is no matter at all, but simply energy in motion. This is exactly what has been done by many who occupy high and authoritative positions in the scientific world.

Long before experimental evidence of the existence of corpuscles had been obtained, it was demonstrated that an electrically charged body, moving with high velocity, had an apparent mass greater than its true mass, because of the electrical charge. The faster it moved the greater became its apparent mass or, what comes to the same thing, assuming the electrical charge to remain unaltered, the greater the velocity, the less the mass of the body carrying the charge needed to be to have always the same apparent mass. It was calculated that when the velocity equaled that of light, it was not necessary to assume that the body carrying the charge had any mass at all! In other words, the bit of electric charge moving with the velocity of light, would have weight and all the properties of mass.

This might be looked upon as an interesting mathematical abstraction, but without any practical application, if it were not for the fact that Kaufmann determined the apparent masses of corpuscles shot out from a radium preparation at different velocities, and compared them with the masses calculated on the basis that the whole of the mass was due to the electric charge. The agreement between the observed and calculated values is so close that it leads Thomson to say: "These results support the view that the whole mass of these electrified particles arises from their charge."

Then the corpuscles are to be looked upon as nothing but bits of electric charge, not attached to matter at all, just bits of electric charge, nothing more nor less. It is this view which has led to the introduction of the term electron, first proposed by Stoney, to indicate in the name itself the immaterial nature of these ultimates of our present knowledge. We have but to concede the logical sequence of this reasoning, all based on experimental evidence, and the last stronghold of the materialists is carried, and we have a universe of energy in which matter has no necessary part.

If we accept the electron theory, our atoms are to be considered as consisting of bits of electric charge in rapid motion, owing their special properties to the number of such bits within them, and also, no doubt, to the particular orbits described by the electrons. If space permitted it would be interesting to show how admirably the periodicity of the properties of the elements, as expressed in Mendelejeff's table,

"Phys. Zeitschr., 1902, p. 54.

"Electricity and Matter," p. 48.

can be accounted for on the basis of an increasing number of like electrons constituting the atoms of the successive elements. We have molecules consisting, at the simplest, of two such systems within the sphere of each other's attraction, perhaps something as we have double stars in the heavens.

A possible explanation of the puzzling property of valence is offered, in that an atom less one electron, or plus one electron, may be considered as electrically charged, and therefore capable of attracting other bodies, oppositely charged, to form electrically neutral systems. An atom less two electrons, or with two electrons in excess, would have twice the ability to combine, it would be what we call divalent, and so on. An electronic structure of the atom furnishes a basis from which a plausible explanation of the refraction, polarization and rotation of the plane of polarized light may be logically derived. Hitherto explanations for the observed facts have been either wanting or more or less unsatisfactory. For instance, grant the actual existence of tetrahedral carbon atoms, with different groups, symmetrically arranged at the apices, and yet we can not see any good and valid reason why such a structure should be able to rotate the plane of polarized light. Grant that the molecule consists of systems of corpuscles traveling in well-defined orbits, and we see at once how light, consisting of other electrons of the same kind, traversing this maze must be influenced.

Adopting this theory of corpuscles or electrons, not a concept of any value need be abandoned. On the contrary, the theory furnishes us with plausible explanations of many facts previously unexplained. Its influence is all in a forward direction, toward a simplification and unification of our knowledge of nature.

A few words must be said regarding the old, the threadbare, argument which, of course, is cited against the electron theory. The materialist says he simply can not accept a theory which obliges him to give up the idea of the existence of matter; he says the table is there because he can see it and feel it and that must end the discussion for any one with common sense and moderately good judgment. Now it is the reverse of common sense to let that end the discussion, and our materialist is pluming himself on precisely those qualities which he most conspicuously lacks. He assumes the obnoxious theory to involve consequences which it does not involve and then condemns it because of those consequences. As a rule it is because he knows little about it, and has thought less, that he assumes the electron theory to be pure idealism in an ingenious disguise, that form of idealism which asserts that there is no universe outside ourselves and that everything is a figment of the imagination of the observer. The electron theory postulates a universe of energy outside ourselves. It does not deny the existence of the table; quite the reverse, it asserts it and then offers a detailed description of it, and why it has the properties which it has. This is more than any materialistic theory can do. The electron theory

affirms the existence of what we ordinarily call matter. It defines, describes, explains these things, ordinarily called matter, in a clear and logical manner, on the basis of experimental evidence, as a mode of motion. It opposes the use of the word matter, solely because that word has come to stand, not only for the object, but also for the assumption that there is something there which is not energy.

Another groundless objection is offered by the materialists. They say this electron theory is clever, perhaps plausible, but very vague and hopelessly theoretical. Of course it is theoretical, but it is a theory more intimately connected with experimental facts than any other theory regarding the ultimate constituents. One departs further from known facts in assuming the existence of a something to be called matter. What is this matter which so many insist that we must assume? No one can define it otherwise than in terms of energy. But forms of energy are not matter as the materialist understands the word. Starting with any object and removing one by one its properties, indubitably forms of energy, we are finally left with a blank, a sort of a hole in creation, which the imagination is totally unable to fill in. The last resort is the time-honored definition, "matter is the carrier of energy," but it is impossible to describe it. The assumption that matter exists is made then because there must be a carrier of energy. But why must there be a carrier of energy? This is an assertion, pure and simple, with no experimental backing. Before we have a right to make it we should obtain some matter "strictly pure" and free from any energy, or, at least, we should be able to demonstrate on some object what part of it is the energy and what part the matter, the carrier of the energy. We have not done this, we have never demonstrated anything but forms of energy, and so we have no evidence that there is any such thing as matter. To say that it exists is theorizing without experimental evidence as a basis. The materialistic theory postulates energy and also matter, both theoretical if you will, the electron theory postulates energy only. Therefore the electron theory is the less theoretical and the less vague of the two.

From the philosophical standpoint, having deprived an object of all that we know about it, all forms of energy, there remains what may be called the "residuum of the unknown." We are not justified in saying that nothing remains; we can only say nothing remains which affects, either directly or indirectly, any of our senses through which we become cognizant of the external universe. If the materialist takes the stand that this unknown residuum is what he calls matter, although any other name would be equally appropriate, it must be acknowledged that his position is at present impregnable, and that sort of matter exists. But it is nothing with which experimental science can deal. A fair statement would appear to be: The electron theory accounts for, or may be made to account for, all known facts.

Besides these there is a vast unknown within whose precincts matter may or may not exist.

Michael Faraday is acknowledged to have been one of the ablest of experimenters and clearest of thinkers. His predominant characteristic may be said to be the caution which he used in expressing views reaching beyond the domain of experimental facts. His authority rightly carries great weight and it is therefore of particular significance that he expressed himself more definitely upon these questions than appears to be generally known. In an article published in 184410 he says:

"If we must assume at all, as indeed in a branch of knowledge like the present we can hardly help it, then the safest course appears to be to assume as little as possible, and in that respect the atoms of Boscovich appear to me to have a great advantage over the more usual notion. His atoms, if I understand aright, are mere centers of forces or powers, not particles of matter, in which the powers themselves reside. If, in the ordinary view of atoms, we call the particle of matter away from the powers a, and the system of powers or forces in and around it m, then in Boscovich's theory a disappears, or is a mere mathematical point, whilst in the usual notion it is a little unchangeable, impenetrable piece of matter, and m is an atmosphere of force grouped around it. To my mind, therefore, the a or nucleus vanishes, and the substance consists of the powers or m; and indeed what notion can we form of the nucleus independent of its powers? All our perception and knowledge of the atom, and even our fancy, is limited to ideas of its powers: what thought remains on which to hang the imagination of an a independent of the acknowledged forces? A mind just entering on the subject may consider it difficult to think of the powers of matter independent of a separate something to be called the matter, but it is certainly far more difficult, and indeed impossible, to think of or imagine that matter independent of the powers. Now the powers we know and recognize in every phenomenon of the creation, the abstract matter in none; why then assume the existence of that of which we are ignorant, which we can not conceive, and for which there is no philosophical necessity?"

There is a striking analogy between the present condition of our science and our discussions, and those prevailing in the latter half of the eighteenth century when the phlogiston theory was almost universally accepted. We all now believe that heat is a mode of motion and smile at the thought that there were those who considered heat as a material. The materialistic theory is the phlogiston theory of our day and perhaps the time is not far distant when the same indulgent smile will be provoked by the thought that there were those unwilling to believe that matter is a mode of motion.



The following list of books is submitted as a basis for a chemical library for high schools. The titles mentioned have been selected in the main with reference to the needs of the teacher, although a number are also adapted to the use of the pupils. The books have been

""Experimental Researches in Electricity." Michael Faraday, Vol. 2, pp. 289-91.

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