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PUBLIC LIBRARY EFACE, 161253

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.

THE&sign of this Third Part of the Grammatical Institute of the English Language, is to furnish Schools with a variety of exercises for Reading and Speaking. Colleges and Academies are already supplied with many excellent collections for this purpose: among which, the Art of Speaking, Enfield's Speaker, Endfield's Exercises, the Preceptor, the Young Gentleman and Idy's Monitors and Scott's Lessons, are used with great reputa tion. But none of these, however judicious the selections, is calculated particularly for American schools. The essays, respect distant nations or ages; or contain gene ral ideas of morality. In America, it will be useful to furnish schools with additional essays, containing the history, geography, and transactions of the United States. Information on these subjects is necessary for youth, both in forming their habits and improving their minds. A love of our country and an acquaintance with its true state are indispensible--they should be acquired in early life.

In the following work, I have endeavoured to make such a collection of essays as should form the morals as well as improve the knowledge of youth,

In the choice of pieces, I have been attentive to the epolitical interest of America, I consider it as a capital fault in all our schools, that the books generally used contain subjects wholly uninteresting to our youth; while the writings that marked the revolution, which are not inferior in any respect to the orations of Cicero and Demostkenes, and which are calculated to impress interesting truths upon young minds, lie neglected and forgotten. Several of those masterly addresses of Congress, written at the commencement of the late revolution, contains such noble sentiments of liberty and patriotism, that I cannot help wishing to transfuse them into the breasts of the rising generation.

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RULE I

Let your articulation be clear and diflinā.

A GOOD articulation confifts in giving every letter and fyl.

lable its proper pronunciation

Let each fyllable and the letters which compofe it, be pro. nounced, with a clear voice, without whining, drawling, lifp. ing, ftammering, mumbling in the throat, or fpeaking through the nofe. Avoid equally a dull drawling habit, and too much rapidity of pronunciation; for each of these faults destroys a diftinct articulation.

RULE II.

Obferve the flaps, and mark the proper pauses, but make no panje where the fenfe requires none.

The characters we ufe as tops are extremely arbitrary and do not always mark a fufpenfion of the voice. On the contrary, they are often employed to separate the feveral member of a period, and how the grammatical construction. Nor when they are defiged to make paufes, do they always determine the length of thofe paules; for this depends much on the sense and nature of the fubject. A femicolon, for example, requires a longer paule in a grave difcoure, than in a lively and spirited declamation. However as children are incapable of nice dif. tinctions, it may be beft to adoptat first fome general rule with refpect to the panfes,* and teach them to pay the fame attention to these characters as they do in the words. They should be cautioned likewise againft paufing in the midst of a member of a fentence, where the fenfe requires the words to be closely connected in pronunciation.

RULE III.

Pay the frittefl attention to accent, emphafis and cadence. Let the accented fyllables be pronounced with a proper ftreis of voice, the unaccented with little trefs of voice, but diftinctly.

The important words of a fentence, which I call naturally emphatical, have no claim to a confiderable force of voice; but

*See the first part of the Inftitute, where the proportion of comma, semicolon, colon and period, is fixed at one, two, four, tix

particles, fuch as, of, to, as, and, &c. requiré no force of utterance, unless they happen to be emphatical, which is rarely the cafe. No perfon can read or speak well, unless he understands what he reads; and the fenfe will always determine what words are emphatical. It is a matter of the higheft confequence, therefore that a fpeaker fhould clearly comprehend the mean. ing of what he delivers, that he may know where to lay the emphafis. This may be illuftrated by a fingle example. This hort queftion, Will you ride to town to-day? is capable of four different meanings, and confequently of four different aniwers, according to the placing of the emphafis. If the emphafis is laid upon you, the question is, whether you will ride to town, or another perfon, If the emphafis is laid on ride, the question is, whether you will ride or go on foot. If the emphafis is laid on town, the question is, whether you will ride to town or to ano. ther place, If the emphafis is laid on to-day the question is, whether you will ride to-day or fome other day. Thus the whole meaning of a phrase often depends on the emphasis; and it is abfolutely neceffary that it fhould be laid on the proper words.

Cadence is a falling of the voice in pronouncing the clofing fyllable of a period. This ought not to be uniform ; but dif. ferent at the close of different sentences.

But in interrogative fentences, the fenfe often requiresthe clofing word or fyllable to be pronounced with an elevated voice. This, however, is only when the laft word is emphatical, as in this queftion: Betrayeft thou the fon of man with a kifs ?" Here the fubject of enquiry is, whether the common to. ken, of love and benevolence is prostituted to the purpose of 1reachery; the force of the queftion depends on the last word, which is therefore to be pronounced with an elevation of voice. But to this question, "Where is boasting then?" the emphati cal word is boating, which of course requires an elevation of the voice.

*We may obferve that good fpeakers always pronounce upon a certain key for although they modulate the voice according to the various ideas they exprefs, yet they retain the fame pitch of voice. Accent and emphafis require no elevation of the voice, but a more forcible expreffion of the fame key. Cadence refpects the laft fyllable only of a fentence; which fyllab'e is actually pronounced with a lower tone of voice; but when words of feveral fyllables clofe a period, all the fyllables but the laft are pronounced on the fame key as the raft of the fentence.

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If a person is rehearsing the words of an angry man, he fhould affume the fame furious looks, his eyes fhould flash with rage, his geftures fhould be violent, and the tone of his voice threatening. If kindness is to be expreffed, the countenance Thould be calm and placid, and wear a fmile-the tone should be mild, and the motion of the hand inviting. An example of the firft, we have in thefe words: "Depart from me, ye curfed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels,' Of the laft in thefe words: "Come, ye bleffed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foun dation of the world." A man who should repeat thefe differ ent paffages with the fame looks, tones and getures, would pafs with his hearers for a very injudicious fpeaker.

£.

The whole art of reading and speaking, all the rules of eloquence may be comprifed in this concife direction: Let a reader or a speaker exprefs every word as if the fentiments were

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The moft natural pitch of voice is that which we fpeak in ordinary conversation. Whenever the voice is raised above this key, pronunciation is difficult and fatiguing. There is a difference between a loud and an high voice. A perfon may fpeak much louder than he does in ordinary difcourfe, with out an elevation of voice; and may be heard diftin&ly upon the fame key, either in a private room or in a large affembly. RULE IV.

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Let the fentiments you exprefs be accompanied with proper tones, ļ looks and geltures.

By tones I mean the various modulations of voice by which we naturally exprefs the emotions & pafhons. By looks I mean the expreffion of the emotions and paffions in the countenance. Geflures are the various motions of the hands or body, which correfpond to the feveral fentiments and paffions which the fpeaker defigns to exprefs.

All thefe fhould be perfectly natural. They fhould be the fame which we ufe in common converfation. A fpeaker should endeavor to feel what he fpeaks; for the perfection of reading and fpeaking is, to pronounce the words as if the fentiments

were our own.

his own.

General directions for expreffing certain paffions or fentiments.
From the ART of SPEAKING.

Mirth or laughter opens the mouth, crifps the nofe, leffens the aperture of the eyes, and fhakes the whole frame,

Perplesity draws down the eye-brows, hangs the head, caft down the eyes, clofes the eye lids, shuts the mouth, and pinch. es the lip then fuddenly the whole body is agitated, the per. fon walks about bulily, ftops abruptly, talks to himfelf, &c.

Vexation adds to the foregoing complaint, fretting and fa menting.- -Pity draws down the eye-brows, opens the mouth and draws together the features.

Grief is expreffed by weeping, famping with the feet, lifting up the eyes to heaven, &c.

Melancholy is gloomy and motionlefs, the lower jaw falls, the eyes are caft down and haff shut, words few and interrupted with fighs.

Fear opens the eyes and mouth, hortens the nofe, draws down the eye-brows, gives the countenance an air of wildness; the face becomes pale, the elbows are drawn back parallel with the fides, one foot is drawn back, the heart beats violently, the breath is quick, the voice weak and trembling. Sometimes it produces fhrieks and fainting.

Shame turns away the face from the beholders; covers it with blushes, cafts down the head and eyes, draws down the eye. brows, makes the tongue to faulter, or Atrikes the perfon dumb.

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Remorfe cafts, down the countenance & clouds it with anxiety. Sometimes the teeth gnash and the right hand beats Ae breast.

Courage fteady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. The voice is firm, and the accent frong and articulate.

Boafting is loud and bluftering. The eyes ftare, the face is red and bloated, the mouth pouts, the voice is hollow, the arms >akimbo, the head nods in a threatening manner, the right fist fometimes clenched and brandifhed.

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Pride affumes a lofty look, the eyes open, the mouth pouting, the lips pinched, the words flow and stiff, with an air of importance, the arms akimbo, and the legs at a distance, or ta king large ftrides.

eye

Authority opens the countenance, but draws down the brows a little, fo as to give the perfon an air of gravity. Commanding requires a peremptory tone of voice and a fevere

look,

Inviting is expreffed with a fmile of complacency, the hand with the palm upwards, drawn gently towards the body,

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