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“We must not omit taking a view of Hume's monument,” said Dr. W. to his pupil. “ It was erected to his memory."
" This monument stands on the south-west end of the Calton-hill, it is of a circular form, and of Grecian architec. ture. The roof is concealed by the top of the wall, which is enriched by a Doric entablature. You have read his His. tory of England," continued the Doctor.
The new town of Edinburgh is united to the old town by a handsome bridge, called the North-bridge. The houses erected on the side of the North bridge, though in themselves elegant and highly ornamented buildings, greatly obstruct several of the finest views, both from the old and new town. So much is it in the power of a few wealthy individuals to mar the better taste and judgment of the more judicious and patriotic part of the community. A considerable degree of sensation was excited upon the building of these houses, and a most respectable and numerous meeting of gentlemen protested against it, but all in vain. Some of these houses are four stories high.
Having visited the romantic environs of this city, as well as its principal public buildings, Dr. Walker began to make preparations for their journey, and early next morning they commenced their route. On their way to Glasgow, they were very much gratified by the view of the aqueduct bridge over the Kelvin. “ And now,” said Doctor Walker, as they resumed their seat in the carriage, as this canal is the principal one in Scotland, and connects the Frith of Forth and Clyde, I will describe its course.
“ Its length is 35 miles, beginning at the mouth of the Carron, and ending at Dalmuir-Burnfoot on the Clyde, about six miles below Glasgow. It admits vessels drawing eight feet water.
« This canal was begun in 1768, under that celebrated engineer, Mr. Smeaton. It was attended with great difficulties. In its course there are several aqueduct bridges : that over the great road, to the west of Falkirk, is a very fine one; and that we have just seen over the Kelvin, is considered one of the finest pieces of workmanship in the world. It is built on the solid rock, and consists of four arches, carrying the canal over a valley 65 feet high, and 420 feet long.
“ There is another canal now constructing at the ex
pense of Government, called the Caledonian Canal, to open a communication between the Murray Frith and the Western Sea. It proceeds along a line of lakes from Inverness, by Fort Augustus and Fort William : length about 80 miles.
“ The plan of this canal, executed for the Houses of Parliament, is a very fine piece of topographical delineation. And now we will briefly skim over whatever is most remarkable in the geography of Scotland ; beginning with the surface and climate, as contrasted with that of England.”
GENERAL SURVEY OF SCOTLAND.
In Scotland are more lakes, more streams, a coast more indented ; more rain and more mountains, especially in the north ; the air is colder, the soil not so rich, and the harvests are later; neither is it decorated with so luxuriant a va. riety of woods and hedges, nor a surface so susceptible of cultivation as that of England. The Grampian chain of mountains extends from Loch Lomond to the north-west of Aberdeenshire. The Ochill hills run through the county of Clackmannan, the south of Perth, and the north of Fife. Scotland is 260 miles in length, by about 160 miles at its greatest
breadth; it extends from the 55th degree of north latitude, to more than 581 degrees north.
The superficial contents of Scotland have been computed at 27,793 square miles, a little exceeding that of Ireland, and considerably more than half that of England. The population being estimated at 1,600,000 souls, there will, of course, be only 57 inhabitants for every square mile, Scotland is divided into 33 counties, which, according to their situations, Geographers have arranged in three divisions.
Scotland abounds in coals, iron, lead, fuller's earth, and potter's clay, in Stirling, Lanark, Fife, Edinburgh, and the adjoining counties. Antimony in Dumfrieshire. Iron, lead, copper, silver, and fine cobalt, in the Ochill hills; the
: Grampian mountains produce fine rock crystal, granite, serpentine, and steatites; and the Hebrides" most beautiful marble.
The minerals in the city and vicinity of Edinburgh are, trapp, porphyry, whinstone, basalt, felspar, sandstone, breccia. -Zeolite, tremolite, prehnite, radiated hematites, steatite, green fibrous iron-ore, elay iron-stone approaching to ruddle.—Masses of heavy spar (sulphate of baryt,) amethestine, quartz crystal. Upon Leith shores are nodules of agate, cornelian, calcedony, and occasionally masses of chlorite, imbedded in quartz. St. Catherine's well, about three miles southward, is constantly covered with a scum of naphtha or petroleum.
It produces in the north, cows, sheep, and horses which are small, but very numerous; on the Clyde the horses are large and valuable ; Ayreshire furnishes most of the fine greys that give name to a celebrated Scotch regiment of Dragoons. Timber is plentiful in the Highlands, fish abun. dant in the Orkney and Western Seas.
Its chief ports, in the east, are Dunbar, Leith, Perth, Dundee, Montrose, Aberdeen, Inverness, and Dornoch. Thurso, in the north.—In the west are Portpatrick, Ayr, Irvine, Greenock, and Glasgow.- In the south are Wigton, Kirkcudbright, and Dumfries.
Scotland has four Universities, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrew's.
Its principal Islands we have seen, but we will just mention them in order to make our geography of this country complete. Bute and Arran, are two beautiful islands, which adorn the Frith of Clyde ; and west of the peninsula of Cantyre begin the Hebrides, the principal of which are Hay, Jura, Mull, Tiree, Col, Sky, and Lewis. The Orkney Isles are separated from the continent by a strait called the Pentland Frith. Of these the inhabited isles are about 26 in number: the chief is Mainland, fre. quently called Pomona. Kirkwall and Stromness are the principal towns. The Shetland isles are to the north of the Orkneys: they are 46 in number, 26 of which are said to be inhabited. Mainland is the largest. The principal town is Larwick.
The principal Scottish Lakes and Friths are Loch Ness, Loch Lochy, Loch Lomond, Loch Tay, and Loch Awe; and those arms of the sea, called Friths, are the Frith of Dornock, the Murray Frith, the Frith of Tay, and the Frith of Forth, on the east; the Solway Frith, on the south; the Frith of Clyde, and Loch Fyn, with several other inlets, on the west.
GLASGOW AND THE FALLS OF CLYDE.
After a delightful journey through a beautiful and romantic country, they reached Glasgow, which is situated on a gentle declivity, sloping towards the river Clyde, 44 miles west of Edinburgh. Glasgow is the second city of Scotland, and, considering its size, not inferior to any in Great Britain as to elegance, regularity, and the beautiful materials of its buildings. The streets cross each other at right angles, and are broad, straight, well paved and consequently clean. The houses have a grand appearance from their height, for they are generally four or five stories high, and many of them towards the centre of the city are supported by arcades, which give the whole an air of magnificence. The first cotton mill set up in Scotland was in this city, and the second was in the small isle of Bute.
“ We will to-morrow get on to Lanark,” said Dr. Walker, “ for our stay in Scotland has already exceeded my intentions." Upon arriving at Lanark, they went to visit its cotton manufactory, and from thence to take a view of the celebrated falls of the Clyde, which are near that town. The most distant falls are about half an hour's ride from the town, at a place called Cory-Lin, and are seen to most advantage from a ruinous pavilion, in a neighbouring garden, placed in a lofty situation. The cataract is full in view, seen over the tops of trees and bushes, precipitating itself for an amazing way from rock to rock, with short interruptions, forming a rude slope of furious foam. The sides are bounded by vast rocks, fringed with wood. On the summit and very verge of one is a ruined tower.
Our travellers now followed a winding path, which led them to the beginning of the fall, into which projects a high rock, and here they had a full view of the rushing torrent. In the cliffs of this wild retreat, the brave Wallace is said to have concealed himself, when meditating revenge for his injured country. Having remounted the rock they pursued their walk along the edge of the precipice, about half a mile, when the grand fall of Boniton, in one vast foaming sheet, presented itself. Further on, there is another great fall,
which is succeeded by two smaller ones. Beyond them the river widens, grows more tranquil, and is seen for a considerable distance, bounded on one side by wood-crowned heights, and on the other by rich and swelling fields.
The county of Lapark is in the northern parts hilly, and fit for pasture; while those on the south of the Clyde are level, and produce excellent corn. It abounds with coal and lime-stone; has some lead mines, and quarries of lapis lazuli. As our travellers continued their route through Dumfries, the country became more mountainous, and its capital of the same name is surrounded, at the distance of a few miles, by one continued chain ofhills, forming altogether one of the grandest natural amphitbeatres in Britain. Dumfries is a well built town, and carries on some trade with the Baltic. Lochmaben was the next town they visited,—and from thence they continued their journey to Moffat, in the neighbourhood of which are some celebrated medicinal springs. These springs are situated on the brow of a preci. pice, surrounded on all sides by high mountains. A vein of spar runs for several miles on this range of hills, and forms the bottom of the wells. This spar is of a greyish colour, interspersed with large and glittering particles of a golden hue.' The lofty mountain of Hartfield is in their vi. cinity, by some supposed to be the second in height in Scotland. Pursuing their romantic route, they at length arrived at Peebles, a town of no great importance, where they only staid to change horses, and from thence directing their course to the south-east, they paid a visit to Melrose Abbey. There is still enough left of this once superb building, magnificent even in ruins, to convince the spectator that it formerly ranked among the first monastic establishments in Scotland. You remember Walter Scott's lines upon this abbey:
“ If thou wouldst view fair Melrose aright