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Walker, as the cheerful smile and not inelegant curtsey, from one of these mountain nymphs, arrested his attention ; " and the hard brown crust that girl holds in her hand, possesses a magical relish, unknown to the lazy epieure at a turtle feast, whose vitiated appetite stands in need of high seasoned dishes, and sauces, piquant. How degraded, how sunk is that man whose happiness depends upon his cook.

The Dalecarlian peasants offered their services where they were needful, theirs were the services of free will, and the manner in which they were conferred, shewed they felt they were voluntary. This style of conduct does not pervade Sweden, for had they been travelling in Smaland, instead of Dalecarlia, they would, indeed, have received the same services, but arising from different feelings.

" Well Edward,” said Dr. Walker, as they drew near the mouth of this celebrated mine, which is nearly three quarters of a mile in circumference, “ from the frank and independent air of the Dalecarlians you are not surprised that Gustavus Vasa should have chosen a refuge among them. You know his history I suppose ?”

EDWARD.-" Not the particulars of it, Sir, nor the circumstances which led to his misfortunes.''

DR. WALKER." As we are going on. I will give you a sketch of it. Christian II. who, by the bye, marrried the sister of Charles V. liaving resolved to render himself absolute by a barbarous policy, which proved the means of his own destruction, and of emancipating Sweden from the Danish yoke, laid a plot for massacreing all the principal nobility of the country. He succeeded in his horrid and merciless design, for of all those who could possibly oppose his arbitrary intentions, Gustavus Vasa, a descendant from the ancient kings of Sweden, alone escaped. An immense price was set upon his head; the Danish soldiers were sent in pursuit of him in every direction, but he eluded their vigilance, and after assuming various disguises he at last found shelter in the mines of Dalecarlia, where he worked for some time as a miner : at length, finding he was betrayed, he appealed to the feelings and spirit of the hardy Dalecarlians, and with their assistance he drove his persecutor from his much injured country. Gustavus was appointed at first, administrator of Sweden, and was afterwards chosen King with the unanimous consent of the whole nation. He established the Protestant Religion in Sweden, and in the

year 1554 the Roman Catholic ceremonies were prohibited. You know his eldest son Eric was a suitor of Queen Elizabeth ?”

“ Yes," replied Edward, “ Elizabeth had many wooers, all equally assiduous, and all equally unsuccessful. Elizabeth was a great Queen, and a great coquette."

“ Upon my word,” replied the Doctor, “ 'tis well for you her Majesty does not hear you: but I must confess I am of your opinion, and think her enmity against the unfortunate and indiscreet, if not guilty Mary Stuart, was rather excited by the charms of the latter as a woman, than by her crimes as a wife or queen."

EDWARD." Do you think Mary was really guilty of her husband's death, Sir?

Dr. WALKER.-" 'Tis a subject upon which I cannot venture to decide. The history of those times, as far as relates to her at least, is so enveloped in mystery, anu his. torians differ so much as to the relation of facts, that truth is scarely to be hoped for : but as I am an Englishman, and therefore accustomed to look upon all as innocent, however suspicious appearances may be against them, until they are proved guilty, I confess I am inclined to hope she had no such great crime to answer for ; absolute proofs of her guilt are wanting, and I am therefore rather cautious how I judge harshly of one so peculiarly situated as was the sensitive and accomplished Queen of Scots.")

Upon approaching the mine of Dalecarlia, our travellers curiosity was attracted by the hydraulic machines which are destined to convey the water to the different quarters, and the power of which is such, that one of the wheels has a diameter of not less than forty-four feet. Another wheel of proportionate magnitude is employed to raise the ore from the mine to the surface of the earth, and is admirably con. structed. Regular circles are placed on each side, and round these the chain rises, taking a larger or smaller circumference, in proportion to the necessary circle to be made, so as to counterbalance the weight, and consequently the increased motion of the bucket.

Avast chasm, of tremendous appearance, presents itselt to the view of the stranger, at the mouth of the mine. This being the part of the mine which was first opened, either through ignorance or the neglect of those who had then the management of the works, the excavations so weakened

the foundations of the hill, that the whole fell in, leaving a most chaotic scene of precipitated rocks, and a gaping gulf resembling the mouth of a volcano. Great care has been since taken that no such disaster should again occur. Plans and sections are drawn of all the galleries, and where the prosecution of the works in the same direction might be dangerous, orders are issued to the miners to stop, and an iron crown is fixed on the spot, as a prohibition ever to pro-, ceed further. The workmen then explore in a different direction, while every subterraneous excavation is nicely watched.

Our travellers descended into the great chasm by a range of wooden steps, which cross in a variety of directions the rough masses of fallen rocks, of gravel and of the ancient machinery. Ere they reached the entrance of the cavern they had to descend thirty toises, and this being accomplished, they proceeded horizontally to a considerable distance within. They now lost the pure air of day, and gradually became sensible of an oppressive vapour which rolled towards them in volumes, from the mouths of a hundred caves leading into the main passage,

“This does indeed recall the regions of Tartarus," said the Doctor, as they descended the steps cut in the winding rock, " the air of the iron mines was purity itself compared to what we now inhale. Cannot you recal to you imagina-, tion Virgil's description of the descent of Æneas into the infernal regions? Here are the same caverned portico, the rocky rough descent, the steaming sulphur, and all the deadly, stenches of the Avernus, And here," continued the Doctor, after a short pause, “ in these pestilential regions

ą, did the great Gustavus find a temporary asylum against the malice of his enemies."

Edward made no answer, he was wholly engrossed in contemplating the miserable beings who appeared to Ait around him like spectres. In one part of these caverns, the steam is so excessively hot as to scorch at the distance of twelve paces, and the sulphureous smell in its vicinity is intolerable. Near this spot a volcanic fire broke out some years ago, in consequence of which strong walls were constructed as a barrier to its power, and several contiguous passages, which, had it spread, would have proved dangerous, were walled up. " We are not yet arrived at the end of our subterraneous

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excursion," said the Doctor to Edward, who began to evince symptoms of fatigue, the effect of the vapours rather than of exertion ; “ but if you really have seen enough of these subterraneous wonders, we will immediately return."

By no means, Sir,” replied his pupil, o let us see all that is to be seen.

They accordingly traversed many long and winding galleries, as well as large vaulted caverns, where the workmen were disposed on all sides, employed in hewing out masses of the rock, and preparing other parts for explosion. Others were busily employed in wheeling the brazen ore toward the black abyss, where the suspended buckets hung ready to draw it upward. From the effect of such violent exertion, combined with the heat, these poor creatures are obliged to work almost naked. Their groupes, occupation, and primitive appearance, scantily illumined by the trembling rays of torches, formed a curious and interesting scene. The depth of this mine being 1,200 feet, a full hour is required to penetrate to the bottom. The mass of copper lies in the form of an inverted cone.

Five hundred men are employed daily in working these mines, where females are not admitted, on account of the deleterious quality of the vapours.

“ This mine," said the Doctor, “ was anciently a state prison in which criminals, slaves, and even prisoners of war, toiled out their wretched existence. It was a barbarous policy, thus to class men who were fighting their country's battles with the refuse of society. It was no uncommon thing with Peter the Great, when he gained a battle, to send the Swedish prisoners into Siberia. This was equally cruel, and so contrary to all the laws of war as now established, that no prince would dare to make the attempt.”.

Near the bottom is a rocky cavern, called the Hall of the Senate, on account of its having been the resting place of several Swedish Kings, who came attended by the senators to examine the works, and here took refreshments.

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SECTION VII).

CUSTOMS AND MANNERS OF THE SWEDES.

After leaving the mines, and when they had for a short time, inhaled the pure breath of heaven, Dr. Walker and his pupil had a consultation as to their future route.

“There appears nothing inviting in the more northern parts of Sweden," said the Doctor, “ rocks and mountains covered with fir-trees, and intersected by rivers and cataracts, appear in one place, while on another their lofty and barren summits are covered with snow. The inhabitants too, of these cold and chilling regions, present no features either of mind or body, peculiarly attractive. The Laplander is short and thick made, he has a broad large face, very prominent cheek bones, his mouth and lips very thick, and his head is large. In winter he lives in a house; in the summer, in tents made of skins of beasts. The Laplanders amuse themselves with telling stories and singing, when they meet at each others tents; they are of a very peaceable disposition, and would rather quit their homes than engage in war. They have many superstitions; augury and witchcraft are much practised among them; and a black cat in each house, is reckoned a most valuable appendage; they talk to it as to a rational creature, and in hunting and fishing parties it is their usual attendant. To this animal the Danish; Laplanders communicate their secrets ; they consult it on alli important occasions; such as whether this day should or should not be employed in: hunting or fishing, and are governed by its accidental conduct. Among the

Swedish Laplanders, a drum is kept in every family, for the purpose of consulting the devil.

Of the rein-deer, you have heard. I need not give you a description of them; and yet, perhaps, you are not acquainted with all their utilities and properties. The rein-deer have been wisely reduced by the Laplander to a state of domestication and servitude ; and in these creatures alone he: finds most of his wants. supplied; they feed and clothe him ; with their skins he covers his tent and makes his bed; of their milk he makes cheese, and uses the whey for his drink. Every part of this valuable animal is converted into some

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