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use or other. Their sinews make bow-strings, springs for catching birds, and threads for sewing; their horns are converted into glue, and their tongues which are accounted a great delicacy, are sent to the southern parts of Europe, and procure the Laplander toys and luxuries. The reindeer, yoked to a sledge, carries him in his journies; it is easily guided by a string fastened round his horns, and is encouraged to proceed by the voice of his driver, who sometimes urges it on by a goad. This animal will run between fifty and sixty miles without stopping, but this is an exertion beyond its strength, and often endangers the life of the ani. mal. Thirty miles it can go without being much fatigued. The food which this faithful domestic animal lives upon

is 'moss, and while the fields are clothed with this, the Laplander and his rein deer envy neither the fertility nor verdure of a more southern landscape.

“ Now, although,” continued the Doctor, “it is very well to know all this, we need not see it, so we will retrace our steps towards Stockholm, and even embark at once for Abo. Of the sudden cold of these regions, the following is a melancholy proof. In the year 1719, seven thousand Swedes, part of an army of ten thousand, were frozen to. death, on crossing the Lilbo mountains. When found, some were sitting up, some lying down, others on their kness, all stiff as stocks; and as l'hompson emphatically says :

“ Stretch'd out and bleaching in the northern blast.” EDWARD.-"

-" Poor creatures, what a terrible fate!" DR. WALKER. “ Even the sight of the beautiful lake of Niemi, and its fairy vapours, which the Laplanders term Haltiers, and which they deem guardian spirits of the mountains would not, I confess, tempt me to encounter such risks as Lapland presents. We will, therefore, quit this part of Sweden as soon as we can hear of a vessel that is destined for Abo, and from thence proceed to Petersburg, the capital of Russia. Before, however, we quit this part of the world, let us review its geography, and now let me see, Edward, what is the result of your observations as to the climate, soil, and so forth of Sweden."

EDWARD.-" The north of Sweden is nearly full of rocks, hills, and chains of mountains; the south is level, and interspersed with many large lakes and rivers. In this country, as well as in Denmark and Norway, the cold in the winter



is excessive; in summer, the air is generally serene, and the heat almost insupportable: the transitions in the seasons are so sudden, that summer bursts from winter, and dreary wilds are quickly succeeded by landscapes decorated with flowers, ripe fruit and grain; of the last, in favourable seasons, the inhabitants raise nearly sufficient for their consumption, though but about one-third of the kingdom is susceptible of cultivation.

“ Along the lake Wener, the flat forest lands, so characteristic of Sweden, are varied by the bold promontories of a rocky shore, and by the upland sweep of the mountains Halleberg and Hunneberg. The former of these, on the northwest side, which faces the lake, assumes a basaltic appearance, bearing some rude resemblance to pillars. But what makes Halleberg most remarkable is, that it was once the holy mountain of Westro-Gothland, and many memorials of its sanctity remain. In the defile at its base, which separates it from Hunneberg, there remains a Celtic cemetry, which Dr. Clarke says is considered still as the “burial-place of giants." The situation of these antiquities is exceedingly striking. Under a fearful precipice, which rears its black cliffs behind a thick grove of aged trees, there is a circular range of large upright stones, like what is in this country called a Druidical circle ; and just before the precipice, a small, round pool of water. Beyond the pool is a circular range of monumental stones, consisting of seven upright pillars, that still preserve their natural forms, being fragments detached from the basalt of the mountain.

“ The tradition of the inhabitants concerning this place maintains, that the giants of old, who inhabited this country, when they wished to hasten their departure for Valhall, (that future state of happiness, where all the northern nations expected to carouse full goblets of ale with the gods,) or when any of them were seized with a tedium vitæ, used to repair, in complete armour, to the brink of the precipice, whence, leaping down, they were dashed to pieces, and immediately made partakers of Elysium. The same tradition also adds, that the bodies of the giants were washed after their fall within the circular pool of water, previously to the ceremony of their funeral, which was conducted with great public solemnity; the body being burned, and the ashes placed in an urn and buried. “ Besides the product of the copper, silver, and iron


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mines, Sweden abounds with quicksilver, sulphur, marble limestone, granite, freestone, slate, coal, and about 360 mineral springs."

Dr.'WALKER.-" I am pleased with your attention, this is travelling to some purpose. I trust when we return to England, we shall be able to give a good account of durselves. But you lave forgotten one circumstance in your description; you should have expatiated upon the badness of the roads; the hardness of the beds; the coarseness of your fare, and so forth; but, however, as you have given so good an account so far, proceed, I am all attention.

“ EDWARD." You are laughing at me, Sir; but I will

“ Sweden exports iron, copper, stone, pitch, tar, rosin, furs, pine timber, bark, pot-ash, hides, fish, and cordage ; and it imports tin, some hardware, bullion, tobacco, flax, hemp, wine, brandy, coarse woollens, salt, coal, East and West India produce, and when the season is unfavourable, about 300,000 tons of corn."

“ Dr. WALKER." The great forests, both here and in Norway, consist chiefly of pine or Scotch fir, and spruce fir ; the former called the red, the latter the white wood of commerce. The annual exports of iron are estimated at 400,000lbs. of timber 315,0001. The annual imports of corn 300,000 tons, raw flax 17501.; spun flax 3500l. ; hemp 22,750l. ; tobacco, a million pounds. The value of her exports is estimated at 1,368,3921.; her imports at 1,009,3921.; balance in favour of Sweden, 360,0001.

“ Now for the principal towns.

EDWARD.—“Gottenburg is regularly fortified, flourishing and rich ; its situation is eligible for foreign trade.

“ Carlscroon is the Portsmouth of Sweden ; its harbour is deep, large, and very commodious.

« Malmoe has a large harbour, and is now the most populous town in Schonen.

“ Fahlun and Danemora we have visited: they receive importance from the mines in their neighbourhood.

“ Halmstadt has an incommodious port, but enjoys a good salmon fishery, and is noted for its manufacture of cloth.

“ Helsinburg is a manufacturing town, and a thorough. fare between Denmark and Sweden : its port is indifferent.

“ Carlsham is also a manufacturing town, and exports great




quantities of iron : in the adjacent parts tobacco is cultivated.”

DR. WALKER." You must not omit Tornea; because here the French astronomers measured a degree of the me. ridian, and by comparing the result with a degree measured in South America, the earth is found to be more convex at the equator than at the poles.

« Ön a branch of the river Tornea, near Kingis, there is a dreadful cataract. The masses of ice and foam precipitated with astonishing violence down a tremendous precipice, the edges of which appeared like crystal, forms a most noble spectacle. By the bye I have heard much of the Falls of the Dahl in this neighbourhood;" continued the Doctor, “and, if not

very much out of our way, we will take a view of them.” EDWARD.-" I should like it very much ;” and Colin, continued the youth, as the Highlander entered the room, may perhaps not dislike to make comparisons between his favourite fall of Glomma, and that of the Dahl.”





The Dahl rises in Norwegian Lapland, and after passing through a vast extent of country, empties itself into the sea, dividing the provinces of Upland and Gestricia. It is about half a mile broad, between the beautiful island of Elfcar End, and the Falls; but at the cataracts its banks being much narrower, it runs with vast impetuosity. A small island, or rather rock of half a quarter of a mile in circumference, divides the river at this place. In the winter, when one of the cataracts is frozen over, the island is accessible : but at other times it would be impossible to reach it alive. The

eye takes in both Falls at once from either bank. The depth of each is about forty feet; but one is abrupt and perpendicular, the other oblique and shelving. The breadth is about eighty or ninety yards. The tremendous roar of these cataracts, which, when close, is superior far to the loudest thunder; the vapour which rises incessantly from them, and

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even partially obscures the view of the rustling waters; the agitation of the river below for many hundred yards, before it resumes its former tranquillity; and while “ The scarcely waving pine, which crowns its rocky banks and

Fills the brown shade with a religious awe.” form one of the most picturesque and astonishing scenes that can be possibly imagined.”

“ It was only nine days ago," said the Guide, travellers gazed with speechless astonishment at the romantic view before them, “that six unhappy fishermen were carried down by the rapidity of the current and hurried over the precipice, and were instantly dashed to pieces against the rocks. Four of their bodies were found; but they were so disfigured, that they could not be recognised.”

EDWARD.—“ I am very much surprised that any one should venture so near the edge as to be drawn within the power of the current.”

GUIDE.-“ A sudden gust of wind, or the smallest addi. tional strength of the current, and it is occasionally a little irregular, is sufficient to impel them on beyond the power of resistance. A light breeze suddenly arose, and before these poor creatures, I have just mentioned, could tack, or lower their little sail, they were suddenly within the force of the current, and all hope instantly vanished. One of my countrymen, who was on a neighbouring rock, heard their cries ; he instantly hurried down to the river; but before he reached the Fall, the boat had disappeared and its unhappy crew."

EDWARD.-" I think it is a pity they should ever attempt to fish in this river at all."

DR. WALKER.-“ Men familiarise themselves to certain objects of danger, till they become perfectly insensible to them. You might just as well say, it is a pity the lower parts of Mount Etna, or Vesuvius, should be cultivated, and even inhabited ; and yet an eruption of either of these mountains is no sooner over, than the peasantry eagerly return to their foot to plant their vines and corn. I knew a lady who was ordered to Lisbon for her health, she consented to make the journey with the greatest reluctance, declaring that the salubrity of the air would be more than counterbalanced by the effect of her fears, lest there should be an earthquake. In her first letter to her friends, she mentioned the subject

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