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of her fears ; but until they enquired of her, when she had been there about two months, if she still suffered as much as ever from her apprehensions respecting an earthquake, she declared that during the last month she had never
thought of such a thing. Every body had expressed so much astonishment at her fears, had even smiled at them, laughed at them, and even treated them with such perfect contempt, that she candidly confessed she already began to be amused herself at their recollection.
“ Danger, at a distance, is always exaggerated; bring it but near to us, and it often from a giant bulk, shrinks to a pigmy dwarf; besides, man, in general, is mostly inclined to hope that he should be so fortunate as to escape in any great calamity. If there had been an earthquake at Lisbon last year, why those who were fortunate enough to avoid its fatal effects, would return to the same spot, naturally concluding that it was not very likely it should happen there again, at least not for some years to come; and fortunate it is for us, that our past dangers, pains and sufferings do not make so strong an impression upon us, as to embitter the enjoyment of the
present. There are, it is true, gloomy souls, who without any past troubles to revert to, embitter the present, by anticipating evils in futurity, which may never take place; but these discontented creatures are, happily for society, but thinly scattered in the wide world."
From the Falls of the Dahl they continued their route to Upsal, where they took up their quarters for the night, and on the following day, they made enquiries respecting a ves sel' to carry them to Abo. Very fortunately they heard of one that was to sail in a day or two, and our travellers returned to their inn, and prepared for their departure.
JOURNEY TO RUSSIA.
They were extremely amused on their voyage in the Baltic by the picturesque isles which they repeatedly passed, upon
one of which they landed, and took their breakest in a fisherman's cottage, beautifully situated in a thick grove, where they were hospitably entertained by the mother and wife of the owner : this family, (there were five children,) formed the whole of the inhabitants of this little spot. It was rich in vegetation, and its produce appeared to be perfectly adequate to the support of the peasant and his family. Upon arriving at Abo, they were greatly disappointed at its mean appearance. In short so little did they find in this town worthy of notice, that although a little fatigued, they gave orders for their departure, and in the evening they entered their carriage, and arrived at Helsingfors, after passing through a country not deficient in culture or barren in soil. From thence they pro-ceeded to Borgo, where they made no stay, but continued their journey with very little intermission, until they reached the Kymen, the boundary between the Russian and Swedish dominions, and over which is a wooden bridge, that is kept in repair by both nations. Their road now lay through a gloomy forest, and after a dreary ride of some hours, our travellers were not a little delighted at seeing the town of Federicshamn in the distance. The plan of this town is singular, as well as beautiful, all the streets going off like radii from a centre, in which is a handsome hotel de ville. The country between Fredericshamn and Wybourg is barren and sterile to a great degree. Wyburg is the capital of Fin. nish Lapland, seated on the Lake of Ladoga; it is a fortified trading town, and the commerce of its province is chiefly carried on here.
" Russia,” said Dr. Walker, is one of the most extensive countries in Europe, and the dominions of the emperor Alexander are larger than those of any other potentate whatever. Sit down, Edward; the evening is gloomy, and we will therefore amuse ourselves with a comfortable tête à tête, not by the fire-side, for that is a luxury we must not expect to meet with in Russia, the houses being chiefly warmed by flues; but citizens of the world can be comfortable any where. But to commence my description of Russia. This empire, the largest in extent, and the most powerful in the world. extends from the Baltic and Sweden on the west, to Kamschatka and the Eastern Ocean; and from the Arctic Sea on the north, to the boundaries of Turkey, the Euxine and Caspian Seas, Eastern and Western Tartary, and other unknown regions of Asia on the south. It is about 9,200 miles in length, and 2,400 in breadth."
DE 14 15 16 11 18
EDWARD.- -" What an extent of empire !"
Dr. Walker.-" Russia contains the following governments, named after those towns in which courts of judicature are established, as they stood in 1803. 1. Moskva
19. Toblosk 36. Cherson (Niko2. St. Petersburg 20. Tomsk
layef) 3. Novogorod 21. Irkutsk 37. Poltowa 4. Olenetz
22. Orenburg 38. Tschernigof 5. Archangel 23. Simbirsk 39. Kief 6. Pokove 24. Penza
40. Podolia 7. Smolensk 25. Saratof 41. Volhynia 8. Tula
26. Astracan 42. Grodno 9. Twer
27. Caucasus 43. Vilna 10. Kaluga 28. Voronish 44. Vitebsk il. Jaroslaf 29. Tambof 45. Mogilef 12. Kostroma 39. Râzan
46. Minsk 13. Vludimir 31. Kursk
47. Courland 14. Vologda 32. Orel
48. Livonia 15. Nisneygorod 33. The Slobodish 49. Esthonia 16. Wiutka
Ukrain 50. Finland 17. Kasan
34. Ekaterinaslaf 51. Grusia, 18. Prem
35. Tauria “ The population of European Russia was formerly estimated at thirty-three millions, and that of Asiatic Russia at three millions; but its entire population is now nearly fifty millions, part of whom are mere barbarians.
“ By the unprincipled partition of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1815, Russia joined to its ancient territory three-fourths of that fine country, and about ten millions of subjects were added to its original population, By a peace with Persia in 1814, Russia acquired the whole of the extensive regions which nearly surround the Caspian Sea, together with their population. The governments of Petersburg, Wyburg, Revel, Riga (the Carella, Esthonia, and Livonia of history,) were wresteil from Sweden by Peter the Great. The large division of Finland was recently ceded by Sweden, which was indemnified by Denmark's reluctantly yielding up to it the kingdom of Norway.”
EDWARD." I would rather be king of England than emperor of Russia, although the dominions of the latter are so vastly superior to those of the former. Neither should I like very much to be a subject of Russia. I should not like
a journey to Siberia, nor should I at all fancy the punishment of the knout."
Dr. WALKER.-“ Did you never feel any antipathy to the mode of execution in your own country, Edward. One would almost suppose you had made up your mind to merit punishment. Laws and punishments are made for the guilty only. Now in Russia there are no penal laws, therefore you would have less to fear there than in England.”
" EDWARD.-“ No; it is very true, there are no penal laws; but many die under the punishment of the double knout; and as for exile in the desert plains near Kamschatka, my blood runs cold at the thoughts of it; there is that in banishment, and to such a place that would ever prevent my feeling a moment's peace. DR. WALKER." • All places that the eye of heaven visits
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens.' EDWARD." Ah, but my dear Sir, what was Bolingbroke's answer to the imaginary pleasures pointed out by his father, opposed to the bitter realities of banishment?”
DR. WALKER.-Let us have it, I pray you."
know it, Sir.” DR. WALLER.-" True; but Shakspeare never tires, for • he's always changing and for ever new." EDWARD." Oh who can hold a fire in his hand
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus ?
Than when it bites, but cancereth not the sore.” DR. WALKER." So now there is an end of my argument; for with such an authority I must, I suppose, give up
I the contest; but your triumph is not quite complete, for the same master of poesy, in Cymbeline says
• Now my co-mates and brothers in exile.'
You know the rest I am sure; and so a truce to our poetic flights.; for we must descend from our Pegasus, and light on
your favourite Russian soil, which is by no means so unwor. thy of your partiality as you seem to think. Of the mountains of this country there is a chain between the Baltic and the White Sea; another in the south of Tau; a ridge on the road between Petersburg and Moscow; and the great Alta. rian chain, which separates Siberia from independent and Chinese Tartary. In the south of European Russia are many extensive plains, some of which are more than 400 English miles in length; on these great flocks of sheep are kept. The northern parts are woody and marshy; and the southern provinces are, in general, very fertile, but badly cultivated. The former yield hemp, flax, tobacco, wheat, and barley: the latter produce these, together with rice, millet, and olives. Besides the quadrupeds common to Norway and Sweden, it has the sable, lynx, and camel. The iron and copper mines are principally in the Altarian mountains. On the isle of Taman, in the district of Perecop, is a spring of naphtha.
“ But come, Edward, what are the Russian exports and imports?”
EDWARD.-“ From the White Sea, potash, tallow, wax, hides, grain, hemp. From the Baltic, besides the above, timber, tobacco, honey, furs, coarse linen, linseed oil, pitch, tar, feathers, hogs' bristles, red leather, caviare. From the Black Sea, furs, salt, beef, butter, cordage, sail-cloth, caviare, grain, iron. From the Caspian, European manufactures. The Russians carry Siberian fürs to China.
“ The annual exports are estimated at 17,000l. for grain; 1,575,0001. for hemp, flax, and articles made of them ; 175,0001. for timber and potashes; 157,500l. for wax ; 42,449 cwt. of tobacco. From Petersburg, in 1781, 144,160lbs. of isinglass; 428,521lbs. of caviare;
and 475,111 furs. Black cattle, sheep, horses, swine are exported in great numbers. The annual imports are paper to the amount of 2,5001.; hops to 21,8741.; iron, copper, salt, in great quantities.
“ Russia imports into the Baltic, paper, hardware, tin, lead, woollen cloth, wine, brandy, West India produce. Into the Black Sea, wine, fruit, coffee, silk, rice. Into the Cas. pian, raw silk, dried fruits, saffron, spices, sulphur, naphtha, gold, and precious stones. Russia receives tea, silk and porcelain, from China. And its chief ports are Petersburg, Wyburg, Revel, Riga, Archangel, Cherson, Oczakow, Astracan."