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apertures, or windows, are large arched chasms in the rock ; through these a most extensive range of scenery, over distant mountains and rolling clouds, forms a sublime spectacle. There is nothing in any part of Europe that can surpass the tremendous grandeur of this place. Below the cavern is another chamber, leading to the several cells on its different sides ; these have all been cut out of the same rock.
“ We pursued a different road in descending ; passing beneath an old arched gateway of the citadel, once its principal entrance. This road flanks the northern side of the mountain ; and the fall into the valley is so bold and profound, that it seems, as if a single false step would precipitate both horse and rider into the abyss below. We therefore alighted from our horses, chusing rather to trust to ourselves than to the mercy of our prancing steeds, whose insensibility to their dangerous situation, greatly increased our fears. It was dark when we reached the bottom, and we had some difficulty in regaining the principal road which leads to the defile, owing principally to the trees which project across all the lanes in the vicinity of the Tartar villages, which even at mid-day scarcely admit the sun beams. In certain seasons of the year this defile is very dangerous, from the immense masses of limestone which occasionally detach themselves from the rock, and roll: headlong down the sides of the precipices, carrying all be.. fore them.
“ Not very far from this wonderful spot, near the village of Shuln, there are many excavations, exhibiting the re.. treats of the ancient Christians, in cells and grottoes. One of these chambers is not less than eighty paces in length, with a proportiopate breadth, and its roof is supported by pillars hewn in the rock; the stone, from the softness of its nature, did not oppose the difficulty encountered in similar works, which are seen in other parts of the Crimea.
“ Such,” said M. M., “ is my account of the fortress of Mankoop, and I can only say, that all language must fall short of the magnificence and variety of this wonderful
JOURNEY FROM PRAGUE TO VIENNA.
DR. WALKER and Edward expressed their thanks for this description of Mankoop, shortly after which they separated for the night, and on the next morning recommenced: their route to Prague, the second city of importance in the Austrian dominions. It is divided into three towns, distinguished by the name of the Old, the New, and the Little Town.
The New Town surrounds the Old, and in the middle of the Little Town, which was originally built in a forest, there is a single poplar tree standing, which, the inhabitants affirm to have grown there for the last thousand years. The houses of Prague are all built of stone, and seldom above three stories high, but the streets are close and narrow. There is a fine stone bride over the Moldau, consisting of eighteen arches; it is 1770 feet in length, and is so numerously adorned on each side with statues of Saints of every description, that they stand like a file of soldiers in formidable array. Every corner of the streets, every public building is ornamented with crucifixes, images of the virgin, or of saints of some kind, before which the people prostrate themselves at all times and seasonş. The vehe. mence and fervour with which the inhabitants entreat the protection of these saints, is so great that they fall flat on the ground and kiss the earth before them, as if it were hallowed by the shadow only of the images.
“ You should," said Dr. Walker, to Edward, “ take your sisters a garnet necklace; Bohemia is famous for gar. nets. They are found principally at Meronitz, in the moun. tains of Stiefelberg, in clay mixed with mica. The women wash the clay in which they are found, after which they are sifted and arranged according to their size, and sold by the pound weight, from about three to ten shillings. Many workmen are employed in cutting and piercing them, for necklaces and other ornaments ; they are polished in facets with emery on a piece of free-stone, and pierced with a small diamond.”
EDWARD.--" What are facets, Sir?!!
Dr. Walker." Any superfices cut into several angles. This branch of commerce is of great antiquity at Carlsbad, and at Walkirk in Suabia, where twenty-eight mills are occupied in this article only.”
Among the variety of elegant-trinkets which attracted Edward's attention, was an opal of particular beauty.
" That mineral,” observed the Doctor, “ is peculiar to Hungary, and is literally found in no other part of the globe. This gem is esteemed beyond all others by the oriental nations, and among the ancients it
was almost without price, so highly was it valued by them, particularly the Romans. The opal mines are situated at Czerweniza, not far from Kaschaw, and nearly in the same latitude as Cremnitz, where there are gold mines. The hill in which it is found consists of decomposed porphyry, and it only occurs at the distance of a few fathoms from the surface; of various qualities, from the opaque, white, or seni opal, which is found elsewhere, in Cornwall for instance, to that utmost effulgence of irridiscent colours which distinguishes the noble gem which has so struck your fancy."
Upon returning to their inn, where they were but indif. ferently accommodated, they met their Austrian friend, and with him they again resunied their journey, and upon arriving at Vienna their postillion drove immediately to the Custom House, where their small portion of luggage underwent a very severe scrutiny. They dined with their Austrian friend at a Table d'Hote, where tortoises, frogs, and snails formed a part of the fare ; a dish of goose's liver was quickly dispatched, as a peculiar rarity, but our travellers were better pleased to partake of the more substantial dishes. Venison and game, besides many small birds which are rejected by us, were served up in profusion. At this table were several families, consisting of the children as well as the fathers and mothers. The suburbs of Vienna are as large as the town itself, of a circular and irregular form, between them and the town there is a broad plain of verdure, which is at the same time useful, agreeable, and salubrious. Dr. Moore says in his travels, that.“ although Vienna may never be again exposed to a siege, yet measures have been taken, in that case, to prevent the necessity of destroying the suburbs.” He little thought that a private individual, against whom his brave son was to enter the field of battle, in Spain, was suddenly to obtain imperial power, and appear thrice within the walls of the Austrian capital as a conqueror !
On the following day their Austrian friend took them to the top of Mount Calenberg in the vicinity of the city. Having entered a carriage of a peculiar construction, which is made on purpose for the accommodation of travellers who wish to ascend the summit, they arrived safely on the top of the mountain, from whence they had an almost boundless prospect. The city of Vienna, with the Danube winding through a luxuriant and pastoral country, was stretched at their feet on the one side, while in the opposite direction the scene was composed of wild and romantic mountains. They paid a visit to the monastery and were hospitably entertained by the monks, who presented them with some very fine fruit, and politely begged they would honour them by spending the night within their walls, as the weather had suddenly changed, and heavy drops of rain began to fall. Our travellers could not refuse so agreeable an invitation, and accordingly they were shewn into the refectory, where they passed the evening in pleasant and rational conversation, till the vesper bell called the monks to prayers. M.M. followed the fathers to their devotion, and Dr. Walker and his pupil were left alone.
« Do you think, Sir," said Edward, “ that M. M. will accompany us any farther on our tour.”
Dr. Walker." I fear not, he has business of importance in Hungary, and as our route is already fixed, and our time in some degree limited, we must not deviate from it. He is a pleasant intelligent man, and I shall regret his departure very much, and I cannot help wishing, although wishes are fruitless, that we could take a peep at: the Carpathian mountains, in the neighbourhood of which, he tells me, his business lies. They must have a magnificent and grand appearance, for their base is covered with wood, which encreases in size as you ascend for some distance. This woody and gloomy region is succeeded by one ornamented with brush wood only, and above this the mountains rise in wild and terrific majesty, presenting horrid crags and frightful precipices, covered, with snow, yet interspersed with lakes of the utmost transparency. The Carpathian mountains contain copper mines, which are supposed to have
been worked eleven hundred years, and are, some of them, ten, twelve, and fifteen miles in length, and employ 4,000 men.”
“ Listen, Sir," said Edward.
“ 'Tis the vesper hymn,” replied the Doctor, “had I not. feared the fathers would have thought us actuated by motives of impertinent curiosity, I should have wished to have joined their evening service, but you will have opportunities, when we are in Italy, of witnessing every part of the Roman Catholic service, without appearing intrusive, as we should on the present occasion. But let us change the subject of conversation, for I hear M. M's voice."
A frugal supper of fruits, bread, and eggs, was placed before our travellers, who partook cheerfully and thankfully of the friendly entertainment prepared for them by their hosts. After some further conversation they retired to rest, and early on the following morning they left the monastery and returned to Vienna, where they visited the University in company
with their Austrian friend. This University was founded A.D. 1237, but it does not appear to enjoy much scientific reputation. The palace of Shoenbrun, where Buonaparte took up his residence more than once, is about five miles from the city, and is a magnificent building.
AUSTRIAN CUSTOMS AND MANNERS.
There were several shews of combats of wild Beasts and bulls, during their stay at Vienna, which is a favourite amusement among the people, but they had no wish to be present at them. They attended several concerts, and went two or three times to the theatre. There are no particular manufactories in Vienna, and although from its situation on the Danube it is extremely well situated for trade, it has no appearance of that bustle of business which is naturally ex. pected in the capital of a great empire.
M. M. having introduced Dr. Walker: and his young friend to the house of an Austrian nobleman, he gave