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those opposite to many of the Western Isles of Scotlavd.-May not these contain similar minerals ?
“ The rivers of Germany are both large and numerous. The Danube stands first upon the list, which, after rising in Swabia, passes by Ulm, Ingolstadt, Ratisbon, Passau, Vienna, Presburg, Buda, in the Austrian dominions; and Petervaradin, Belgrade, and Widin, in Turkey; after a passage of 1,300 miles, it falls into the Black Sea, near Ismael. The Danube, in some places, is 760 yards in breadth.
66 The Inn rises in Swizzerland, passes by Inspruck, and joins the Danube at Passau.
“ The Oder rising in the monntains of Moravia, and passing by Breslaw, Glogau, and Francfurth on the Oder, disembogues itself into the Baltic below Stettin.
“ The Elbe rising in the Sudetic Mountains of Silesia, raps by Prague, Dresden, Wittenburg, Magdeburg, and Hamburg, and, after a course of more than 500 miles, enters the sea near Cuxhaven.
“ The Weser, formed by the junction of the Wurra and Fulda near Munden, runs into the sea at Bremen, 270 miles from its source.
“ The river Ems flows by Munster and Embden.
“ The Rhine rises in Switzerland, flows through Lake Constance, tuns by Basie, wlience it forms the boundary between France and Germany; then running by Strasburg, Spire, Manheim, Mentz, Cublentz, Cologne, and Nimeguen, it enters the United Provinces, and divides itself into four different branches; the only one of which that retains the name of Rhine falls into the German Ocean at Leyden. The course of the Rhine may be computed at 600 miles. The principal rivers which contribute their waters to the Rhine are the Neckar and Mayne from the east, and the Mozelle from the west."
" And now, Edward, as this town of Sivrach presents nothing very interesting, to engage our attention, let us before we proceed any further on our travels, take a survey of the extensive country denominated Germany; and first of all, let us speak of its surface and climate.
“ Though Germany is in general a level country, and lias many plains of great extent, yet in every circle are single mountains or small ranges of bills. Of mountains the principal are Erzgeberg, between Upper Saxony and Bohemia ; the Hartz, in Lower Saxony ; Hessia, in the Upper Rhine; Vogesian, between the Rhine and Moselle ; the. Carpathian Mountains, between Moravia and Hungary; Giant Mountains, in Silesia ; Fichtelberg, in Franconia. The Alpine chain pervades and confines the south of Swabia, Bavaria, and Austria : the most elevated part of Germany is along the parallel of 49o.
“ The chief lakes are Constance, south of Swabia ; Chiemsee, south of Bavaria ; and Ozernick, south east of Austria, The southern part of Germany is mountainous, woody, and almost throughout fruitful and well cultivated; the northern part is more level; towards the sea many parts are very low, it has also large barren wastes interspersed with forests, and yet many very fertile districts. The air is temperate and
in general healthy. As for its zoology, to the domestic and wild animals of England and Holland, we may add the uron or bison, the bear, wolf, lynx, an:1 chanjoise. The surface yields exeellent grain and vegetables, also hops, flax, hemp, tobacco, saffron, madder, olive oil, and timber.
Upper Saxony is particularly rich in mineral productions ; besides silver, copper, tin, lead, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, wolfran, which are chiefly met with in the gneis rock, we may add granite, basalt, trapp, jet, hornblend, limestone, pitchstone, marble, coal, with micaceous and siliceous schistus; serpentine, jasper, agates, porcelain-clay, fullers' earth, and the celebrated topaz rock, which is said to be unique in its kind. The valley of Plauden, in the neighbourhood of Dresden, abounds with petrefactions. In the south west of Lower Saxony, are boracite and staurolite. In Swabia are excellent marble, silver, and copper. The sonth of Bavaria is rich in salt springs, and Austria in Mercury; the alpine minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead, granite, with argillaceous substances, and accidentally, large pieces of grass green quartz, studded with red transparent garnets. The mines of Idra, in the south east of Austria, are said to yield more than 300,000 pounds avoirdupoise of mercury annually; the common oar is cinnabar, but sometimes pure quicksilver runs through the crevices. The prins cipal of the above mines are situated in porphyry and sienite."
THE MINES OF IDRIA,
“ The quicksilver mines at Idria, a town of Carniola, were discovered in the year 1499, by accident, in the following manner. A peasant having filled a cask with water from a spring in the immediate neighbourhood, and left it there, it was so heavy the next day, he could scarcely remove it ; upon inspecting the cause of this extraordinary weight, he discovered a quantity of this valuable mineral, which had settled at the bottom of it. I have been in this mine, and although the entrance is now considerably improved, yet when I visited it, it was indeed so frightfully gloomy, as almost to deter me from entering. Imagine to yourself a gloomy looking aperture of about five yards broad, at the entrance of which was a basket; in this I placed myself, and was let down more than 100 fathoms. The mine widened as I descended, and I was glad to find myself once more on terra firma, if I may use the expression, in a mine of quick,
silver. I must confess, that I never before experienced such a combination of feelings. The ground which appeared hollow, echoed back my steps with a thundering sound. The light produced by a few solitary lamps suspended here and there (to enable the wretched inhabitants to move from one part of these awful and gloomy regions to another) was so feeble, that I could scarcely discern my guide, and as I passed through this scene of horrors, (for such it literally was) I shuddered on recalling to my imagination, the fate of an Austrian nobleman, and the lady to whom he was married, as related by a Mr. Everard.
“ Mr. Everard was travelling in Germany, and made a point of seeing every thing curious and celebrated that fell in his way. Being near Idria, he resolved to descend into these mines. On arriving at the bottom, he was struck with the gloom that surrounded him, and paused a few moments as he contemplated the solitary sickly looking wretches that surrounded him; he was roused from his reverie hy hearing himself addressed by one of them, “Do you not know me Mr. Everard” said a tall thin looking person. Mr. Everard started, and fixing his eyes on the unhappy object before him, he exclaimed, Impossible! I must be deceived. It cannot be the Count Alberti ?" His surprise was encreased on perceiving a young woman approach Alberti (for it was indeed he) who, notwithstanding her present wretched situation, possessed a certain elegance of manner which plainly shewed the mines of Idria had not been always her place of residence. Having cordially received his unfortunate friend, he begged he would inform him of the circumstances which had reduced him to this melancholy situation. “I have myself to blame originally, said Alberti. Having received what I conceived an unpardonable insult from an Austrian officer, I resolved to follow the natural impetuosity of my disposition ; and in defiance of the commands of the Emperor, I chal. lenged my enemy; we fought, and I left him, as I thought, dead. I then fled to the forests of Istria, where I unfortunately was surprised by banditti, who made me prisoner, and carried me to their haunts, but afterwards allowed me my liberty. Their retreat being soon after discovered, we were carried to Vienna, and condemned to be broken upon the wheel. I was however recognised, and upon this discovery my fate was changed to that of a living death in these gloomy regions. This unfortunate companion of my woes,
voluntarily submitted to share my unhappy fate, after hav. ing in vain made every possible attempt to procure my par
We were engaged to be married in happier days, but she chose to unite herself to a wretch who had only misery to share with her. The unhappy victims in these mines, have at least one poor consolation, that of knowing their miserable existence is seldom prolonged beyond the space of two or three years. For which reason they are worked by criminals. Do I live to say it? And the wretched Alberti is one of them.'
“ His fair companion endeavoured to soothe him by her kind attentions, and at length succeeded in composing his agitated spirits.
“ The curiosity Mr. Everard had to see the process of extracting the quicksilver, was completely absorbed in the me. lancholy pleasure of conversing with,' and consoling his once gay companion, with whom he remained as long as he was allowed. Alberti's feelings were again getting the better of his reason, at the prospect of being separated from his friend, who recalled him to himself by appealing to his affection for a wife who had sacrificed wealth, rank, and beauty, for the superior pleasure of solacing his griefs.Ashamed of his weakness, he shook Mr. Everard by the hand, and turning to the amiable woman who stood by his side unsubdued by her fate, he gently drew her arm within his, waved his hand to Mr. Everard with a melancholy smile, and once more returned to the interior of his gloomy prison.
• The cheering light of the sun failed in its usual effect of reviving Mr. Everard's spirits.. The unhappy fate of Alberti, once the gayest of the gay, at the court of Vienna, threw a gloom upon all around him, and so deeply was he affected, that he resolved to remain some little time in the neighbourhoorl of Idria, in order to pay him a second visit. He was received by Alberti and his wife, with delight, to whom this act of friendship was indeed a cordial. In the midst of an in. teresting conversation, they were surprised by a sound of strange voices, and upon the descent of the basket. three persons got out, who eagerly inquired after the Count Alberti. Alberti started from Mr. Everard, the voice was familiar to him, and in an instant he was encircled in the arms of one of his earliest friends. His wife soon joined her husband, and was near falling to the ground, when she was caught by her, brother, the third person was her cousin.
After some little preparation they informed the almost hope. less Alberti, that the officer whom he had wounded, was recovered ; that he had solicited his pardon of the emperor, and obtained it. They then shewed him the order for his release, and had the exquisite delight of conveying him to the pure regions of day. Before, however, he left the mine, be disposed of his working utensils to his late unfortunate companions ; to one he gave his mattock, to another his pick-axe, and so forth; and then after bidding them an affectionate adieu, he left them, and joined his friends.”
PRINCIPAL TOWNS OF GERMANY.
DR. WALKER.—“ COME, Edward, now tell me the chief towns, not only of Germany proper, but of Hungary and Bohemia, as forming part of the dominions of the house of Austria.”
EDWARD.—“I shall pass over those towns we have visited, and begin with the principal ports, and among these
“ Hamburg comes first ; it is situated in the west of Lower Saxony, and is the chief mart of the north of Germany, and trades extensively wiib all the maritime nations of Europe. The houses are high, and built of brick; the streets spacious, with good canals, which admit the tide; on the ramparts are fine public walks; the exchange is handsome, and the other public buildings very respectable.
“ The English factory here enjoys great privileges ; the members of it decide disputes among themselves by the majority of votes ; and if involved in any contest with natives of the town, they are likewise judges in their own cause, with the addition of two of the city magistrates.
“ Lubec on the Baltic, in the north of Lower Saxony.--Bremen, in the west of Lower Saxony.-Fiume and Trieste in the south of Austria.
“ Trieste is situated on a declivity, its streets are narrow, its harbour has lately been much improved. Here is an annual fair, which conti. nues twenty days from the first of August. Articles of commerce are salt, oil, almonds, iron, &c. but its commission trade is of the most importance. It has the largest sugar-house in the south of Germany, and also manufactures soap, porcelain, earthenware, leather, paint, velvet, silk, and thread.
“ The most noted trading towns in the interior are Frankfort on the Mayn, Leipzig, Brunswick, Frankfort on the Oder, where there are