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about 7,000 Jews, who are all coufined to one street ; Nuremberg and Mentz. These have great fairs annually.

“ The Germau artists and handicraftsmen manufacture all the necessaries and luxuries of life; and the demand for English and French goods, which was formerly very great, is now, I am sorry to say, upon the decrease. The arts and sciences are held in great estimation, and the world is indebted to the inquisitive spirit and persevering diligence of the Germans for many useful discoveries and inventions.

“ In the vicinity of Leipzig, was fought the great battle between Napoleon Buonaparte and the confederated powers of Europe. The battle terminated in favour of the allies, who marched to Paris, and Napoleon retired to the Island of Elba.

« Brunswick, on the Ocker, in the south of Lower Saxony, is large and fortified. The country is fertile in corn, pasture, and has some mines of copper and lead.

“ In 1530, the first spinning-wheels were made at this place, by one. Jürger, a stone-mason and statuary: its celebrated beer, called mum, so named after its inventor Christian Mumme, is exported, even to Asia, withont spoiling.

“ Mentz is situated at the conflux of the Rbine, and the Mayu, is large and ancient, its public buildings and institutions are much the same as those of other large cities : its bridge of boats over the Danube is 2100 feet in length, resting on a double row of boats laslied together. Near the ramparts is a mouument of Drusus. The wine of these parts is said to be the best in Germany.

“ Nuremberg is nearly in the centre of Gerinany. The houses are built of free-stone, a good size, and the whole city is remarkably neat; it has twelve stone bridges. Its manufactures are in great estimation, the most prominent are musical and inathematical instruments, clocks, cutlery, and hardware; also the toys which in England are known by the name of Dutch toys. The vicinity is sandy, but well cultivated.

" You do not mean, Sir, I should mention all the great cities of Germany, do you?"

Dr. Walker.-“ No; you have mentioned all that are necessary ; except that we must not forget Baden, the metropolis of Hungary, which is connected with Pest by a bridge of boats over the Danube; it has a stately palace of freestone. The adjacent country is noted for natural warm baths and vineyards.

“ We shall visit many of the other principal towns, so we will let them rest for the present.

“ Germany is said to contain more mineral waters than all Europe besides; the following are well known for their medicinal virtues ; Spa, in the S. W. of Westphalia; Aix-laChapelle, in the S. of Westphalia ; Pyrmont, in the E. of Westphalia ; Seltzer, S. E. of the Lower Rhine. We shall, I hope, visit some of these also."

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About eight o'clock the next morning, Colin, announced that all was ready, and after a very pleasant journey, they arrived at the beautiful and populous city of Munich, the capital of Bavaria, and the Athens of Germany. Shortly after their arrival, they began their peregrinations by visiting the cathedral, which contains twenty-five chapels, thirty altars, and two steeples. “ This cathedral," said Dr. Walker,” does

“ , not answer the expectation raised by its description, and the only thing worth mentioning in its interior, is that black tomb, ornamented with bronze figures, erected to the memory of one of the emperors.

“ Munich is populous and beautiful. The houses are high, the streets spacious, with canals in many of them; and it ranks amongst the finest towns in Germany. In 1759, an academy of sciences was founded here, the object of which is the cultivation of useful sciences and liberal arts, and the study of the history of Bavaria. The manufactures of Bavaria are silk, velvet, woollens, and tapestry."

On the following day they went to see a grand review, in the neighbourhood, of the Bavarian troops; the day was remarkably fine, and the scene brilliant and splendid. The troops exhibited great skill in the performance of their mili. tary evolutions, and proved they were no novices in the art of war.

“ I think, Sir," said Edward, “that gunpowder was first discovered by Barthold Schwartz, or Barthold the black, a monk of Goslar, in Saxony, a profound alchemist.”

Dr. WALKER.Ớ“ So it is generally affirmed, particularly by Father Richer, who says that this monk, having made a mixture of nitre, sulphur, and charcoal, a spark accidentally falling upon these united ingredients, they blew up, and burnt the vessel which contained them with a dreadful explosion. Astonished at the effect, he made several experiments with the same materials, and finding the result invariably the same, be thereby ascertained the nature and composition of what we now call gunpowder. A. D. 1354.

• Pontanus, the Danish historian, mentions that his pountrymen used guns in a naval engagement, in the year 1554,

, and that a chemist, called Scwartz, invented it. Polydore Virgil, who died in the

a

year discovered by an ignoble German, whose name is not known, and that he also invented an iron tube, and taught the Venetians the use of guns. A.D. 1380,

1555, says

it was

“ Yet an historian, who was living in the year 1366, says that the English gained the battle of Cressy by discharging upon the French red-hot iron bullets from cannon; and Ma. riana, in his history of Spain, relates that at the battle of Algeziras, A. D. 1343, where the Moors were besieged by the Spaniards, that the former did great harm to the Christians by iron balls which they shot, and this,' continues the same historian, “is the first time we find any men. tion of gunpowder and ball in our histories.' It was the custom in those days of chivalry for Christian knights of the different countries of Europe to volunteer their services to the Spaniards against the Moors, and among those who distinguished themselves at the siege of Algeziras, were the earls of Derby and Salisbury; they were afterwards present at the battle of Cressy; and it is not improbable, that haying witnessed the destruction caused among the Christians by the cannon at the siege of this celebrated place, they might, upon their return home communicate the intelligence to their countrymen, and employ gunpowder at Cressy. There is a cannon in the armoury of Arneberg, which is a little to the north of Ratisbon, upon which is the date 1303, and this is the first certain record, (for such it may

be called,) of gunpowder being used in war. Roger Bacon, the learned monk, died at Oxford, A.D. 1292; and from many parts of his works it may be fairly inferred he knew the nature of gunpowder. In Plott's History of Oxfordshire, it is stated that in a manuscript copy of Roger Bacon's works, a union of salt-petre, sulphur and charcoal are there described as a composition that would burn at any distance. Lord Bacon places the discovery much earlier even than this. He says : tain it is, that ordnance was known in the city of the Oxidraes in India ; and was that which the Macedonians called thunder and lightning and magic. And it is well known that the use of ordnance hath been in China above two thousand years.'

“ With such an authority I shall close my remarks upon this wonderful discovery which has been

the means of changing the whole system of war, and of infinite utility to mankind in one respect, that of blowing up the rocks in mines.

“ There are other compositions which will explode with as much noise as gunpowder. Fulminating silver is one of them; and it is thus composed : dissolve fine silver in pale. nitric acid, and precipitate the solution by lime water; de

i Cer

cant the fluid, mix the precipitate with liquid Ammonia, and stir it till it assumes a black colour; then decant the fluid again, and leave it in the open air to dry; this product is fulminating silver, which once obtained, cannot be touched without producing a violent explosion. It is the most dangerous preparation known, for the contact of fire is not necessary to make it detonate. It explodes by the mere touch; its preparation is so hazardous, that it ought not to be attempted without having a mask, and strong glass eyes upon the face. No more than a single grain should be tried as an experiment. Fulminating gold explodes by heat: but there is a detonating powder so powerful, and so refined, as to explode upon being exposed to light only."

EDWARD.--" What a dangerous discovery! You said, Sir, one day you would tell me how to make a silver tree.”

DR. WALKER.-" So I did; and so I will. The beautiful Arbor Dianæ, or silver tree, may thus be produced. Dissolve one part of silver in nitrous acid to saturation, then mix twenty parts of clean water with it, and pour upon this mixture two parts of mercury. When left standing quietly, the desired crystallization will take place, and the silver tree will appear to vegetate in a very beautiful manner.”

EDWARD.-" How very curious; I should like to make the experimeut very much.”

Dr. Walker.- Making the Arbor Plumbi is an easier process. Dissolve two drachms of sugar of lead in six ounces of distilled water ; then pour the filtered solution into a cylindrical glass, and a thin roll of zinc being hung in it, the whole should be left standing at rest, the lead will then precipitate adhering to the zinc in metallic leaves in the form of a tree.

“ An iron tree may also be produced by a very simple process."

The country from Munich to Lindau, which is beautifully situated on a small island in the Lake of Constance, is diversified with luxuriant plains and large forests, abounding with game. Lindau has a magnificent abbey, and an ancient castle built by the Romans. There is also here a Roman wall, called Heyden Maur. The views from this town are extensive and grand beyond description ; but as our travellers were anxious to get into Switzerland, they embarked on board a-sınall vessel, and crossed the lake, intending to proceed direct for St. Gal.

CHAPTER XIII.

SWITZERLAND.

SECTION I.

were

THE CANTON OF ST. GALLEN, &c. The Canton of St. Gallen has been considerably enlarged of late : its capital St. Gal, is one of the most magnificent towns in Switzerland, and was in former times of much importance.

The

emperor Otho honoured it with the title of Imperial City, and bestowed the privilege of coining upon it.

5. The abbots of St. Gal,” said Dr. Walker, princes of the empire, and upon a public occasion one of them appeared at Strasbourg with a retinue of a thousand horses, all richly caparisoned. The Benedictine order to which this monastery belonged, was one of the most wealthy, learned, and celebrated of all the monastic institutions. It was founded in the year 480, by St. Benet, a Roman se. nator, of a Patrician family, who stole away from his parents during the reign of the emperor Justinian, and retired into a desert called Sablac, where he led the life of a hermit. Some time afterwards he went to Mont Cassin, where he pulled down the ruins of an old temple of Apollo, and built on its site a monastery. His rule was rigid ; he strictly enjoined silence, obedience, poverty, chastity and humility. The honours of the abbots of St. Gal are homever now laid in the dust; for when after a long and severe contest between the catholics and protestants, the reformation was thoroughly established in this town, the last abbot left the place in disgust, and entirely abandoned it.”

“ I think, Sir,” said Edward, “ that the superb monastic buildings we have seen do not accord with the idea of poverty, which appears one of the necessary ingredients in the character of a monk.”

DR. Walker,-" They reconcile this inconsistency by affirming, that although they are collectively rich, yet individually they are poor, possessing in fact nothing they can call their own. Among the poor individuals of this order who

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