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The middle lake is small, when compared with the upper and the lower; nor does it present so much variety of prospect; but n boasts of the lofty Mangerton as its eastern boundary, down which descends a cascade of 150 feet perpendicular. This fall of water is supplied by a circular lake on the summit of the mountain, called the Devil's Punch Bowl, which, on account of its immense depth, and continual overflow of water, is reckoned one of the greatest curio. sities of Killarney. Ļ

Between the lakes of Killarney and Limerick stood an ancient castle, which had belonged, from time immemorial, to the family of Montague; and, though not in the direct road, Dr. Walker desired the postillions to drive to Monta

castle: the man eagerly asked, if they were acquainted with the owner, to which the doctor, having answered in the affirmative, he began making innumerable questions, flogging his horses violently one moment, and then almost stopping them, to enable him to make some new enquiry respecting the family. When Dr. Walker told him, that Edward was the heir, he burst into a long congratulatory apostrophe: “ Long life to your honour, and good luck to your honour ;' and sure now,” said the man, drive to your own castle as ye ought.” With that he resumes his favourite occupation of flogging, hailing the few straggling individuals he met with, telling them of the honour he had in driving the young heir. Upon approaching the ancient seat of his ancestors, Edward was not much struck by its appearance, and having gone over the deserted apartments, of what had been formerly the scene of feudal splen. dour, Doctor Walker and his pupil resumed their seat in the chaise. The latter, though but seventeen, renained for some time absorbed in profound thought, which the Doctor did not choose to interrupt.

The country about Limerick is fertile, and particularly rich in pasture. The town is divided into two divisions, the one called the Irish, and the other the English town. In the latter, our travellers took up their abode for a few days, as they were anxious to inspect the woollen, linen, and paper manufactories, which are carried on to a great extent at this place. They were not a little surprized at the hardsome streets and extensive quays, which have been lately

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erected; and much pleased with the number of hospitals and

1 public structures that adorn the city, and at the same time powerfully display the humanity and public spirit of the inhabitants.



• We will to-morrow view the cascade on the Shannon," said Dr. Walker, as they returned from the linen manufactory : “ it is only about six miles above Limerick, and it is, I understand, very beautiful. The celebrated and unfortunate Earl of Strafford, to whom Ireland is indebted for her linen manufactory, had formed some idea of removing the rock, which impedes the navigation of this fine river, and forms the cascade: whether lie found this undertaking impracticable, or whether he was interrupted in his design by the disasters which recalled him to his native country, I do not know; but the rock still remains, and of late


the upper and lower part of the river have been connected by a canal. This noble river rises in the county of Leitrim, and after a course of upwards of one hundred and fifty miles, it falls into the Atlantic, between Kerry Head and Cape Lean. Between Killaloe and Limerick, just above the cascade, is a very fine salmon and eel fishery. The banks of this river are fertile, and it contains several beautiful islands. “I should like extremely,' replied Edward, “ to follow the course of the Shannon. Do you think we could, Sir."'“We will see what can be done,” said Dr. W.; « I have not the least objection to this arrangement; for there are many towns seated on its banks, the first of which is Kil. laloe.”

Edward was delighted with the plan ; and on the following morning, the travellers pursued their journey, following the course of the river until they reached Killaloe. The bridge over the Shannon, consisting of nineteen arches, being the only object worthy of attention, they took an early dinner, and, hiring a boat, desired their servant would meet them at Bannaghar.



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Our travellers were charmed with the view of the country through which they passed. The river had now assumed the form of a lough or take, called Loch Derg; and as the weather was very fine and temperate, they were sorry when they approached Bennaghar. Here they staid a short time to view the canal, which opens an inland communication be. tween Dublin and Limerick. I see nothing to detain us here,” said Edward, as they returned to the town of Bennaghar, 66 and I am anxious to reach Athlone:" but he was quite disappointed as he approached that place. He had pictured Athlone as a large, strong, well built city, since its capture by Baron de Ginckle, in the reign of William III. as described as "an effort of boldness and vigour, to which history scarcely furnishes a parallel.”. Dr. Walker was amused at the expression of his intelligent countenance.

Why,” said the doctor, “ what did you expect to find ? There, you see, is a bridge composed of many arches, and bearing marks of antiquity upon the very face of it. There, you perceive, are many beautiful figures and inscriptions, which will afford you some amusement perhaps: they relate to the great successes of Queen Elizabeth, of renowned memory, and are meant to perpetuate the recollection of her clemency. You recollect, I suppose, the numbers she caused to be executed, and their heads to be placed upon conspicuous situations, in order to deter others from incurring her displeasure. From the disappointment your countenance expresses, I suppose you will have no objection to quit this great town, and proceed immediately to Carrick.”_* None at all,” replied Edward, “this is indeed a poor miserable place, and appears doubly so, from the idea I had formed of its importance.” And the travellers accordingly pursued their journey, but not with quite so much ease and pleasure as bitherto.



The counties of West Meath and Longford are much in. terrupted by bogs; and Edward began at length to discover, that his mother might possibly be inconvenienced by travel


ing in Ireland. The roads were now become very serpentine, and it often happened, that in order to get forwards one mile, they were obliged to retreat two. Edward became impatient more than once, as their guide prevented his taking what appeared a very sure, gentle, undulating road, covered with moss, and looking far more inviting than that he was compelled to follow. “ Sure now and you sink,” said the man,

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you go there; 'tis a bog." The bogs in many parts of Ireland rise and fall in alternate hills and val. leys, and the deceitful appearance they present of a smooth green surface, has often proved fatal to strangers. Indeed many cattle are lost in these bogs, in the spring; for as the grass generally grows very luxuriantly near their edges, animals sometimes approach too near, and fall into the pits or sloughs, and are drowned.

Carrick, although a place neither possessing amusement or profit, was a welcome asylum to the weary travellers. “ I wish the good people, possessing land in the country through which we have just passed, would adopt the draining system,” said Dr. Walker, as he took his seat by a turf fire, 6. The inconvenience of these bogs is very great; a considerable part of the kingdom being rendered entirely useless by them, to say nothing of the dangers to which they expose ignorant travellers. Every barbarous and ill-inha. bited country abounds in bogs: now, although Ireland is neither in a state of barbarism, nor is there any lack of inhabitants, yet there are few countries where there are so many persons destitute of employment; many who live no. body knows how, and so many whose intelligent minds, which are susceptible of as much improvement as those of any other people in the world, are so obscured by poverty and oppression. In former times, these bogs served as a place of refuge to the inhabitants, when they were first invaded by the Danes and Britons; and indeed they are now made use of often as places of security, not against foreign invaders, but against custom-house officers. The natives are well acquainted with the different natures of these bogs, some

will bear a man, while the spot close to it would apparently engulph him. When the Irish peasants receive intimation, and they have generally pretty accurate informers upon these occasions, that they are likely to be disturbed in the formation of their favourite liquor, Whiskey,

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they plunge the still into á bog, and are soon beyond the reach of their pursuers.”

" But how, Sir,” enquired Edward, “ do you suppose these bogs were originally formed ?”_" That is not a very easy question to answer; for there are different opinions upon the subject. Ireland abounds in springs, but these springs are mostly dry in summer, and the grass and weeds grow thick about these places. In the winter, the water swells prodigiously, and softening the loose earth, the grass floats on their surface, the roots of which, becoming spongy, form a kind of mat. As it collects loose particles of eartla or seeds, or leaves, it assumes, by degrees, a substantial form. In the spring it dries and withers, and becomes turf; but new grass springing up through this turf, from the seeds of the last year's crop, this surface, which is again lifted up in the following winter, accumulates, and becomes thicker and thicker, until it acquires such a consistency, that the spring which formed it, has no longer the power of acting upon it. This water, as it is thus prevented from rising beyond a cer. tain degree, extends itself in every direction, and thus in. creases the size of the bog. When first formed, it is called a quaking bog; but when, in the course of years, it becomes an elastic substance, it is called a turf bog. This turf is used, as you perceive, for firing. The bottom of boys is generally a kind of white clay, or rather I should say, sandy marle: so that a little water makes it exceedingly soft; and when dry, it forms a light dust; the grass has therefore no hold upon this uncertain tenure, and is therefore easily loosened, and then floats as we have described. Although the neighbourhood of these bogs is very unwholesome, yet the Irish build their cabins very much in their neighbour. hood. Turf is a most impenetrable substance, the rain makes no impression upon it; but stagnates on the surface, except that part which is exhaled by the sun; the vapour therefore that is thus drawn from the boys is often putrid and stinking, and consequently the air in their vicinity must be infectious. In the turf bogs of Ireland, large quantities of timber have been found, which may be accounted for thus: the Earl of Cromartie mentions a curious circumstance, which fell under his own immediate observation in Scotland. Passing between Achidiscald and Gonnazd, in the neighbourhood of Lochbrun, he observed a firm standing wood so very old, that the trees were leafless and bark,


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