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shows in the most convincing manner that the agents of civilization are the great men and the strong and brilliant minds in the world, and not any vague, impersonal environmental conditions.

II. RACE

30. Causes of the fixation of ethnic traits. The cause of the origin of races is a much-disputed question. The influences that account for the creation of physical types are stated by Brinton as follows:

These causes are mainly related to climate and the food supply. The former embraces the questions of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure (altitude), malarial or zymotic poisons, and the like. All these bear directly upon the relative activity of the great physiological organs, the lungs, heart, liver, skin and kidneys, and to their action we must undoubtedly turn for the origin of the traits I have named. On the food supply, liquid and solid, whether mainly animal, fish, or vegetable, whether abundant or scanty, whether rich in phosphates and nitrogenous constituents or the reverse, depend the condition of the digestive organs, the nutrition of the individual, and the development of numerous physical idiosyncrasies. Nutrition controls the direction of organic development, and it is essentially on arrested or imperfect, in contrast to completed development, that the differences of races depend.

These are the physiological and generally unavoidable influences which went to the fixation of racial types. They are those which placed early man under the dominion of natural, unconscious evolution, like all the lower animals. To them may be added natural selection from accidental variations becoming permanent when proving of value in the struggle for existence, as shown in the black hue of equatorial tribes, special muscular development, etc.

But I do not look on these as the main agents in the fixation of special traits. No doubt such agencies primarily evolved them, but their cultivation and perpetuation were distinctly owing to conscious selection in early man. Our species is largely outside the general laws of organic evolution, and that by virtue of the self-consciousness which is the privilege of it alone among organized beings.

This conscious selection was applied in two most potent directions, the one to maintaining the physical ideal, the other toward sexual preference. As soon as the purely physical influences mentioned had impressed a tendency toward a certain type on the early community, this was recognized, cultivated and deepened by man's conscious endeavors.

Every race, when free from external influence, assigns to its highest ideal of manly or womanly beauty its special racial traits, and seeks to develop these to the utmost. African travelers tell us that the negroes of the Sudan look with loathing on the white skin of the European; and in ancient Mexico when children were born of a very light color, as occasionally happened, they were put to death. On the other hand the earliest records of the white race exalt especially the element of whiteness. The writer of the Song of Solomon celebrates his bride as "fairest among women," with a neck "like a tower of ivory"; and one of the oldest of Irish hero tales, the Wooing of Emer, chants the praises of "Tara, the whitest of maidens." Though both Greeks and Egyptians were of the dark type of the Mediterranean peoples, their noblest gods, Apollo and Osiris, were represented "fair in hue, and with light or golden hair."

The persistent admiration of an ideal leads to its constant cultivation by careful preservation and sexual selection. Thus the peoples who have little hair on the face and body, as most Chinese and American Indians, usually do not like any, and carefully extirpate it. The negroes prefer a flat nose, and a child which develops one of a pointed type has it artificially flattened. In Melanesia if a child is born of a lighter hue than is approved by the village, it is assiduously held over the smoke of a fire in order to blacken it. The custom of destroying infants markedly aberrant from the national type is nigh universal in primitive life. Such usages served to fix and perpetuate the racial traits.

A yet more powerful factor was sexual preference. This worked in a variety of ways. It is well known to stock breeders that the closer animals are bred in and in, that is, the nearer the relationship of father and mother, the more prominently the traits of the parents appear in their children and become fixed in the breed. It is evident that in the earliest epoch of the human family, the closest interbreeding must have prevailed without restriction, as it does in every species of the lower animals. By its influences the racial traits were rapidly strengthened and indelibly impressed. This, however, was long before the dawn of history, for it is a most remarkable fact that never in historic times has a tribe been known that allowed incestuous relations, unless as in ancient Egypt and Persia, for a sacrificial or ceremonial purpose. The lowest Australians, the degraded Utes, look with horror on the union of brother and sister. The general principle of marriage in savage races is that of "exogamy," marriage outside the clan or family, the latter being counted in the female line only. This strange but universal abhorrence has been explained by Darwin as primarily the result of sexual indifference arising between members of the same household, and the high

zest of novelty in that appetite. Whatever the cause, the consequences will easily be seen. The racial traits once fixed in the period before this abhorrence arose would remain largely stationary afterwards, and by exogamous marriages would be rendered uniform over a wide area.

This form of conscious selection has properly been rated as one of the prime factors in the problem of race differentiation. The apparently miscellaneous and violent union of the sexes in savage tribes is in fact governed by the most stringent traditional laws, and their confused cohabitations are so only to the mind of the European observer, not to the tribal conscience.

31. Race elements of the United States. The following summary of the racial composition of the American population is given by Hart:

No great modern country has been so much affected by the coming in of foreigners as the United States. In 1900 about 10,500,000 of its residents were born outside of the country: of these nearly 3,000,000 were from Germany or other German-speaking countries; about 1,800,000 were Irish born; England, Scotland, and Canada furnished a total of 1,800,000; Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, about 1,000,000; Slavs of various origin, about 1,200,000; France, Italy, and Mexico together, about 700,000. In forty years the number of Irish-born Americans has been stationary, the Germans have more than doubled, and great numbers of Latin and Slav immigrants have come in from countries unrepresented in 1860.

These race elements are erratically distributed. The Irish and Slavs prefer the cities, the Germans and Scandinavians the open country. Some sections of the United States have almost no immigrants: thus, in the Southern states, leaving out Texas and Missouri, there are only about 400,000 foreigners, less than are to be found in the single city of Chicago. These foreigners have furnished laborers and workmen for the farm, for railroad building, and for the factory, and they have greatly contributed to the building up of the great Northern cities.

In addition to the 10,500,000 immigrants, nearly 16,000,000 of our countrymen are born of a foreign-born father or mother or both parents; so that of the 75,000,000 Americans, 26,000,000 are chiefly of foreign origin, 9,000,000 are negroes, and only about 40,000,000 are of what may be termed an American stock. Hardly in the history of mankind has a great country received such an influx of mixed population from without; and the present prosperity of the republic is proof that this foreign element upon the whole is safe, and that in the course of

time most of the descendants of foreigners will be absorbed into the body politic.

The negro population of 9,000,000 includes nearly every person who has any discoverable admixture of negro blood, even to the thirty-second degree. That population has a large birth rate, but also a large death rate, and hence increases at a ratio a little less than that of the neighboring white population. The negro population is not altogether confined to the Southern states: there are about 400,000 in the states from Maine to Pennsylvania, and 500,000 in the states from Ohio to the Dakotas. In two of the states in the Union, Mississippi and South Carolina, the negroes are in excess of the white population; and in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida they are nearly equal. In general the negro population tends to concentrate in the counties in which there is already the largest number of negroes, and the white population to move slowly into other parts of the same state.

32. Races in Austria-Hungary. In this state race elements are peculiarly diverse and cause grave problems in politics.1

This curiously shaped state [Austria] is divided into seventeen provinces all enjoying extended political powers, and almost all the theater of struggles between two or more of the different races. Some idea of the number of distinct races in the Empire can, indeed, be gathered from the fact that on the assembling of the Reichsrath, or parliament, it has been found necessary to administer the oath in eight different languages. Yet these include only a small part of the tongues and dialects that are spoken in the land. Among the many races that inhabit Austria there are, however, only five important enough to have a marked influence on politics. These are: first, the Germans, who comprise scarcely more than a third of the population, but possess a much larger share of the wealth and culture. They are scattered more or less thickly all through the country, and predominate along the Danube and in the provinces immediately to the south of it. Second, the Bohemians, or Czechs, who are the next most powerful race, and compose a majority of the people in Bohemia and Moravia. Third, the Poles, who form a compact mass in Galicia. Fourth, the Slowenians and other Slavs, living chiefly in the southern provinces in the direction of Trieste. And fifth, the Italians, who are to be found in the southern part of the Tyrol, and in the seaports along the Adriatic. . . .

There are four leading races in Hungary, the Magyar, the Slav, the German, and the Roumanian. The oldest of these is the Roumanian,

1 By permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.

which claims to have sprung from the Roman colonists and the Romanized natives near the mouths of the Danube, and the members of the race certainly speak a language that has a close affinity with Latin. They live in the eastern part of the kingdom, and are especially numerous in Transylvania. . .

The Slavs are, no doubt, the next most ancient race in Hungary, although the precise time of their migration into the country is obscure. They are now broken up into two distinct branches, that of the Slowachians in the north; and that of the Croats and Serbs, who inhabit Croatia, in the southwest, and extend along the whole southern border of the kingdom....

The Teutonic hordes that swept over Hungary at the time of the downfall of the Roman Empire of the west have left no permanent traces, and the Germans who live there to-day are descended from the more peaceful immigrants of later times. They are found in considerable numbers in the cities throughout the center of the land from west to east, but nowhere do they form the bulk of the population, except in certain parts of Transylvania. Here at the end of the twelfth century a large colony of Saxons was established, who preserved their Teutonic culture, and were allowed to govern their cities after their own

customs.

The Magyars, who live chiefly in the vast plains that cover the center and west of Hungary, although a decided minority of the whole people, are the most numerous and by far the most powerful of the races. They have ruled the country ever since their first invasion at the close of the ninth century, and in fact they regard it as peculiarly, and one may almost say exclusively, their own. This people is of Turanian origin, but with their conversion to Christianity under Stephen, their first king (997-1038), they acquired the civilization of the west, and lost their Asiatic traditions. The fact that the Magyars are not Aryans has probably been one of the chief causes of their failure to assimilate the other races, but in some ways it has been a source of strength. It has prevented them from looking for support and sympathy, like the Germans and the Slavs, to their kindred in neighboring countries, and thus by making them self-dependent has increased their cohesion and intensified their patriotism.

33. The race problem in modern colonial empires. The question of racial difficulties that must be met by modern colonizing states is suggestively treated by Coolidge:1

1 Copyright, 1908, by The Macmillan Company.

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