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ing thereby to spend their last blood in that quarrel: and even so do the wild Scots, as you may read in Buchanan; and some of the northern Irish. Likewise at the kindling of the fire, and lighting of candles, they say certain prayers, and use some other superstitious rites, which show that they honour the fire and the light for all those northern nations, having been used to be annoyed with much cold and darkness, are wont therefore to have the fire and the sun in great veneration: like as, contrariwise, the Moors and Egyptians, which are much offended and grieved with extreme heat of the sun, fall to cursing and banning of him as their plague. You may, also, read in the same book (in the tale of Arsacomas) that it was the manner of the Scythians, when any one of them was heavily wronged, and would assemble unto him any forces of people to join with him in his revenge, to sit in some public place on certain days upon an ox-hide; to which there would resort all such persons as, being disposed to take arms, would enter into his pay, or join with him in his quarrel. And the same you may, likewise, read to have been the ancient manner of the wild Scots, which are indeed the very natural Irish. Moreover, the Scythians used to swear by their King's Hand, as Olaus showeth. And so do the Irish use now to swear by their Lord's Hand, and to forswear it, hold more criminal than to swear by God. Also the Scythians said, that they were once a year turned into wolves, and so is it written of the Irish: though Master Camden in a better sense doth suppose it was a disease, called 'Lycanthropia,' so named of the wolf. And yet some of the Irish do use to make the wolf their gossip. The Scythians used also to seeth the flesh in the hide;

and so do the northern Irish. The Scythians used to draw the blood of the beast living, and to make meat thereof, and so do the Irish in the north still. Many such customs I could recount unto you, as of their old manner of marrying, of burying, of dancing, of singing, of feasting, of cursing (though Christians have wiped out the most part of them) by resemblance whereof, it might plainly appear to you, that the nations are the same; but that by the reckoning of these few, which I have told unto you, I find my speech drawn out to a greater length than I purposed. Thus much only for this time, I hope, shall suffice you, to think that the Irish are anciently deduced from the Scythians.

Eudor. But have you (I pray you) observed any such customs amongst them, brought likewise from the Spaniards or Gauls, as those from the Scythians? That may, sure, be very material to your first purpose.

• Iren. Some perhaps I have, and who that will by this occasion more diligently mark and compare their customs, shall find many more. But there are fewer remaining of the Gauls or Spaniards, than of the Scythians; by reason that the parts which they then possessed, lying upon the coast of the western and southern sea, were sithence visited with strangers and foreign people, repairing thither for traffic, and for fishing, which is very plentiful upon those coasts for the trade and inter-deal of sea-coast nations one with another worketh more civility and good fashions (all seamen being naturally desirous of new fashions) than among the inland folk, which are seldom seen of foreigners; yet some of such as I have noted, I will recount unto you.

And first I will, for the better credit of the rest, show

you one out of their statutes, among which it is enacted, that no man shall wear his beard, only on his upper lip, shaving all his chin. And this was the ancient manner of the Spaniards, as yet it is of all the Mahometans, to cut off all their beards close, save only their muschachois, which they wear long. And the cause of this use was, for that they being bred in a hot country, found much hair on their faces and other parts to be noyous unto them; for which cause they did cut it most away: like as, contrarily, all other nations brought up in cold countries do use to nourish their hair, to keep them the warmer; which was the cause that the Scythians and Scots wore glibbs (as I showed you) to keep their heads warm, and long beards to defend their faces from cold. From them also (I think) came saffron shirts and smocks, which were devised by them in those hot countries, where saffron is very common and rife, for avoiding that evil which cometh by much sweating and long wearing of linen. Also the women amongst the old Spaniards had the charge of all household affairs, both at home and abroad (as Boëmus writeth), though now the Spaniards use it quite otherwise: and so have the Irish women the trust and care of all things, both at home and in the field. Likewise, round leather targets is the Spanish fashion, who used it (for the most part) painted, which in Ireland they use also, in many places, coloured after their rude fashion. Moreover, the manner of their women's riding on the wrong side of the horse, I mean with their faces toward the right side, as the Irish use, is (as they say) old Spanish, and some say African; for, among them, the women (they say) used so to ride. Also the deep

smock sleeve, which the Irish women use, they say, was old Spanish, and is used yet in Barbary, &c.'

Spenser's works were published in six vols. 12mo. by Mr. Hughes, with an account of his Life and a glossary. Dr. Birch published an edition of the 'Fairy Queen' in three vols. 4to, 1751. Three more editions of this poem were printed in 1758. In 1734, appeared Dr. Jortin's Remarks on Spenser's Poems' in 8vo.; and Warton's Observations on the Fairy Queen' were reprinted in 1762. Lastly, an edition of his whole works has recently been given to the public in eight volumes 8vo, by the accurate and laborious Mr. Todd.

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* Reprinted in 1750.

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WILLIAM CECIL was the son of Richard Cecil Esq. of Burghley, in the county of Northampton, Master of the Robes in the reign of Henry VIII., and in great favour with that Monarch. His mother was the daughter and heiress of William Hickington Esq. of Bourn, in the county of Lincoln, at which place he was born in the year 1520.

The first rudiments of his education he received at the grammar-schools of Grantham and Stamford, and as he discovered an ardent thirst for knowledge, his father determined to qualify him for the law. With this view, he sent him to St. John's College, Cambridge, where his close application to his studies, assisted by an uncommon genius, speedily acquired him considerable reputation; but a humour in his legs, the consequence of his very sedentary life, unfor tunately laid the foundation of the gout, which afterward pursued him to his grave.


Camden's Annals of Queen Elizabeth; Collins' Life of Cecil; Lloyd's State-Worthies; Salmon's Chronological Historian; Biographia Britannica; and Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors.

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