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says, that there was one at Jerusalem which could be heard as far as the Mount of Olives. The first organ that was brought into France was sent from Constantinople in the year 757, by the Emperor Constantine Copronymus as a present to King Pepin.

There can be little doubt that the organ was known to the Romans, from the testimony of Vitruvius, and the epigram in its praise by the Emperor Julian. Mersennus says, that "the Sieur Naude sent him, from the Matthei Gardens at Rome, the form of a little cabinet of an organ, with bellows like those made use of to kindle a fire, and a representation of a man placed behind the cabinet blowing the bellows, and of a woman touching the keys." On the bottom of the cabinet was the following inscription: C. F. SCAPTIA CAPITOLINUS EX TESTAMENTO FIERO MONUMEN. JUSSIT ARBITRATU HEREDUM MEORUM SIBI ET SU1s.

Luscinius, a Benedictine monk, and a native of Strasburg, who wrote a treatise on music called "Musurgia," gives a description of all the most important instruments of his own day. After speaking of those which consist of vibrating strings, he introduces the wind instruments, which he says, as they are more costly than others, so they excel all others in harmony; the former are made for the use and pleasure of man, but the latter are generally dedicated to the service of God. The organ is then mentioned as the most important. In his day there were two kinds, one he calls the portative, because it could be carried like many other instruments, from one place to another; and the other the positive, for it was usually fixed in churches.

Authors are by no means agreed as to the time when the

organ was first introduced into the church service. It is generally supposed to have been done by Pope Vitalianus, who was raised to the pontifical chair in the year 663. Previous to this time, however, instruments were used in divine service, as appears from the united testimony of Justin Martyr, and Eusebius. St. Ambrose, who lived about fifty years after Eusebius, caused them to be employed in the cathedral church of Milan. Some authors have maintained, that the organ was introduced in the year 1290 by Marinus Sanatus, and to support their opinions assure us, that musical instruments were not known in churches at the time of Thomas Aquinas. But they are met by the statement, that Gervas, a monk of Canterbury, mentions an organ in his description of Lanfranc's church, before the fire in 1174. From these conflicting statements it may be fairly concluded, that the precise time when the organ was first introduced into churches cannot be fixed with certainty; nor indeed is it a matter of great importance, except to those who have an objection to instrumental music in divine service, and are anxious to find some plea from the state of the Christian church at that period.

It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the organ consists of a series of pipes which are supplied with air by a pair of bellows. Some of these tubes are closed, some of them are open, and the modes of vibration are consequently different. By the means of certain stops, the communication may be opened between different sets of tubes, and the quality of the tones greatly varied.

From the statements made in the last three chapters, it will be evident, there are three classes of musical instruments,



those which produce musical sounds from strings, those which are formed of elastic plates and bars, and those enclosing a column of air capable of independent vibration. The laws governing the production of sound in these three instances, so far at least as they could be explained in a popular manner, have been stated; and lest the reader should find a continued philosophical discussion tedious or uninteresting, a short history of some of the most important musical instruments has been introduced.





A NOTE, that is a single musical sound, is called a unison; whether this is a word which conveys the meaning intended by those who use it, is not now to be considered. There are many terms in art and in science, sanctioned by custom, but having little claim to general use from any other circumstance. In the organ and pianoforte, commonly distinguished as keyed instruments, there are in each octave twelve notes, seven of which are produced by white, and five by black keys.

It is generally supposed, that the musical scale was invented by Guido, of Arezzo; or, according to others, that it was an improvement upon the Grecian scale, and called the gamut from the Greek letter gamma, as an acknowledgment of the assistance he derived from the scale of that celebrated nation. In musical composition sounds are represented by marks of different kinds, which are distinguished from each other by being placed either on or between, above or below, five parallel lines, which are together called a staff, as represented in figure 12. The names given to the several notes are as

FIG. 12.



follows-do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do; or according to the modern system they may be distinguished by the first seven letters of the alphahet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G.

The same note has not always the same name, for that depends on the clef which is distinguished by a mark at the beginning of a musical composition. There are three clefsthe treble, or highest; the tenor, or mean; and the bass, or lowest. The method of representing these, and the names given to the several notes, may be learned from the following figure. The treble is called the G clef; the tenor, the C

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clef; and the bass, the F clef; the reason of this will be evident from an examination of the figures which represent them; the treble being on the second, the tenor on the third, and the bass on the fourth line.

It may be here necessary to remark that the position of

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