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This being the case, a sacrifice, though performed at Jerusalem, and with all the ceremonies of the Jewish Passover (save and except the second Passover, which yet was restricted to the same day in the second month b) on any day but the fourteenth of Nisan, would not have been the Jewish Passover: and a sacrifice, though performed on the fourteenth of Nisan, and with all the ceremonies of the Jewish Passover, in any place but Jerusalem, would not have been the Jewish Passover. So indispensable to the constitution and integrity of the type, in this instance, were time and place in conjunction; and so little was either capable of answering its purpose without the other. Who, then, shall say that they were not equally indispensable to the antitype? Had Christ suffered, though he had suffered as a victim, on any day but the fourteenth of Nisan, could he have suffered as the Jewish Passover? Had Christ suffered, though he had suffered as a victim, any where but at Jerusalem, could he have suffered as the Jewish Passover? Had Christ suffered, though he had suffered as a victim, on any day but the fourteenth of Nisan, and at any place but Jerusalem, in conjunction, could he have suffered as the Jewish Passover *?
The circumstances of the Passion, so far as they are related, are all such as to coincide with this view of its secret character, or typical designation. Not to mention that most significant particular, expressly specified
* Justin Martyr, Dialogus, pars i. 218. 15: οὐδαμοῦ θύεσθαι τὸ πρόβατον τοῦ πάσχα ὁ Θεὸς συγχωρεῖ, εἰ μὴ ἐπὶ τόπῳ ᾧ ἐπικέκληται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ. Ibid. 228. 16: κἀκεῖνος ἀπεκρίνατο, Οὔ· γνωρίζομεν
γὰρ ἔτι, ὡς ἔφης, οὔτε πρόβατον τοῦ πάσχα ἀλλαχόσε θύειν δυνατὸν, οὔτε τοὺς τῇ νηστείᾳ κελευσθέντας προσφέρεσθαι χιμάρους, οὔτε τὰς ἄλ λας ἁπλῶς ἁπάσας προσφοράς.
b Numb. ix. 6—13.
by St. John to shew the fulfilment of a well-known condition to the integrity of the Paschal victim o, A bone of him shall not be broken-the place where our Lord suffered was unquestionably Jerusalem; that is, one of the two essential requisites to the sacrifice of the Passover, propriety of place, was visibly true of his death and if he suffered on the fourteenth of Nisan, as St. John clearly implies, the other, propriety of time, was so too. But the analogy goes further than this. At the ninth hour of the day when he suffered our Lord expired; and in his expiration, that is in the separation of his soul from his body, in the rendering up his life to God, not in his previous attachment to, or suspension from the cross, must the article of his sacrifice properly be made to consist. At the ninth hour, on the proper day, Josephus informed usd the sacrifices of the Jewish Passover began to be offered, continuing to be offered until the eleventh: ἐνστάσης ἑορτῆς, πάσχα καλεῖται, καθ ̓ ἣν θύουσι μὲν ἀπὸ ἐννάτης ὥρας, μέχρι ἑνδεκάτης.
The ninth hour, then, according to the usage of the Jews, which is necessarily the best interpreter of the written precepts of their Law, was understood to be the time prescribed for the purpose, in the terms, Between the evenings; and very apposite to this conclusion is the following passage from the Paschal Homilies ascribed to St. Chrysostome: καὶ νόμου κελεύοντος πρὸς ἑσπέραν, καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ἑσπερινῶν, τὸ πρόβατον σφάττεσθαι, καὶ ἡμέραν καὶ ὥραν τῆς σφαγῆς ἐπιτηρεῖ ὁ Σωτήρ· ἡμέραν μὲν τὴν παρασκευήν . . . . ὥραν δὲ, ἐννάτην· καὶ περὶ αὐτὴν τὴν ἐννάτην ἐπὶ σταυροῦ ἀποπνεῖ. πρὸς ἑσπέραν μὲν γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ἑβδόμης ὥρας εἶναί φασι, μετὰ τὴν ἕκτην· τὸ δὲ ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ἑσπερινῶν, εἰ ἀπὸ ἑβδόμης ἄρξῃ,
c John xix. 36. Exod. xii. 46. Numb. ix. 12. Ps. xxxiv. 20. vi. ix. 3· e Operum viii. Spuria, 281. Ε. in Pascha vii. 4.
τὸ κέντρον τῆς ἐννάτης τετελεσμένον ἐστίν· ἐν ᾗ καὶ οἱ σοφοὶ τῶν Ἑβραίων ἱστοροῦσι τὸ πρόβατον θύεσθαι.
It is observable too, that the same sacrifice of our Saviour answered almost as exactly to the daily sacrifice of the fourteenth of Nisan. The times of morning and of evening sacrifice in general, including the times of offering incense, of trimming the lamps, and of resorting to the temple for the purpose of prayer, are attested by Philo and by Josephus, as follows: πρωΐ γὰρ τὰ ἡμίση τῶν λεχθέντων, καὶ τὰ ἕτερα ἑσπέρας δειλινῆς ἐκέλευσεν ὄντως ἱερουργεῖν ὁ νόμος5--Καθ' ἑκάστην μὲν οὖν ἡμέραν δύο ἀμνοὺς ἀνάγειν διείρηται· τὸν μὲν ἅμα τῇ ἔῳ, τὸν δὲ δείλης ἑσπέρας . . . δὶς δὲ καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ἐπιθυμιᾶται... εἴσω τοῦ καταπετάσματος, ἀνίσχοντος ἡλίου καὶ δυομένου, πρό τε τῆς ἑωθινῆς θυσίας καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἑσπερινήν Ἐκ δὲ τοῦ δημοσίου ἀναλώματος νόμος ἐστὶν ἄρνα καθ ̓ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν σφάττεσθαι τῶν αὐτοετῶν, ἀρχομένης τε ἡμέρας καὶ ληγούσης ̓Αλλὰ δὶς τῆς ἡμέρας, πρωΐ τε καὶ περὶ ἐννάτην ὥραν, ἱερουργούντων ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ κ—Δὶς δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας, πρίν τε ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον καὶ πρὸς δυσμαῖς, θυμιᾷν ἐχρῆν, ἔλαιόν τε ἁγνίσαντας φυλάσσειν εἰς τοὺς λύχνους 1.
For the same things we may consult Maimonides De Sacrificiis Jugibus, cap. i. passim. According to his authority, it was considered evening as soon as the shadows began visibly to lengthen; that is, about half past twelve at noon: and the evening sacrifice, beginning at half past two, was generally over at half past three. The morning sacrifice also, though commonly begun before the sun was risen, might yet not be completed before the fourth hour of the day m. Our Sa
k xiv. iv. 3.
g Philo h Ibid. ii.
i Ant. Jud. iii. x. r, Exod. xxix. 38, 39. xxx.
f Vide also Maimonides, De Sacrificiis Jugibus, i. 3. Annott. Operum i. 497.1. 29-31. Quis Rerum Divinarum Hæres. 239. 1. 5-19. De Animalibus Sacrificio Idoneis, 1 iii. viii. 3. Vide also iv. viii. 13. 7, 8. Lev. xxiv. 2—4. Numb. xxviii. 3-8. Three of the branches of the candlestick were kept burning all day-and the remaining four also during the night. Ant. Jud. iii. viii. 3. m Vide Mishna, i. 13. 4.
viour, therefore, who was attached to the cross at the third hour, might answer even to that.
But the same authority informs us that, on the Passover day, the usual evening service was antedated, so as to be over before the ninth hour when the Paschal service was to begin. Si vespera Paschalis, says the Mishna", incideret in sabbathum (which would be the case when the fourteenth of Nisan coincided with the Friday) mactabatur (sacrificium juge) sexta et media; et offerebatur septima et media; et deinde Pascha. At this particular time, then, the evening sacrifice was completed an hour sooner than usual, beginning soon after the sixth hour, and being over before the ninth; wherein also we may perceive a remarkable coincidence. The miraculous darkness which commenced about the sixth hour, and continued until the ninth, on the day of the crucifixion, would continue during the whole of the daily evening service in the temple; and for ought we know, it might have a special relation to it: it might be intended to shew that, while the great sacrifice was accomplished or accomplishing on the cross, the temple and the temple service were obscured for a time, and ready to be superseded for ever.
Again, as the Paschal sacrifice was a lively type of the death of Christ, so was the offering of the wavesheaf of his resurrection; and in allusion to the former as St. Paul styles him our Passover, so in allusion to the latter he calls him the first-fruits of them that slept. To the fulfilment of the legal equity, then, it was just as necessary that the time of the resurrection should coincide with the time of the presentation of the firstfruits, as that the time of the Passion should do so with the time of the Passover. That presentation was
nii. 150. 5. Cf. Maimonides, De Sacrificiis Jugibus, i. 5.
o 1 Cor. xv. 20.
fixed to the hour of pot on the morning of the second day of the Azyma, that is, of the sixteenth of Nisan; which if Christ suffered on the fourteenth of Nisan was actually the time of his rising again. For if he suffered the day before the sabbath, and rose again the day after it-if the Friday when he suffered was the fourteenth, the Sunday when he rose again was the sixteenth and as to the hour when he rose, according to St. Mark it was the prescribed hour, the hour of рw itself: àvaσràs dè, says he, πρwï1*. So exactly, on this one supposition that our Lord suffered on the Jewish Passover day, does every circumstance in the legal symbol, both as concerns his death and as concerns his resurrection, harmonize with the symbolized verity; and so ill, per contra, on any other. For if Christ kept the Jewish Passover on the fourteenth-he must have suffered on the fifteeenth; he must have lain in
* The ancient commentators it is true, say that the actual time of the resurrection is nowhere specified in the Gospels; and therefore they connected рwi in this passage, not with avaσràs, but with epam. Theophylact, i. 263. C. in loc.: ̓Αναστὰς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἐνταῦθα στίξον· εἶτα εἰπὲ, Πρωΐ πρώτῃ σαββάτου ἐφάνη Μαρίᾳ τῇ Μαγδαληνῇ· οὐ γὰρ ἀνέστη πρωΐ· τίς γὰρ οἶδε TOTE dvéσrn; See also Eusebius, πότε ἀνέστη; Quæstiones ad Marinum, i. (SS. Dep. Vat. Coll. i. 63. A): rò yap, ̓Αναστὰς δὲ πρωΐ τῇ μιᾷ τοῦ σαββάτου, κατὰ τὸν Μάρκον, μετὰ διαστολῆς ἀναγνωσόμεθα· καὶ μετὰ τὸ ̓Αναστὰς δὲ, ὑποστίξομεν. Vide Suidas in poi, who has the same gloss. This expedient seemed necessary to reconcile St. Mark's πρωῒ with St. Matthew's ὀψὲ σαβ
Bárov. The same view of reconciling St. Mark's account of the appearances of our Lord after the resurrection with that of the other Evangelists, probably gave occasion to the omission in many copies of his Gospel of the concluding portion of it, from xvi. 9. to the end. See the same Quaestio, 61. D. 62. B. and Hieronymus, Operum iv. pars i. 172. ad medium, Hedibiæ.
There is another instance of the same arbitrary kind of punctuation, to save an imaginary difficulty, Luke xxiii. 43. Theophylact, i. 487 B: ἄλλοι δὲ ἐκβιάζονται τὸ ῥῆμα, στίζοντες εἰς τὸ σήμερον, ἵν ̓ ᾖ τὸ λεγόμενον τοιοῦτον· ̓Αμὴν λέγω σοι σήμερον· εἶτα τὸ, Μετ ̓ ἐμοῦ ἔσῃ ἐν τῇ παραδείσῳ, ἐπιφέροντες.
p Ch. xvi. 9.