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Non vigil ales ibi cristati cantibus oris
Evocat Auroram.

Ovid, Metamorphosewn xi. 597.

Nocte Deæ Nocti cristatus cæditur ales,
Quod tepidum vigili provocat ore diem.

Jam dederat cantum lucis prænuntius ales,

Fasti, i. 455.

Cum referunt juvenes in sua castra pedem. Ibid. ii. 767.

Hæc ille, et si quæ miseri novistis amantes,

En! matutinis obstrepit alitibus. Propertius, i. xvi. 45.

Tunc queror in toto non sidere pallia lecto,

Lucis et auctores non dare carmen aves. Ibid. iv. iii.
. 31.

Nondum cristati rupere silentia galli,

Murmure jam sævo, verberibusque, tonas.

Martial, ix. 69. In Magistrum ludi.

Surgite, jam vendit pueris jentacula pistor;
Cristatæque sonant undique lucis aves.

Ibid. xiv. 223.

Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat.

Horace, Sermonum i. i. 10.

Quod tamen ad cantum galli facit ille secundi,
Proximus ante diem caupo sciet.

Juvenal, Sat. ix. 107 *.

̓́Ορνιχες τρίτον ἄρτι τὸν ἔσχατον ὄρθρον ἄειδον.

Theocritus, Idyll. xxiv. 63.

In allusion to these times of cock-crowing among others, Censorinus divides the night as follows: Tempus, quod huic proximum est, vocatur de media nocte: sequitur gallicinium, cum galli canere incipiunt: dein conticinium, cum conticuerunt: tunc ante lucem: et sic diluculum, cum sole nondum orto jam lucet. In like manner Macrobius: Deinde gallicinium; inde conticinium; cum et galli conticescunt, et homines

* Dr. Mead too has shewn that the voice of the bird alluded to, Ecclesiastes xii. 4, is cockcrow, as such, more probably

a De Die Natali, xxiv.

than morning, or dawn of day. Vide Harmer, iv. 38, 39. ch. vii. obs. cxxv.

r Saturnalia, i. 3.

etiam tum quiescunt: deinde diluculum...inde mane. Servius, ad Æneidem, ii. 268: Sunt autem solidæ noctis partes secundum Varronem hæ: vespera, concubium, intempesta nox, gallicinium, conticinium, lucifer. diei, mane, ortus, meridies, occasus. de crepusculo vero, quod est dubia lux, . . . licet utrique tempori possit jungi, usus tamen ut matutino jungamus obtinuit. Ad Æneidem, iii. 587: Sane noctis septem tempora ponuntur: crepusculum, quod et vesper: fax, quo lumina incenduntur: concubium, quo nos quieti damus: intempesta, id est, media: gallicinium, quo galli cantant: conticinium, post cantum gallorum silentium: aurora, vel crepusculum matutinum, tempus quod ante solem est *.

* These divisions of the night are alluded to in a letter of Marcus Aurelius Cæsar, written to Fronto, from the neighbourhood of Naples, and describing the variableness of the temperature of that climate, in the course of the same night: Jam primum media nox tepida, Laurentina. tum autem gallicinium frigidulum, Lanuinum. jam conticinium, atque matutinum, atque diluculum, usque ad solis ortum, gelidum Adalgidum maxime.-Frontonis Opera inedita, Epp. ad Marcum Cæs. lib. ii. 1. р. 69.

Suidas, Κήρυξ. ὁ ἀλεκτρύων τρίτον δὲ ᾄδει. Ammianus Marcellinus, xxii. 14. 331: Casium montem... unde secundis galliciniis videtur primo solis exortus. Gesta Petri,61. (PP. Apostolici, 775. Ε.) ἄρτι δὲ περὶ τὰς δευτεραίας τῶν ἀλεκτρυόνων ᾠδὰς ἀναoras, K, T.λ. Cf. also Clementina Homilia 3a. 1. Ibid. 576. B.

Plutarch, Aratus, 7, 8: ó rηY ἑωθινὴν φυλακὴν παραδιδοὺς ἐφώδευε κώδωνι . ἡ δὲ ὥρα κατήπει


γεν, ἤδη φθεγγομένων ἀλεκτρυόνων, καὶ ὅσον οὔπω τῶν ἐξ ἀγροῦ τι φέρειν εἰωθότων πρὸς ἀγορὰν ἐπερχομένων...ἡμέρα μὲν ὑπέλαμπεν ἤδη. Aristides, xxvi. 512. l. 4: åλeκτρυόνων δὲ ᾠδαὶ πλησίον ἦσαν . . . ἅμα δὲ τῇ ἔῳ, κ',τ.λ. Idem, xxvii. 535. 1.14: καὶ περὶ ἀλεκτρυόνων μά. λιστά πως ᾠδὰς ἀνύσας εἰς Μύριναν ...καὶ δὴ ἑωσφόρος τε ὑπερεῖχε, καὶ φῶς ἡμέρας ὑπέφαινεν—iii Μacc. v. 23: ἄρτι δὲ ἀλεκτρύων ἐκεκράγει ὄρθριος . . . 24. τὴν πρωΐαν . . . 26. οὔπω δὲ ἡλίου βολαὶ, κ', τ. λ. Plutarch, De Oraculorum Defectu, vii. 645 : οὔτε ὁ Σοφοκλέους ̓́Αδμητος· οὑμὸς δ ̓ ἀλέκτωρ αὐτὸν ἦγε πρὸς μύλην: unless, indeed, ἀλέKтop is here, my husband: Alcestis being the speaker. Cf. upon the same subject, Anthologia, i. 22. Meleagri lxxii: 37. cxxiii. 7, 8: ii. 96. Antipatri Thessalonicensis v: ii.105. Ejusdem xxxix.

It is mentioned by Pausanias, v. 25 that the shield of Idomeneus, a descendant of the sun, had the device of a cock upon it, for the following reason: 'Ido

Each of these authorities, therefore, places the gallicinium between the beginning of the conticinium, and the end of the de media nocte: that is, the first cock-crow was supposed to be just after the latter, and the third just before the other: whence, if these were equal divisions of time, the first cock-crow would be as much after midnight, as the third would be before morning; and morning, Tрwi, or mane, being always determined by sunrise, at the equinox, when the sun rises at six, the diluculum begins about five, and the antelucem, or conticinium, about four.

μενεύς ἐστιν ὁ ἀπόγονος Μίνω· τῷ δὲ ̓Ιδομενεῖ γένος ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἡλίου τοῦ πατρὸς Πασιφάης ̔Ηλίου δὲ ἱερόν φασιν εἶναι τὸν ὄρνιθα, καὶ ἀγγελλειν ἀνιέναι μέλλοντος τοῦ ἡλίου. In like manner, Plutarch, De Pythiæ Oraculis, vii. 575, tells us of an artist who, to express morning, painted a cock on the hand of Apollo; and (Eckhel, i. 212.) from the same connexion of this

bird with day, ἡμέρα or ἱμέρα, the coins of Himera in Sicily had the image of a cock upon them.

Cf. Pollux, Onomasticon, i. cap. 7. §. 8: Heliodorus, Athiopica, i. 18: Basil, Operum i. 107. D: Theophylact, i. 255. C. In Marc. xiv. and 478. C. in Luc. xxii.

Cock-crow, as such, was an important time in the observances of the primitive church. The great fast, in Passion-week, which began on the Parasceue or Friday, was appointed to terminate at it. Vide Constitutiones Apostolicæ, v. 15. PP. Apostolici, 255. C. D: 18. 258. D. E: 19. 259. B: Rel. Sacræ, ii. 385. 17: 386. 2: 390. 13: SS. Dep. Vaticana Collectio, i.

66. A. B: Eusebii Quæstiones ad Marinum, ii: Epiphanius, i. 11o5. D. Expositio Fidei, xxii. &c. The Apostolical Constitutions make it one of the stated times of prayer, viii. 34. 365. D. E: dià Tò Tηv ☎pav (supple ἐκείνην) εὐαγγελίζεσθαι τὴν παρουσίαν τῆς ἡμέρας εἰς ἐργασίαν τῶν τοῦ φωτὸς ἔργων. Cf. Ambrose, Operum i. 112. C. Hexaëmeron, V. xxiv. §. 88. and ii. 1061. D. Epistolæ, lxix. §. 3. and 1219. A-D. Hymnus i. It was a common notion, too, that cockcrow was the actual time when our Lord rose from the dead. Prudentius, Operum i. 5. Cathemerinon i. i. Ad Galli Cantum. Ales diei nuntius | Lucem propinquam præcinit; | Nos excitator mentium Jam Christus ad vitam vocat. 1-4. Vox ista qua strepunt aves, Stantes sub ipso culmine, | Paullo ante quam lux emicet, | Nostri est figura judicis. 13-16. Inde est, quod omnes credimus | Illo quietis tempore | Quo gallus exsultans canit, Christum redisse ex inferis. 65-68.

At the equinox, therefore, the last cock-crow would be supposed to be about four in the morning *; and consequently the first about two, and the second about three for experience shews that between two successive cock-crows, as such, the interval is commonly one hour from which natural effect, too, the division of time itself, as founded upon it, must have been originally taken. The observation of experience is confirmed by what happened in the present instance. Between the second and the third of Peter's denials, which means in fact between the first and the second of the cock-crowings in question, there was this interval of time.

The time, then, of St. Peter's denials, and the time of the first and the second of our Lord's examinations, being both nearly limited by the first and the second of the crowings of the cock, would both be comprehended between a little before two, and a little after three, in the morning; a conclusion which is perfectly agreeable to the whole course of events before Jesus was brought to the palace of the high priest, and to the whole course of events after that. The second examination having been finished soon after three, it would begin to be day, as St. Luke expresses it, soon after four; and the third having been speedily completed, our Lord might be taken to Pilate soon after five; a time which St. John would naturally describe by ρwiα, because earlier than sunrise or πpwi, though


*This coincidence is very plainly expressed in Virgil's called Moretum, lines I, 2. Jam nox hibernas bis quinque peregerat horas, | Excubitorque diem cantu prædi

xerat ales: whence it appears that the last cock-crow synchronized with the tenth hour of the night complete; that is, if these were equinoctial hours, with four in the morning.

much later than the dawn of day*. With this event the particulars of our second division will expire.

The third division is contained by Matt. xxvii. 3–31. Mark xv. 2-20. Luke xxiii. 2–25. and John xviii. 29xix. 16. all inclusively.

The first circumstance in the order of its events is the repentance followed by the death of Judas, as recorded by St. Matthew only. The time and the place of this event were manifestly such as to come critically between the close of the last, and the commencement of this, division. That condemnation of our Lord, which is said to have produced this change of mind, is clearly referred by St. Matthew, (xxvii. 3.) to the condemnation by the Sanhedrim, xxvi. 66. before it could have nothing to do with the condemnation by Pilate; first, because no such condemnation had yet taken place; and secondly, because that was not a distinct condemnation, independent of this, but merely the execution of the sentence of the Sanhedrim in consequence of this.

The abduction of Jesus to Pilate was not that he might be condemned afresh, but the necessary consequence of his being condemned already. The judgment of the council had pronounced him worthy of death; which, in the absence of the power of life and death, was the utmost they could do. But to give effect to the judgment it was necessary to resort to the civil governor. The abduction to Pilate, therefore, might justly be considered the sign and seal of our Saviour's death.

If all this was known to Judas, that is, if he had

* Philo Judæus, i. 7. 1. 29. De Mundi Opificio: o Tol dé elow coñéρа тe кai прwta ὧν ἡ μὲν προευαγγελίζεται μέλλοντα ἥλιον ἀνίσχειν, ἠρέμα τὸ σκότος ἀνείργουσα· ἡ δὲ ἑσπέρα καταδύντι

ἐπιγίνεται τῷ ἡλίῳ. Πρωΐα answers to mane, which Varro also, apud Servium, ad Æneid. ii. 268. loc. cit. distinguished from ortus or


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