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which are too meagre and scanty to reward a collector, who should be at the trouble of bringing them together. Nor am I aware that among these references to his works, there are any on record, which would supply the necessary data for determining the year of his death. Philostratus quotes him, as relating that he had caught an elephant, four hundred years after some battle-the time of which, however, is not specified: and Basil of Cappadocia seems to refer to the same statement, where he observes c, νῦν δὲ ἤδη τινὲς ἱστοροῦσι καὶ τριακόσια ἔτη καὶ πλείω τούτων βιοῦν τὸν ἐλέφαντα *.
Repeated allusions occur in the Natural History of Pliny to a work of Juba's, upon Arabia, which he dedicated to Caius Cæsar; having composed it in consequence of Caius' expedition into Arabia. Caius Cæsar was sent into the East, U. C, 753; and as his death happened in the month of February, U. C. 757, it is manifest that the time of the composition of this work
* In the Monumenta Historica, ad Augusti regnum pertinentia, (apud Orellium, Inscriptionum Latinarum amplissima Collectio) there is a fragment which is addressed to Juba by the duumviri, or municipal consuls, of some Colonia Romana, (which the learned editor considers to have been Carthage,) as the Patronus Coloniæ. In Festus Avienus' Ora Maritima, (Geographi Minores, iv. p. 18. 1. 269. sqq.) we have the following allusion to the fact of Juba's having been himself also sometime one of the duumviri of Tartessus in Spain.
b Vita Apollonii Tyan. ii. 6. 70. B-D. Cf. Ælian, De Natura Animalium, ix. Operum i. 120. B. In Hexaëmeron Homilia ix. Vide also, Ambrose, Operum i. 125. E. Hexaëmeron vi. v. §. 34. Cf. however, Ælian, De Natura Animalium, xvii. 7. d H. N. ii. 67. vi. 31. 32. xii. 31. xxxii. 4.
could not be earlier than U. C. 754. nor later than U. C. 756. It follows, therefore, that Juba was not yet dead, between U. C. 754. and U. C. 756.
Accordingly it is evident from Dio Cassius e, that Juba was actually alive when the Gætuli rebelled; the time of which rebellion he places U. C. 758. or 759 f. For they were reduced the same year in which Tiberius made his second expedition into Germany; viz. the year U. C. 759. The winter immediately subsequent to the reduction, which is just afterwards alluded to as spent in Pannonia, was the winter of U. C. 760: the next year being U. C. 761h. In these particulars, as to the time of the commencement of the Pannonian war, Velleius Paterculus agrees with Dio; as I have had occasion to prove more at large elsewhere.
The proconsul of Africa at the time of this reduction was Cossus Cornelius Lentulus. Now he had been consul U. C. 753. Hence, by a standing rule of Augustus' government, he could not be proconsul until five years afterwards, at the earliest: that is, until U. C. 758. And this also is an argument that the rebellion of the Gætuli, and consequently the death of Juba, who was alive at the time, could not be earlier than U. C. 758.
The extant coins of the kings of Mauritania from Juba the elder, to Ptolemy, the son and successor of Juba the younger, and which are principally those of Juba the younger himself; if the numeral notes which they contain are rightly understood of the years of his reign, make him to have reigned forty-eight years at least. Pliny, H. N. v. 1: Juba, Ptolemæi pater, qui primus utrique Mauritaniæ imperavit : Tacitus, Ann. iv.5: Mauros Juba rex acceperat donum populi Romani.
f Ibid. 25.
e lv. 28. tation viii. vol. i. 337.
g Ibid. 28, 29, 30. h Cf. lv. 30. 33. i Disserk Eckhel, Doctrina Nummorum Vett. iv. 155-161.
Strabo ' makes his kingdom the gift of Augustus Cæsar. He tells us also that Bogus or Bocchus, king of Mauritania, having espoused the part of Antony, perished at Methone in the Messenian territory*, when Agrippa took that place after the battle of Actium. His territories thus became forfeited to Augustus, and might be given by him to Juba. Dio, liii. 26. 25, places this enlargement of his dominions, in what way soever it was made, U. C. 729: and he tells us, before, li. 15. 21, that Juba accompanied Augustus in his expedition against Egypt, U. C. 724, and after the death of Antony and Cleopatra was married by him to Cleopatra their daughter, as well as reinstated in possession of part of his father's dominions, which had become forfeited to the Roman government by Juba the elder's opposition to Julius Cæsar t.
Upon the authority of this testimony, Eckhel deduces the years of his reign from U. C. 724: on which supposition, if he reigned at least forty-eight years, he could not be dead before U. C. 771 or 772. But this learned and accurate writer seems to have overlooked in the present instance the passage from Josephus ; which places it beyond a doubt that Juba was not alive after U. C. 760, at the latest. And Josephus is strongly confirmed by the following fact; viz. that
* Cf. Porphyry, Пepì dпoxns ζώων, i. 25. p. 37·
To this marriage of Juba and Cleopatra, we may refer an extant epigram of Crinagoras, (a contemporary of the reign of Augustus, as his epigrams shew,) which would otherwise be involved in obscurity: Anthologia, ii. 132. xix.
Αγχουροι μεγάλαι κόσμου χθόνες, ἃς διὰ Νεῖλος | πιμπλάμενος μελά.
νων τέμνει ἀπ ̓ Αἰθιόπων, ] ἀμφό-
So likewise, a fragment of Ælian's, in Suidas, voce "AyeDio li. 21. will imply that this marriage was not earlier than U. C. 725. or 726.
1 xvii. 3. §. 7. 654. m viii. 4. §. 3. 160. Cf. xvii. 3. §. 7. 653.
among the coins of Ptolemy, the son of Juba, there is one which represents him as already king, in the lifetime of Augustus; and what is more as sole king. Now this is altogether inexplicable, if his father did not die until four or five years after the death of Augustus himself. It is entirely a gratuitous supposition to assume that he was associated with his father in his lifetime and if he had been so, the coins which were subsequently struck during the reign of Augustus must have exhibited them both in conjunction.
The language of Strabo is express that Juba died, before Ptolemy his son succeeded him in the kingdom. Juba," says he, " died not long ago; and Ptolemy his "son has succeeded to his dominions, being his offspring by a daughter of Antony's and Cleopatra's "." Cf. also the end of the book §. 25. 707. But Strabo, it may be objected, both here, and in one or two other passages of the same chapter, speaks of him as νεωστὶ τετελευτηKÓTα. There is a reference in such words to Strabo's own time and the time when Strabo was writing admits of being very exactly determined. For example, lib. iv. cap. vi. §.9. 86: §. 8. 84, 85. he mentions the reduction of the Rhæti, Vindelici, and Norici, which Dio (liv. 22.) proves to have been, U. C. 738 or 739-as thirty-three years before the time when he was writing.
Lib. vi. cap. iv. §. 2. 312: lib. vii. cap. i. §. 4. 327. he alludes to Germanicus' triumph over the Cherusci, May 26, U. C. 770: Tacitus, Ann. ii. 42 *.
Lib. xii. cap. i. §. 4. 10. he mentions the death of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia; which also was U. C. 770. Cf. Tacitus, Ann. ii. 42. Dio, lvii. 17.
* Cf. also Strabo, lib.1.cap. 2. page 37 lib. vii. cap. i. §. 4. with Tacitus, Ann. ii. 22. U. C.
769 and Strabo, lib. iv. cap. iii. §. 4. page 49. with Tacitus, Ann. i. 69. U. C. 768.
n Lib. xvii. 3. §. 7. 654.
Lib. xii. cap. iii. §. 29. 124. he alludes to the death of Cotys, king of Thrace, and to the appointment of Zeno, son of Polemo, to be king of Armenia-both of which were U. C. 771-(Cf. Tacitus, Ann. ii. 56. 66 :) or the former early in U. C. 772.
Lib. xii. cap.viii. §.18. 242: lib. xiii. cap. iii. §.5. 448. cap. iv. §. 8. 476. the earthquake in Asia is alluded to as a recent event: and that happened U. C. 770. Vide Tacitus, Ann. ii. 47. Dio, lvii. 17.
Lib. xvii. cap. iii. §. 25. 708. Achaia is spoken of as still a proconsular province, which it was not, strictly speaking, after U. C. 768: Tacitus, Ann. i. 76.
But his age is most critically determined by the last sentence of book the sixth: which shews that Germanicus was still alive when he was writing. Now Germanicus was not alive after October ninth, U. C. 772: and his death was known at Rome before the middle of December in the same year.
It is manifest, then, that Strabo was writing either U. C. 771, or early in U. C. 772. Hence, if his expression, "lately dead," concerning Juba, is to be strictly understood, it would imply that he had died U. C. 770, or early in 771: the last of which dates, and much more the first, would scarcely be reconcilable to the testimony of a coin of his, which bore date in the forty-eighth year of his reign, if deduced from U. C. 724; after the reduction of Egypt. For this coin would not begin to bear date, before the autumnal quarter of U. C. 771. itself. And though Strabo alludes to Juba, lib. vi. cap. iv. §. 2. 312. even as governing Mauritania still; this is a statement which at that time could not be true, except as understood generally, and of the fact that his family was continuing to reign over it after him, though he himself was dead.
The truth is, nothing is more common in works