Изображения страниц

have been only twenty, in the second of Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 603. He would be eighty-nine in the third of Cyrus, B. C. 534. That he did not accompany the Jews on their return to Judæa, B. C. 536, is certain; and that one reason of this might be his advanced age at the time, is not improbable. Yet we may justly presume that the return itself, at the precise period marked out by prophecy, in the first of Cyrus, might be due in part to the station of Daniel in the court of Persia, to his reputation in the reign of Darius, before Cyrus' accession, and to his influence with Cyrus himself; the language of whose proclamation or decree, giving permission to the Jews to return, is such, as could scarcely have been dictated by any but Daniel himself*. See 2 Chron. xxxvi. 23: Ezra i. 2, 3.

If the age of Daniel was more than twenty, B. C.

* Josephus relates, Ant. x. xi. 7, that after the accession of Darius the Mede, and the deliverance of Daniel, recorded in chapter v. the latter built a tower or βάρις, at Ecbatana in Media, of wonderful art and beauty; which still existed in his own time, and had been used ever after as the regal sepulchre of the kings of Media, Persia, and Parthia, successively; and from the first was specially confided to the keeping of a Jewish priest.

said, at Achmetha, in the palace, that is in the province of the Medes, containing the decree in question. The Septuagint renders this, ἐν Ἐκβατάνοις τῇ βάρει τῇ ἐν Μηδείᾳ χώρᾳ: and Josephus recognises the antiquity of this reading by transferring the same statement to his Antiquities, xi: iv. 6. καὶ εὑρέθη ἐν Εκβατάνοις, τῇ βάρει τῇ ἐν Μηδίᾳ, βιβλίον, κ', τ. λ. If this was the original roll, and kept in a Bápis or tower at Ecbatana, it would go far to authenticate the tradition that Daniel built a Bápis there; and that this was the tower in question. It must be observed, however, that the word in the Hebrew, which answers to the Greek, does not properly denote a citadel, or tower, in that language, but a palace: not arx or turris, but regia.

I know not on what authority this statement is made. But it is a singular coincidence, that, according to the Book of Ezra, vi. 2, when search was commanded to be made in the second of Darius, B. C. 521, for the original record of the permission of Cyrus to the Jews to return-a roll was found, it is

603, he would be proportionally older, B. C. 534, at the date of the last of his visions. In the natural course of things, it cannot be supposed that he would long survive his ninetieth year and upwards. And if we were to conjecture that he died soon after the date of this vision, we should have apparently the countenance of the last words of this prophecy itself; which are such as almost to intimate that the time of his death was at hand. Ch. xii. 9. " And he said, Go thy way, Daniel; for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end." And again, xii. 13: "But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days." In this case, the absolute length of time embraced by the Book of Daniel, will be from B. C. 606, to B. C. 534: or seventytwo years in all.



Further Consideration of the Opinions of the most ancient Christians upon the preceding topics.

Vide Dissertation xiii. vol. i. page 451. line 8-465. last line. JUSTIN MARTYR-The date which Cassiodorus assigns to the presentation of the first Apology of Justin Martyr, is confirmed by the further testimony of Prosper of Aquitaine; who places it in Chronico, U.C. 899. That this year was the date of the consulate of Clarus and Severus, may likewise be shewn by the following coincidence.

The emperor Severus was born vi (corr. iii.) Ides of April (April 11.) Coss. Erucio Claro ii. et Severo b. Dio agrees with Spartian as to the day of his birth c; but he makes him at the time of his death to be sixtyfive years, nine months, and twenty-five days old. Spartian, on the contrary, as his text stands uncorrected, tells us he did not live one year more than eighty-nine years; a manifest error in the statement or reading. The truth is, as he died early in the month of February, (Feb. 4,) U. C. 964, Dio meant to say that he was sixtyfour years, nine months, and twenty-five days old; and had he survived to the eleventh of April, he would have been sixty-five complete. In this case, his birthday was April 11, U. C. 899, which was consequently the year of the consulate of Clarus and Severus.

If we institute a search for notes of time, into the a Operum 712. b Spartian, Severus, 1. c lxxvi. 17. d Vita, 22. Yet Pescennius Niger, 5. the same statement is repeated.

Apology of Justin itself; it must be acknowledged that none occurs there, which is very distinct and definite: yet what there are rather favour the supposition that it was presented early in the reign of Antoninus, than the contrary. With respect to the persons, addressed in the opening sentence, Titus Ælius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius Augustus Cæsar, or emperor, and Verissimus his son the Philosopher, and Lucius the Philosopher, the son of Cæsar by nature, and of Pius by adoption; all the difficulty respecting them is done away, if by the Cæsar who is spoken of as naturally the father of Lucius, we understand L. Ælius Verus Cæsar, deceased; whom Hadrian adopted about U. C. 889 or 890, and upon his death, January 1, U. C. 891, adopted Antoninus Pius; on condition that Antoninus Pius himself should adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus; the former the son of Annius Verus, the brother of Annia Galeria Faustina, the wife of Antoninus Pius; the latter the son of Ælius Verus Cæsar, deceased. Such is the true account of these several adoptions; as it might be proved from the testimony of contemporary writers, Aristides, Galen, Dio, and others *: though Capitolinus in his Life of Marcus Antoninus Philosophus, and of Verus Imperator, supposes Marcus adopted by Pius, and Verus by MarBut Spartian in his Life of Hadrian 5, if not of


* To these we may add Marcus Antoninus himself, De Rebus suis, i. 14. 17, and apud Frontonis Opera Inedita, Epp. ad Marcum Cæsarem, i. 5: the emperor Julian, in Cæsaribus, Operum 312. A: ¿meieλdovσns δὲ αὐτῷ τῆς τῶν ἀδελφῶν ξυνωρίδος,

Býpov kaì Aovkíov, k', T. λ; Zosimus, lib. i. ἡ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ξυνωρὶς, Bĥpos Kai AoúKIOS: Aurelius Victor, De Marco: Ammianus Marcellinus, xxvii. 6: and the Letters of Verus and Fronto, e libro citato: Ep. 3. p. 85: 4. p. 87, 89: 6. p. 96: 7. p. 96, 97.

e Vide the coins of Sinope, Eckhel, ii. 393. and Spartian, Hadrianus, 26. 1. f Antoninus, 5. Verus, 2. Cf. however, Antoninus, 7. Verus, 3.

Severus, 20. Verus Cæsar, 5, 6, 7. Capitolinus, Antoninus Pius, 4.

8 24. Cf. also

Ælius Verus Cæsar, and Capitolinus himself in that of Antoninus Pius, are more agreeable to the truth. The precise year of this double adoption may be uncertain, whether U. C. 891 or 892h. The coins of Marcus Aurelius, as Cæsar, appear first, U. C. 892i.

The name of Verissimus, by which Marcus is designated in the above passage, was given to him by Hadrian before he assumed the toga virilis *; which he did, U. C. 888, in his fifteenth year. And though after that assumption, Hadrian is said to have called him Annius Verus; yet there is extant a coin of Tyra, a city of Sarmatia Europea, which has upon it the head of M. Aurelius, and the name Verissimus Cæsarm; consequently after the time of his adoption itself, U. C. 892.

At the end of the Apology, Hadrian's rescript to Minucius Fundanus is quoted, and given at full length": a rescript, which Jerome, in Chronico, dates in the tenth of Hadrian, and Eusebius, Chronicon ArmenoLatinum, in the eighth. In one passage, we have a general allusion to some existing law against castration-which Domitian, Nerva P, and Hadrian, each at different times forbade: in another to the death and deification of Antinous, spoken of as Toù vûv yeyevnuévou, the time of which, as I shall have occasion to prove hereafter, came between the eleventh and the

* Dio or Xiphilinus, lxix. 21. implies that he gave him the name when he caused him to be adopted by Antoninus. According to Herodian, i. 1, the name of Verissimus was given to one of Marcus' sons-Annius Verus,

as I should suppose-no mention being made of any other son of Marcus, but this one so named, and Commodus. Marcus is called Verissimus Cæsar, by Jerome, in Chronico, ad annum Abrahami 2162. Antonini Pii ix.

h See Capitolinus, Antoninus Ph. 1. 5. 7. linus, Vita, 1, 4. 1 Ibid. m Eckhel, ii. 4. o P. 47. 1. 6-14.

i Eckhel, vii. 44. k Capiton Page 99. line 13-100. 1. 23. p Cf. Dio, lxvii. 2. lxviii. 2: Cassiodorus, Chronica, the first of Domitian: Ammianus Marcellinus, xviii. 4: Eusebius and Jerome, Chronica, ad annum Abrahami 2098 or 2099.

q P. 47. 1. 19.

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »