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his march from Apollonia to Thessaly. This then would be about the third week in July.
When he was arrived at Gomphib, there is an allusion to an embassy, which the Thessalians had sent to him paucis ante mensibus. They sent it, soon after the junction of Antony with the troops from Brundisium, three or four months previously.
From Gomphi he marched to Metropolis, and thence to the plains of Pharsalia: Segetis idoneum locum in agris nactus, quæ prope jam matura erat. He would arrive about the end of July.
Re frumentaria præparata ... et satis longo spatio temporis a Dyrrhachinis præliis intermisso. This spatium temporis could scarcely be less than three weeks or a month. It appears, accordingly, from Cicero, De Divinatione, compared with the other authorities in the margin, that there was thirty days' interval, or upwards, between Pompey's departure from Dyrrhachium, (where Cicero was left behind,) and the time of the battle *.
It is not inconsistent with the conclusions thus established, that Plutarch tells us, at the time of the battle, ἦν μὲν ἀκμὴ θέρους καὶ καῦμα πολύh: for this might truly be said of the first week in August. Among the other prodigies which preceded the departure of Pompey in pursuit of Cæsar, Lucan mentions the circum
stance of a swarm of bees settling on the standards of
Necnon innumero cooperta examine signa. In which he is historically correct; as the same things are enumerated by Valerius Maximus, who wrote in the reign of Tiberius. And this too is a circumstance which might happen in the month of July or August. Nor must we omit to notice the sarcastic remark, attributed to Favonius: εἰ μηδὲ τῆτες ἔσται τῶν περὶ Τουσκλάνον ἀπολαῦσαι συκῶν k. We may learn from Horace, that figs would not be ripe in Italy before the first week in September:
Dum ficus prima, calorque
Designatorem decorat lictoribus atris1.
Epistolarum i. vii. 5. See line 2. It appears also that the Comitia Consularia and Prætoria were at hand when Pompey arrived at Pharsaliam: the time of which, though now very irregularly observed, was commonly August, September, or October *.
The battle was begun in the morning, and over by noon so that Pompey had time sufficient to escape to Larissa the same night, and thence to the sea. Upon this point authorities are unanimous P. Cæsar himself followed to Larissa the next day 9.
*Lucan, who is as much an historian as a poet, speaks of the corn's being scarcely ripe even when Pompey was come into Thessaly. Ad præmaturas segetum jejuna rapinas | Agmina compulimus. Lib. vii. 98. And on the very day of the battle, he says; Illo forte die Cæsar statione relicta, | Ad segetum raptus moturus signa. Ibid. 235.
í Lib. i. vi. 12. * Plutarch, ii. vi. 19. Epistolæ, i. xvi. 16. xiv. 12. o B. C. iii. 95, 96. -723: Appian, B. C. ii. 81.
And so Cæsar states himself, lib. iii. 85. It appears from Cicero", that he himself returned to Italy after the battle with no delay: and was arrived at Brundisium before pridie nonas Novembres. And this too would be an argument that the date of the battle could not have been earlier than the latter end of September.
Cæsar, 41. Pompeius, 67. 1 Cf. Sermonum, m B. C. iii. 82. n Ad Fam. vii. 3. xv. 15. p Valerius Maximus, iv. v. 5: Lucan, vii. 712 q B. C. iii. 98.
In one or two days after the battle Pompey appears to have arrived at Amphipolis; and that in the evening. He remained there ad ancoram una nocte, and then sailed paucis diebus to Mitylene". These pauci dies may be referred to the date of the departure from Larissa, and might reach from the night of September 22 exclusive, to September 25 or 26.
Biduum, he is said to have stayed at Mitylene: and from thence he sailed first to Cilicia, and afterwards to Paphus in Cyprus $.
The account, however, of his motions which is given by Lucan is something different from this. He specifies his coming to Larissa, but he supposes him to escape thence, without delay, to the mouth of the Peneus, and sail directly to Mitylenet. From Lesbus he supposes him to depart, without staying a single night; exactly at sunset ". Before the next morning he had already passed Chius: after which, pursuing the usual route, he is taken without intermission by Samos, Cos, Gnidos, and Rhodes, to Phaselis in Lycia, and thence to Selinus in Cilicia, or rather to Synedra or Syedra, its seaport :
Quo portu mittitque rates recipitque Selinus .
Here that deliberation is supposed to take place which was followed by his departure to Egypt. Yet Lucan also makes him touch at Paphus.
Tunc Cilicum liquere solum, Cyproque citatas
Immisere rates, nullas cui prætulit aras
Undæ Diva memor Paphiæv.
From Lesbus to Pelusium in Egypt, we need not reckon it more than five or six days' and nights' sail,
r B. C. iii. 102.
s Cf. Cicero, Philippica, ii. 15: Valerius Maximus, i. v. 6.
t Lib. viii. 1-5.33-40. x Ibid. 244-251-260.
u Ibid. 109. 113. 146. 159.
y Ibid. 456.
v viii. 195. 202.
even by Cilicia and Cyprus*. Appian asserts that Cæsar, in pursuit of Pompey, arrived at Alexandria, from Rhodes, which was more distant than Cyprus, on the third day after his departure, which took place at evening; having consequently been only two days and three nights complete, on the roada. Lucan, likewise, describes his motions to the same effect, beginning with the Hellespont.
Sic fatus, repetit classes, et tota secundis
Prævehitur, pelagoque Rhodon spumante relinquit.
Lib. ix. 1000-1005.
which supposes that he was only six days and seven nights at the utmost, in sailing from the Hellespont to Egypt. Even this is too liberal an allowance, if the statement of Appian be true. It must be remembered, however, that after August 9, the Etesian winds would be blowing; as Lucan indeed supposes, by the allusion to the Cori; and would facilitate both the escape of Pompey, and the pursuit of Cæsar. If the former, therefore, had left Mitylene on the evening of September 25 or 26, he might still be at Pelusium in Egypt, on or before October 1.
Authorities, as we saw before, are divided as to the exact date of the day of his death; some placing it on his birthday, some the day before, and some the day after. It is observable, however, that Cicero, often
* Evagrius, E. H. ii. v. 295. D. mentions an instance, in which a band of two thousand soldiers, dispatched from Constantinople to Alexandria, in the reign of the emperor Marcian,
z Diodorus Sic. iii. 33: Strabo, xiv. 4. peius, 76. a Bell. Civil. ii. 89.
not long after the council of Chalcedon, A. D. 452. arrived at their destination on the sixth day after they set sail.
This discrepancy might be occasioned by the difference in §. 2. 672: 6. §. 3. 746: Plutarch, Pom
as he alludes to the fact of his death, is silent about any such coincidence as that of his perishing on his birthday. The same is true of Lucan. We may conclude, then, that he died sometime about his birthday, or when he was fifty-eight complete, which was certainly the case; though not necessarily upon the identical day. The true date of his death might thus be October 1: which would also be the day of his arrival; for it is agreed that he perished on the same day that he came *.
The Etesian winds were still blowing after Cæsar's arrival at Alexandriad: and as they were commonly supposed to blow forty or forty-five days from the middle of July, they would continue to blow until the end of August. When the Alexandrine war had been sometime going on, the Etesian winds were blowing no longer, but instead of them an east winde; yet not a south, by which they were frequently succeeded. Not long after the beginning of the war it is said f; Namque eum, interclusum tempestatibus propter anni tempus, recipere transmarina auxilia non posse: which implies that the sea was considered to be shut; and therefore that the autumnal equinox, at least, was