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How poor, how rich, how abject, how august',
How complicate, how wonderful is man!

Diag. 31.

time, wrong, contumely, love, delay,

office, spurns,

For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pang of despised love, the law's delay',
The insolence of of 'fice, and the spurns,
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bod.kin?


There is nothing peculiar in the melody of interrogative sentences, when they are pronounced with the falling inflection; but, when they are pronounced with the rising inflection, they are characterized as follows:

When a question is asked simply for information, and there is but one emphatic syllable in it, this syllable rises concretely from the pitch-note line, through the interval of a third, or fifth (or thereabouts), according to the degree of energy with which the sentence is pronounced. And the syllables which follow the interrogative note (if I may so call it), are pronounced in the pitch of the upper extreme of this note, thus:

Diag. 32.

With you, and quit my

Su san's side?

When a question is asked with surprise, the interrogative note begins a degree below the pitch-note, and rises, concretely, about a fifth, or an octave, thus:

Diag. 33.

With you! and




Should Susan's also be pronounced with emphatic force, but with less energy than you, the melody would be as follows:

Diag. 34.

Su san's

WHO self-

With you! then hap less

With you! and

quit my Su san's side!

Should side, instead of Susan's, be made emphatic, the melody would be thus:

Diag. 35.

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With you! and quit my

Susan's side!

And should you, Susan's, and side, be all pronounced with emphatic force, the melody wonld be as follows:

Diag. 36.


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With you! and quit my mde doid

san's side!

The following sentence is apt to be read to the melody of diagram 33; it should, however, be read to that of Diagram 37.

Diag. 37.


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The phrase, "the hapless husband cried," is not a part of the interrogation, but is parenthetical, and should be read one degree lower than the pitch-note.



The pupil should utter all the vowel sounds with the rising and falling inflection, in each of the nine degrees of force. He should then read, or recite, some passage in each of these degrees, begin ning as soft as possible, thus:

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There are many persons who do not vary the pitch and force of their voices according to the varying demands of sentiment. They read every thing alike; and they do not appear capable of imitating a correct manner of speaking. In such cases, I have found it necessary, in order to break up established habits, and direct the voice, as it were, into a new channel, to institute exercises in which the pitch and force of the voice are varied in the wildest and most extravagant manner. For instance, I select some piece, and divide it into sections. The first of these sections I pronounce in the falsetto voice, and request the pupil, or, what is better, the whole class, to pronounce it in like manner; the second section I pronounce in the lowest note of the natural voice, and it is immediately repeated by the class; the third, in the highest note of the natural voice; the fourth in a whisper; the fifth, in the medium pitch of the natural voice; and so on. After exercising awhile in this manner, the

pupil is able to appreciate smaller intervals of pitch; and the voices of the whole class are ultimately brought into the same key, as is done in singing. The following is an exercise of the kind to which I allude.


My brave


Highest note of n. v. Whispering voice.

my feelings,

Medium note of natural voice

and my fame! | can Rolla's words

Lowest note of the natural voice.

partners of my toil, |

Highest note n. v.

Lowest note of the natural voice.


add vigour to the virtuous energies | which inspire

your hearts?

Lowest note.



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The pupil should pronounce all the vowels which admit of long quantity, with a tremulous movement of the voice, as shown by the following diagram:

Diag. 39.

å å å


The vowels, à, à, è, 1, 8, 8, û, and ou, should be pronounced in the same manner.

The accented syllable of the words printed in italics, in the following passages, may be pronounced with the tremour.

That wash thy hallow'd feet, and warbling flow.
Greece nurtured in her glory's time.

And the complaining brooks, that make the meadows green.

The tremour heightens the expression, even of opponent passions, as joy and sorrow. It may be occasionally introduced with great effect, both in song and speech, as well as in instrumental music.




A rhythmical ear is essential to the public speaker who would gesticulate with gracefulness, precision and effect. The subject of time, therefore, should claim his particular attention. Those who have not a rhythmical ear, may acquire one, by practising faithfully the following progressive Exercises:

1. Raise the arms, with the hands clinched, to the position elevated forwards (Bcef),and then bring them down, with great force, to the position downwards forwards (Bcdf), on the energetic utterance of each of the elements of speech.

2. Clinch the hands, then retract one arm, and project the other, alternately, horizontal forwards, on each of the elements.

3. Clinch the hands, and make a beat, horizontal forwards, on the first element; strike the palms of the hands together on the second; with the hands clinched, make a beat horizontal forwards on the third; strike the palms of the hands together on the fourth; and so on.

4. Beat time on the elements with the dumb-bells. Make the first beat by bringing the bells in contact, horizontal forwards; the second, by bringing them in contact elevated forwards; the third, by bringing them in contact downwards forwards; the fourth, by bringing them in contact downwards backwards, thus:

Diag. 40.


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å *Dumb-bells are commonly made of lead. Those used in the author's Vocal Gymnasium are turned out of lignum vitæ. They are one foot long, and four inches in diameter. (See the cuts in the margin.)

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