Изображения страниц
PDF
EPUB

time. Hence the rhythm of speech, like its melody, is more or less irregular.

The time of a note, or syllable, is called quantity. The time of a rest is also called quantity; because rests, as well as notes, are a constituent of rhythm Hence the characters used for the expression of quantity, are either of sound or silence. The former are called notes; the latter, rests. These characters, and their relative lengths, are as follows:

NOTES.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

RESTS.

= | Demi-Semiquaver Rest.

F

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

Hence, a semibreve is equal to two minims; equal to four crotchets; equal to eight quavers, &c.

A dot following a note, or rest, increases its length one-half-in other words, increases its length in the ratio of 2 to 3. Thus, a dotted semibreve (.) is equal to a semibreve and a minim (P), or to three minims (); a dotted minim (P), to a minim and a crotchet (PP), or to three crotchets (PPP); and

so on.

There are two general modes of time common and triple. In common time each measure is divisible by 2; in triple time each measure is divisible by 3.

There are several varieties of each of these modes of time. When a piece is in common time, and each measure contains two quavers, or their equivalent, the

figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains two crotchets, the figures are prefixed; and when each measure contains four crotchets, a capital C, or the figures are prefixed. When a piece is in triple time, and each measure contains three quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains three crotchets, the figures are prefixed; and when each measure contains six quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music. The upper figure, in each of these cases, shows how many notes of a certain description there are in each measure; and the lower figure, how many of these notes are equal in value to a semibreve.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

MOVEMENT.

Triple time; three Quavers in a Measure.

♪ ♪ ♪ ♪♪♪a SFI♪F

The

rose had been wash'd, just wash'd in a shower.

MOVEMENT is the velocity with which a sentence is read or sung, or a strain of instrumental music is played. The rate of movement should be such as the senti

ment demands. Solemn discourse requires a slow movement; simple narrative, a medium rate of utterance; animated description, as well as all language expressive of any sudden passion, as joy, anger, &c., a movement more or less rapid, according to the intensity of emotion. In the science of music, various terins have been employed to denote the rate of movement, the principal of which are the following:

ADAGIO,... very slow; the slowest time.

Largo,....

slow time.

Larghetto,... slow, but not so slow as largo.
ANDANTE,.. 'medium time.
Andantino,

....

..

a little quicker than andante.

Allegretto,... rather quick, but not so quick as allegro.
ALLEGRO,.. quick time.

Presto,....
Prestissimo.. as quick as possible.

very quick.

....

....

Adagio, andante and allegro, are the three chief divisions of time; the other terms mark the intermediate degrees.

In addition to the foregoing terms, which mark the movement, there are others, which indicate the style of performance. Some of these are as follows:

Affetuoso,.. affectionate-a soft and delicate style of performance.
Brillante,.. shining, sparkling—a gay, showy style.
Furióso,... fierce, mad. a vehement style.
Spiritóso,.. spirited—a spirited style.

[ocr errors]

Sometimes these terms are used in connexion with those which express the rate of movement, thus:

-:

Allegro con spirito, quick with spirit—in a quick and spirited

manner.

The rate of movement is not definitely marked by the terms Adagio, Largo, Larghetto, &c. ; it may, however, be designated with precision by means of the

METRONOME OF MAELZEL.

This instrument has a graduated pendulum, to which is attached a sliding weight. The higher this weight

is moved upon the pendulum, the slower are its vibrations; and the contrary. When the weight corresponds to the number 50, the vibrations of the pendulum are the slowest; when it corresponds to 160, they are the quickest. All the numbers on the instrument have reference to a minute of time. Thus, when the weight is placed at 50, fifty beats, or ticks, occur in a minte; when at 60, sixty beats in a minute; when at 100, one hundred beats in a minute, &c. The engraving in the margin represents the instrument in action.

In reading, as a general rule, the time should be marked on the metronome by whole measures .in other words, each measure should correspond to one tick of the instrument.

Adagio. Metronome 60

3. J. ♪ ♫ ♪. 7 ♪ ♪

1

O when shall day

dawn

Diag. 17.

[graphic]

2

[ocr errors]

In music, it is most convenient to mark the time on the metronome in adagios, by quavers; in andantes, by crotchets; in allegros, by minims; and in prestos, by whole measures.

EXAMPLES OF THE SEVERAL MOVEMENTS.

In the following Examples, the words which indicate the movement and the corresponding numbers on the metronome, are both employed.

OI have

two beats in a measure.

[ocr errors]

♪. 7♪♪

on the night of the

Largo. Metronome 56- -one beat in a measure.

♪ ♪ | d. ♪ | ♪♪♪♪ |

pass'd a

mis-er-a-ble

grave!

night.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

3

Larghetto. Metronome 66 - one beat in

thou that rollest

shield of my

The

a

F FI♪♪

fathers!

[ocr errors]

bove,

Andante. Metronome 76- one beat in a measure.

FFI SI J JIJAFIJ I had a dream which

was not all a

[ocr errors]

: ♪♪♪♪♪

in thy

measure.

[ocr errors]

tree of deepest root

Andantino. Metronome 100-one beat in a measure.

J F FI

round as the

♪♪♪♪.

15 F1

Least willing still to quit the

:

is

Allegretto. Metronome 112 -one beat in measure.

[ocr errors]

♪♪♪ 3 playful spray.

Shivering

NOTE.-The figure 3 over the three quavers which compose the first measure, signifies that they are to be pronounced in the time of two.

found

dream

ground.

Allegro con spirito. Metronome 104 — one beat in a measure.

♪♪♪♪♪ ♪♪♪♪♪ ♪ And darkness and doubt are now flying a

way.

beaming

Animato. Metronome 100-one beat in a measure.

F FIJ

Sylph of the blue and

F│♪♪♪♪♪
I

J

The muses' fondest wreaths are thine.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]
« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »