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Gott und Mensch. I. Leib und Seele. Grundzüge einer Psychologie

des Menschen. Von Dr. HERMANN ULRICI. Leipsig. 1866.


The recent volume of Dr. Hermann Ulrici on Body and Soul," is

* the first instalment of a larger work on " God and Man." It is, however, complete in itself, and should be examined at once by those who feel any particular interest in the subject of which it treats. It will, perhaps, be recollected that a treatise of this writer, on “God and Nature," was commended to the readers of the QUARTERLY, a year or two since, and indeed by two independent contributors; a double attention, of which it was quite worthy; for it is one of the most exhaustive and convincing statements of the evidence which nature affords for the existence of God, that has been published in the German language. And the volume before us is a worthy successor of the one thus commended, equally elaborate, and, so far as we can see, equally conclusive. The first part of this volume is denominated physiological, and the second, psychological. The former treats of the body, and especially of the brain and the senses, which are shown to be the organs by which the soul now acts, while the latter explains the soul itself, and its relation to the body. For many reasons we welcome this discussion as timely and important. Never before was there so wide-spread a desire to understand the relations of the human mind to the human body. The questions so long at issue between materialists and their opponents-between those who look upon thought as a product of the brain, and those who look upon it as a product of spirit acting through the brain-call loudly for answers; and every thorough and honest effort to furnish these answers will be likely to command attention.

In the physiological part of his work, Dr. Ulrici first endeavors to ascertain and fix the ideas of substance, of power, and of organism. He then proceeds to consider the human body in its relations to psychological phenomena, and especially the nervous system as connected with the soul. This terminates in a study of the senses-sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell—and an account of original disposition, impulse, and instinct. It is not too much to say that this part of Professor Ulrici's treatise comprises a brief but clear summary of the facts bearing on these topics which have been ascertained by modern science. The results of this part of the work are given in the following statements :

1. Physiology cannot explain sensation, perception, and consciousness, as products of or. ganic action, but is compelled to assume, as a co-factor, something which withdraws itself entirely from its scrutiny; something, therefore, which is not of a physiological or organic nature. If now the power to whose action sensation, perception and consciousness owe their existence, is no physiological, organic power, but one differing from all the powers of nature in its manner of action; and if no power can either be, or be thought of without a substance without a source or centre from which it proceeds, and in which it rests; such an underlying reality must be assumed for that specific, psychical power, i. e., an existence and quality, differing from those of its organism, must be ascribed to the soul.

2. The fact that no irritation of the nerves, even after it has reached the brain from the surface of the body, is perceived at once, but only after the lapse of a brief interval of time proves that the irritation is changed into a proper sensation by a special act of the soul.

3. The construction of the nervous system shows manifestly that the brain, as its centre, is destined to serve as the seat and medium of a power (the soul) directing the whole bodily organism.

4. The morphological action by which the body gains its definite shape and members, can. not be ascribed to the vital power alone, still less to the physical and chemical powers of nature, but only to a power (the soul) differing from them all.

5. We do not gain our views of the extent, direction, position, distance and motion of ob. jects, by the sense of sight, or of touch, or by muscular action, but by a distinguishing comparing judging of the soul.

6. Seeing with the blind spot in the retina of the eyé, proves that the sight of objects is no mere sense of vision. It rests upon the soul's power of representation, which needs the cooperation of the nerves, but is by no means identical with nervous action of any kind.

7. The fact recognized by physiology, also, that distinctness of vision, and, indeed, all perceived sensation, depend in a great measure upon attention, can only be referred to special action of the soul.

8 The distinction of the so called after-images from visual perceptions, proves conclusively that mere sensation and conscious sensation (perception) are two different things, and that perceptions, as well as recollections, after-images, or reproduced perceptions, owe their existence to an act of the soul.

9. The soul and powers are developed pari passu with the body, but only to a certain point -to the time when the body has attained its full growth. Whether we find this point in early manhood or in riper manhood, at the age of twenty or of thirty-and physiologically it must be found in early manhood--this point must, of necessity, according to the materialistic hypothesis, be at the same time the culminating point in the development of all the powers of the soul. But as a matter of fact, this is not the case. Reason and understanding, feeling and imagination, the power to will and to act, first begin with the age of early manhood, a higher fight of development, and only reach their full strength and beauty ajter the period of riper manhood.


The second, or psychological part of the work, treats of consciousness in its ground and origin, and then of the conscious soul, in its relation to its own body and to other bodies. Next follows an examination of the soul when awake, when asleep, and when dreaming; also of the phenomena of somnambulism, madness, melancholy, and the so-called diseased states of the soul; then of temperaments, of periods in life, of differences of sex, race, and nationality. This examination is succeeded by a searching inquiry into the varied powers and susceptibilities of the soul; and the work closes with a study of the relation which the soul has to God.

Without adopting all the views set forth by Ulrici, we have received great benefit from a careful perusal of his work, and can heartily commend it to the attention of all who are familiar with the German language. It is catholic in spirit, but positive in its rejection of materialism. The author has a somewhat curious and novel theory as to the substance of the soul, but, whatever may be thought of this theory, no one can deny the cogency of the reasons which he urges in support of the view that it is a real substance. We had marked a great number of striking passages, with the purpose of translating a few of ihem as specimens of instructive and vigorous reasoning; but the extent of our remarks already forbids us to carry that purpose into effect. Our duty has been performed, it may be, by the account which has now been given of this interesting volume.

A. H.

The Historic Origin of the Bible. A Handbook of Principal Facts from

the best recent Authorities, German and English. By Edwin CONE BISSELL, A. M. With an Introduction by Prof. RoSWELL D. HITCHCOCK, D. D., of Union Theological Seminary, New York. Pp. 432.

Duodecimo. New York : A. D. F. Randolph and Company. 1873. We cordially welcome this convenient, carefully edited, and handsomely printed volume, whose title-page we have given in full. The work is divided into three parts; the first gives a history of the English Bible, reciting the principal facts respecting the several versions; the second treats of the New Testament, the history of its written text, the ancient versions and printed text, the canon, particular facts concerning the several books, etc.; the third treats, in a similar way, of the Old Testament. An Appendix gives a digest of leading opinions on the subject of Revision, and there are copious indices. The student will find much valuable information, luminously arranged, gathered from the best sources, with the references clearly stated. It will meet a recognized want, and prove a real help to earnest students of the Bible.

Edinburgh Review, April:-1. Trade Routes to Western China; 2. Maury on Sleep and Dreams; 3. Cooke's Life of General Robert Edward Lee; 4. Drunkenness, Abstinence, and Restraint; 5. Smarrow's "For Sceptre and Crown." 6. Cost and Consumption of Coal; 7. Darwin on Expression; 8. Religious Movement in Germany; 9. The Claims of Whig Government.

London Quarterly Review, April:-1. The State of English Painting; 2. Middlemarch, a Study of Provincial Lite; 3. Railways and the State; 4. Autumns on the Spey; 5. Charles, Comte de Montalembert; 6. Greek at the Universities; 7. Lord Lytton; 8. Central Asia; 9. The Irish University Bill, and the Defeat of the Ministry.

British Quarterly Review, April :-1. Swiss Federal Reform; 2. The Monotheism of Paganism; 3. The Government Purchase of Railways; 4. Middlemarch, a Study of Provincial Life; 5. Battle of Creed and Freedom in French Protestantism; 6. Aristotle; 7. The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century; 9. Contemporary Literature.

Westminster Review, April:-1. The National Importance of Scientific Research; 2. Mr. Gladstone's “Defense of the Faith"; 3. Venitian Painting; 4. Henry Murger, the Bohemian; 5. Charity Schools; 6. Irresponsible Ministers - Baron Stockmar; 7. “Our Seamen";

; 8. Irish University Education and the Ministerial Crisis; 9. Contemporary Literature.



YAVONAROLA, the Florentine reformer, has been a great enigma

to many men of later years. He has been represented by turns as a wild fanatic, and a true and earnest prophet of God; a wicked, foolish demagogue, and a saint in morals, and a Solomon in wisdom; a wise, cautious, prudent statesman, and a turbulent, unreasoning, unscrupulous revolutionist. Let us glance briefly at the history of his career, and form such a judgment as we may be able in regard to the character and aims of the man.

It was his lot to appear in an eventful period of the world's history. Far and wide, in church and state, were spread the corruptions that marked the close of the fifteenth century; and the elements were also gradually but surely preparing for the commotions that characterized the beginning of the next century, the era of Charles V, of Luther and Melancthon, of Hetzel and Hubmeyer, of Zwingle and Calvin. He was born of a respectable family in Ferrara, on the 21st of September, 1452; and was blessed, as so many men of eminence have been, with a mother who possessed rare qualities both of mind and heart. In all the vicissitudes of his strange and exciting lot, her son ever turned to her as his chosen confidante, his wisest and truest friend. The lad was destined by his father to the study of medicine, in which his paternal grandfather had attained to honorable distinction. He VOL. VII. - No. 4.


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was early trained in the commentaries of Aristotle, and in the works of Thomas Aquinas. The writings of the latter author secured the rapt attention of the young man, opening to his ardent and inquiring mind wide fields of thought. Indeed they absorbed him so thoroughly that it was necessary to use special means to bring him back to studies more immediately in the line of his chosen profession.

But another career was destined for him, and he was led entirely away from the study of the healing art. A crisis in his history came. His thoughts were led in a new direction; his feelings assumed a loftier character; his whole life was to be devoted to a work eminently worthy of the man, and of the remarkable powers with which he was endowed.

The court of Ferrara, with which his family was in continued intercourse, was magnificent, gay, frivolous, semi-pagan in its spirit. Savonarola was not yet twenty years of age when Duke Borso died. A fierce contest for the succession occurred. Hercules, the half brother of Borso, as the legitimate son of their common father, claimed the crown. Nicholas, the nephew of Borso, a son of Lionel whom Borso had succeeded, claimed it in right of his father. Recourse was

, . had to arms, and fierce conflicts ensued. Finally, Hercules was victorious, and entered Ferrara as the accepted sovereign, while the streets ran with the blood of the adherents of his rival. In a short time the temporary outburst of sanguinary cruelty subsided, and the course of giddy pleasure moved on again as though no terrible interruption had occurred. To very many, no doubt, this alternation of frivolous gaiety with cruel slaughter caused no feeling of disgust. Not so, however, with Savonarola. He had no sympathy with the frivolity on the one hand, nor with the cruelty on the other. He was of a delicate, nervous organization, with large intellectual powers and exalted moral feelings. The scenes that were occurring around him jarred harshly on his feelings. The social and moral atmosphere in which he lived was painfully depressing. He is said to have led a sad solitary life in the midst of a world whose evil ways he loathed and detested.

One fair dream of earthly happiness appears to have come to brighten for a time the gloomy prospect. Beside his father's residence dwelt a Florentine exile-one of the illustrious house of Strozzi. The charms of a natural daughter of the exile attracted the sad, solitary, studious youth. Perhaps he hoped in the calm retreat of a happy home to find some compensation for the pain which he felt on gazing at the corruption and moral desolation around him. He evidently did not yet expect to forsake the career which he had been

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