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COMMITTEE.
Chairman- The Right Hon. the LORD CHANCELLOR.
Vice Chairman-The Re. Hon. Sir HENRY PARNELL, Bart., M.P:

Treasurer-WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq., M.P., P.R.S.
W. Allen, Esq., F.R. & R.A.S. J. Fred. Daniell, Esq., F.R.S. Rowland Hill, Esq., F.R.A.S. W. H. Ord, Esq., M.P.
Rt. Hon Visc. Althorp, M.P.The Rt. Hon, the Lord Chief Edwin Hill. Esg.

Dr. Roget, Sec. R.S. P.R.A.S.
Chancellor of the Exche- Justice Denman.

David Jardine, Esq., A.M. Rt. Hon, Ld. J, Russell, M.P. quer. Le Drummond.R.E., F.R.A.S. Henry B. Ker, Esq.

Sir M.A. Shee, P.R.A., F.R.S. W.B. Baring, Esq., M.P. Rt. Hon. Vis. Ebrington, M.P. Th. Hewitt Key, Esq., A.M. Rer. Richard Sheepshanks, Capt. F. Beaufort, R.N., F.R.T.F.Ellis, Esq.,M.A.F.R.A.S. J.G. S, Lefevre, Esq.

M.A. and R.A.S., Hydrographer to John Elliotson, M.D., F.R.S. George C. Lewis, Esq., M. A. J. Smith, Esq., M.P. the Admiralty.

Thomas Falconer, Esq. James Loch,Esq., M.P., F.G.S. John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. Sir C. Bell, P.R.S. L. & E. 1. L. Goldsmid, Esq., F.R. and George Long, Esq., A.M. Dr. A. T. Thomson, F.L.S. G. Burrows, M.D.

R.A.S.

J. W. Lubbock, Esq.,F.R., R.A.N. A.Vigors, Esq.,M.P., F.R.S. c. Hay Cameron, Esq. B. Gompertz, Esq., F.R, & and L.S.S,

John Ward, Esq. The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of R.A.S.

H. Malden, Esq.A.M. H. Waymouth, Esq. Chichester, D.D.

G. B. Greenough, Esq., F.R. & A. T. Malkin, Esq., M.A. J.Whishaw, Exq.,M.A., F.R.S. William Coulson, Esq.

James Manning, Esq.

John Wrottesley, Esq., M.A. R. D. Craig, Esq.

H. Hallam, Esq., F.R.S., M.A.J.Herman Merivale, Esg.,F.A.S. F.R.A.S.
Wm. Crawford, Esq.

M. D. Hill, Esq., M.P. James Mill, Esq.
THOMAS COATES, Secretary, No. 59, Lincoln's Inn Fields,

L.S.

1

Esq.

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LOCAL COMMITTEES.
Anglesca-Rev. E. Williams. Carnarvon-R. A. Poole, Esq. (Leeds-J. Marshall, Esq.

Penanz-Sir B. H. Malkin
Rev. W. Johnson.
William Roberts, Esq. Benjamin Gott, Ész:

Plymouth - H. Woollcombe,
Mr. Miller.
Chester-Hayes Lyon, Esq. J. Marshall, Jun., Esq.

Exq., F.A.S., Chairman.
Ashburton-J. F. Kingston, Dr. Cumming.

Lewes-J. W. Woollgar, Esq.

Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S.
Esq.
Dr. Jones.

Liverpool Local Association E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Sec.
Barnstaple--Bancraft, Esq. Henry Potts, Esq.

W.W.Currie, Esq. Chairman. G. Wightwick, Esq.
William Gribble, Esq.
Dr. Thackery.

J. Mulleneux, Esq., Treas.

Presteign--Dr. A. W. Davis,
Bilston-Rev. W. Leigh,

Rev. Mr. Thorp.
Rev. W. Shepherd.

M.D.
Birmingham.-Rev. John Cor- - Wardell, Esq.

J. Ashton Yates, Esq. Rippon-Rev. H. P. Hamilton, rie, F.R.S., Chairman. - Wedge, Esq; Ludlorc-T. A. Knighi, Esq.

A.M., F.R.S., and G.S.
Paul Moon James, Esq., Chichester-Dr. Forbes, F.R.S. P.H.S.

Rev. P. Ewart, M.A.
Treasurer.
Dr. Sanden

MaidenheadR.Goolden, Esq., Ruthen-Rev. the Warden of,
Jos. Parkes, Esq. Hon, C.C. Dendy, Esq.

F.L.S.

Humphreys Jones, Esq. W. Redfern, Esq. S Secs. Cor John Crawford, Esq. Maidstone

Ryde, Isle of Wight Bonn-Leonard Horner, Esq. Mr. Plato Petrides

Clement T. Smythe, Esq.

Sir Rd. Simeon, Bart., M.P.
F.R.S.L. & E.
Coventry-Ar. Gregory, Esq. John Case, Esg.

Slirfeld-J. H. Abraham, Esq-
Bridport-Wm. Forster, Esq., Denbigh-John Madocks, Esq. Malmesbury – B. 'C. Thomas, Shepton Mallet-
James Williams, Esq. Thos. Evans, Esq.

G. F. Burroughs, Esq.
Bristol-J. N. Sanders, Esq. Derby-Joseph Strutt, Esq. Manchester Local Association-Shrerosbury -- R. A. Slaney,
Chairman.

Devonport and Stonehouse- G.W.Wood, Esq., Chairman. Esq., M.P.
J. Reynolds, Esq., Treas.
John Cole, Esq.

Benj. Heywood, Esq., Treas. South Petherton-
J. B. Estlin, Esq., F.L.S., - Norman, Esq.

T. W. Winstanley, Esq.,

J. Nicholetts, Esq.
Sec.
Licut.-Col. C. Hamilton Hon. Sec.

St. Asaplı-Rev. Geo. Strong.
Bury St. Edmunds-B. Beran, Smith, F.R.S.

Sir G. Philips, Bart., M.P. Stockport-Henry Marsland, Exq.

Etrurin - Joseph Wedgwood, Merthyr Tydvil-J. J. Guest, Esq., Treasurer. CalcuttaLord Wm. Bentinck Esq.

Exq.M.P.

Henry Coppock, Esq., Sec.
Sir Edward Ryan

Eseter-Rev. J. P. Jones. Slinchinhampton-John Ball, TaristokKev. W. Evang.
James Young, Esq.
J. Tyrrell, E.1.

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Esq.

John Rundle, Esq. Cambridge-Rev.James Bow

John Milford, Esq.(Coaver.) Monmouth-J. H. Moggridge, Tunbridge Wells-Dr. Yeats, stead, M.A. Glasgour-K. Finlay, Esq.

Esq.

M.D. Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., Professor Mylne.

Neath-John Rowland, Esq.

Iarwick-Dr. Conolly.
F.L.S. & G.S.
Alexander McGrigor, Esq. Newcastle-James Losh, Esq.

The Rev. W. Field, (Learn.)
Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., Charles Tennant, Esq.

Rev. W. Turner.

IVaterford-Sir John Newport,
F.L.S.
James Cowper, Esq. Nerport, Isle of Wight-

Bart., M.P.
Rev. John Lodge, M.A. Mr. T. Atkinson, Hon. Sec. Ab. Clarke, Es

Wolverhampton - J. Pearson, R. W. Rothman, Esq., M.A. Glamorganshire

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq.

Esq.
F.R.A.S. & G.S.
Dr. Milkin, Cowbridge. R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq.

Worcester-Dr. Corbet, M.D.
Rev. Geo. Peacock, M.A., Rev. B. R. Paul, Lantwit. Newport Pagnell - J. Millar.

Dr. Hastings, M.D.
F.R.S. & G.S.
W. Williams, Esq.Aber- Esq.

C. H. Hebb, Eng.
Rev. l'rof. Sedgwick, M.A., pergwm.

Netown, Montgomeryshire

Wrexham-Thomas Edgworth,
F.R.S. & G.S.
Gloucester
William Pugh, Esq.

Exq.
Professor Smyth, M.A. Samuel Rowley, Esq. Noricich-Right Hon. Lord

J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.S. Res. C. Thirlwall, M.A. Guernsey-Chas. Lukis, Esq. Suheld.

Treasurer Res, Geo.Waddington, M.A. Holyrcell-The Rev. J. Black- Rich, Bacon, Esq.

Major William Lloyd. Canterbury. -Alex B. Higgins,

wall.

Oxford-Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S., Yarmouth - C. E. Kumbold,
Esq.
Hall. C. Parker, Exq.

Professor of Chemistry.

Esq., M.P.
John Brent, Esq.
Keighley, Yorkshire --Rev. T. Rer. Professor l'owell.

Dawson Turner, Esq.
Dr.Harry Wm. Carter,M.D., Dury, M.A.

Rer, John Jordan, B.A.

York-Rev. J. Kenrick, A,M,
P.R.S.E.

Launceston--Rev. J. Barfitt. Rev. R, Walker, M.A.F.R.S. John Wood, Esq., M.P.
William Masters, Esq. Leamington Spa-Dr. Loudon, E. W. Head, Esq., M.A.
Canton-J.F.Davis, Esq.F.R.S. M.D.

W. R. Browne, Esq., M.A.

1

LIBRARY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

LIVES

OF

EMINENT PERSONS;

CONSISTING OF

GALILEO,

LORD SOMERS,
KEPLER,

CAXTON,
NEWTON,

BLAKE,
MAHOMET,

ADAM SMITH,
WOLSEY,

NIEBUHR,
SIR E. COKE,

SIR C. WREN, AND
MICHAEL ANGELO.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE SOCIETY FOR

THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE,

LONDON:

BALDWIN AND CRADOCK, PATERNOSTER-ROW.

MDCCCXXXIII,

LONDON: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES,

Duke-street, Lambeth,

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18,19

.

Page COMPARISON of the methods of the an- Remarks on a new star in Cassiopæia, in cients and the moderns with respect to

1572

16 philosophical discoveries

1 Third appointment of Galileo to the proDéfinition of the logic of the middle ages ib. fessorship at Padua in 1606; and imBacon and Galileo compared

2 mense number of auditors at his leco Galileo, his birth and parentage (1564) 3 tures

ib. was not illegitimate, as generally Sector, that instrument invented by Galileo ib. supposed

ib. Gunter's scale, and the proportional comhis father was a man of learning ib. pass, remarks on

17 exhibits proofs of early talent 4 Galileo's observations on the loadstone, 17, 18 constructs models of machinery ib.

account of his writings that are studies music and drawing ib.

now lost sent to the University of Pisa in Telescope, concerning the discovery of, by 1581 ib. Galileo

20, 26 was disgusted with the Aristote

Porta's claim to the invention of, 20,21 lian philosophy

5

Roger Bacon's claim to the inswinging of a lamp, in the ca

vention of

22 thedral of Pisa, first led him to the

claim by a Dutchman

23 consideration of the vibrations of pen. Spectacles, antiquity of

20 dulums

ib. Microscopes constructed by Galileo 25 Forms of pendulums used by plıysicians Galileo discovers the satellites of Jupiter 26 in the time of Galileo

ib.

publishes the Nuncius Siderius, State of mathematical knowledge at that or, Intelligences of the Stars

26 period.

6 * Kepler's astonishment on hearing that Galileo appointed professor of mathe- there were more than six planets; and

matics at Pisa, in 1589, when only 25 his demonstration that they could not
years of age
ib. exceed that number .

27
adopts the Copernican system of Comparison between theory and experi-
astronomy
7,8 ment

ib. Bruno burnt at Rome in the year 1600, Fantastical'hypotheses of Huygens, Sizzi,

for attacking the philosophy of his time 8 and others, concerning the probable Galileo, his experiments on the fall of number of planets and satellites

28, 29 bodies

9 Galileo's opinion respecting judicial astro. appointed professor of mathema- logy

29 tics at Padua in 1592

10 Disputes to which the discovery of the rapid diffusion of his writings ib. satellites gave rise

his re-invention of the thermo- Galileo was the first who conceived that meter

ib. the longitude might be discovered by his thermometer described 11 means of the eclipses of Jupiter's satel. his thermometer improved by lites

32 Leopold de' Medici and others 11

his observations on the moon 33 State of astronomy in the time of Ga.

on Saturn 34, 35 lileo

11-14

curious anagrams under which Astrological origin of the Saxon names he veiled his discoveries of the days of the week

11, 12 Huygens discovers Saturn's ring in Diagram, explanatory of . 12 1656

35 Delambre's mistaken preference of Kepler Herschel's subsequent discovery that

, to Galileo

14 although apparently single, Saturn's Friendly correspondence between Galileo ring is composed of two concentrate and Kepler

15 rings, revolving round the planet 35 Relection of Galileo to the professorship Galileo observes the crescent appearance of Padua ib. of Venus

ib. Remarks on the appearance of a new star

resigns his professorship, and re

IL

30, 31

Recl. 9-19-28

34, 35

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36 in Serpentarius, in 1604

16 turns to Florence

.

Pago

Page

.

sun

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Galileo, his first appearance at Rome in
1611

36
Academia Lincea, account of its origin
and regulations

36-38
Cesi, an account of his life and writ-
ings

36-39
Galileo, his discovery of the spots on the

39
his remarks and experiments on
floating bodies

41-44
his letter to Christina, Grand
Duchess of Tuscany, on the astronomy
of scripture

46, 47
Proceedings of the Inquisition at Rome 47
Galileo has an audience of Pope Paul V.
in 1616

49
ordered not to teach the doctrine
of Copernicus concerning the motion
of the earth

ib.
Application of the eclipses of Jupiter's
satellites to the discovery of the longi-
tude

50
Galileo's correspondence with the Spanish
minister on that subject

51
Controversy concerning the comets of
1618

51, 52
Galileo's metaphysical opinions nearly
allied to those of Locke and Berkeley 53

his third visit to Rome in 1624,
and honourable reception by Pope
Urban

53, 54
Publication of Galileo's

System of the
World," and consequent proceedings of
his enemies

58
Sentence of the Inquisition

59-61
Galileo's abjuration

62, 63
Account of the persecution of a Bavarian

bishop, in the 8th century, for asserting
the existence of antipodes

63
The books of Copernicus and Galileo are

still (in 1831) on the forbidden list at
Rome

64
Extracts from Galileo's “ Dialogues on

the System of the World," with com-
ments.

65-74
The principle of gravity, or universal at-

traction, well known to Galileo and
others.

66, 67
Ancient opinions on the cause of the
tides

71-74
Galileo becomes blind at the age of 72 73

his previous observation of the
libration of the moon

76
State of mechanical science before the

time of Galileo, with comments 78-83
Galileo's theory of motion, with com-
ments

83-88
Extracts from his “ Dialogues on Mo-
tion;" with remarks

88.93
Correspondence respecting the longi.
tude

93-95
Inquiry whether or not Galileo was the

inventor of the pendulum clock 95-100
Drawings of wheelwork of clocks and

watches, before the application of the
pendulum

96
Private character and anecdotes of Ga-
lileo

100-102
Account of his death and burial in 1642 103
Dispersion of his books and manuscripts 104
Notices of various biographies of Ga-
lileo

104, 105
List of his Works

106

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LIFE OF KEPLER.

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ib.
13

.

Kepler, his character as a philosopher,
considered

1
his birth and parentage (1571) 2

was educated at the expense of the
Duke of Wirtemberg

ib.
appointed to the Astronomical
Lectureship at Gratz, in Styria ib.

imaginative nature of his studies 3

was an early convert to the sys-
tem of Copernicus

ib.
- his account of the progress of his
opinions in 1595

ib.
his theories and investigations,
founded on the bases of numbers and
geometrical relations, illustrated with
diagrams

4-9
his marriage in 1596

9
he joins Tycho Brahé at Prague
in 1600

his quarrel with Tycho, and re-
conciliation

succeeds to the situation of prin-
cipal mathematician to the emperor, on
Tycho's death

11

Kepler gains a livelihood by casting na-
tivities

11
his absurd account of the appear-
ance of the new star in Cassiopæia
(1604):

12
publishes a disputation on astro-
logy in 1602

his theory of astrology -
Anecdote of a salad supposed to be formed
from the atoms of Epicurus

ib.
publishes a Treatise on Comets,
and a Supplement to Vitellion, con-
taining the first rational theory of
optics

14
Extracts from his Optical Experiments 14-17
Publication of his work “On the Motions
of Mars"

18
Sketch of the astronomical theories before
the time of Kepler

18.22
Account of the Commentaries on the Mo-
tions of Mars

23-28
Kepler discovers the law of equal areas

being described, in elliptic orbits, in
equal times

28-30

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9, 10

10,11

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