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amour or interests call for their capacity ther way. It would not, methinks, be a useless comarison between the condition of a man who uns all the pleasures of life, and of one ho makes it his business to pursue them. ope in the recluse makes his austerities mfortable, while the luxurious man gains thing but uneasiness from his enjoyments. That is the difference in the happiness of m who is macerated by abstinence, and m who is surfeited with excess? He who signs the world has no temptation to vy, hatred, malice, anger, but is in conant possession of a serene mind: he who llows the pleasures of it, which are in eir very nature disappointing, is in conant search of care, solicitude, remorse, nd confusion.

'January 14, 1712.

MR. SPECTATOR,I am a young woan, and have my fortune to make, for hich reason I come constantly to church hear divine service, and make conquests: ut one great hindrance in this my design that our clerk, who was once a gardener, as this Christmas so over-decked the urch with greens, that he has quite Doiled my prospect; insomuch that I have arce seen the young baronet I dress at ese three weeks, though we have both en very constant at our devotions, and do t sit above three pews off. The church, it is now equipped, looks more like a een-house than a place of worship. The iddle aisle is a very pretty shady walk, nd the pews look like so many arbours on ach side of it. The pulpit itself has such usters of ivy, holly, and rosemary about that a light fellow in our pew took occaon to say, that the congregation heard the ord out of a bush, like Moses. Sir Anony Love's pew in particular is so well edged, that all batteries have no effect. my am obliged to shoot at random among the ughs, without taking any manner of aim. r. Spectator, unless you will give orders r removing these greens, I shall grow a ely awkward creature at church, and soon ave little else to do there but to say my rayers. I am in haste, dear sir, your most bedient servant, JENNY SIMPER.'


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first were wholly discarded; and I do not find any one so hardy at present as to deny that there are very great advantages in the enjoyment of a plentiful fortune. Indeed the best and wisest of men, though they may possibly despise a good part of those things which the world calls pleasures, can, I think, hardly be insensible of that weight and dignity which a moderate share of wealth adds to their characters, counsels, and actions.

We find it is a general complaint in professions and trades, that the richest members of them are chiefly encouraged; and this is falsely imputed to the ill-nature of mankind, who are bestowing their favours on such as least want them. Whereas, if we fairly consider their proceedings in this case, we shall find them founded on undoubted reason: since, supposing both equal in their natural integrity, I ought, in common prudence, to fear foul play from an indigent person, rather than from one whose circumstances seem to have placed him above the bare temptation of money.

This reason also makes the commonwealth regard her richest subjects, as those who are most concerned for her quiet and interest, and consequently fittest to be intrusted with her highest employments. On the contrary, Catiline's saying to those men of desperate fortunes, who applied themselves to him, and of whom he afterwards composed his army, that they had nothing to hope for but a civil war, was too true not to make the impressions he


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The first and most infallible method to

wards the attaining of this end is thrift. All men are not equally qualified for getting money, but it is in the power of every one alike to practice this virtue, and I believe please to reflect on their past lives, will not there are very few persons, who, if they find that had they saved all those little sums which they have spent unnecessarily, they might at present have been masters of a competent fortune. Diligence justly claims the next place to thrift. I find both these excellently well recommended to common use in the three following Italian proverbs:

Never to do that by proxy which you can do yourself. Never defer that till to-morrow which you can do to-day

Never neglect small matters and expenses.

A third instrument of growing rich, is method in business, which, as well as the two former, is also attainable by persons of the meanest capacities.

The famous De Witt, one of the greatest statesman of the age in which he lived, being asked by a friend how he was able to

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despatch that multitude of affairs in which his chin. I am credibly informed that by he was engaged? replied, that his whole this means he does not only maintain him. art consisted in doing one thing at once. self and his mother, but that he is laying ap 'If,' says he, I have any necessary des- money every day, with a design, if the war patches to make, I think of nothing else continues, to purchase a drum at least, if until those are finished: if any domestic not a pair of colours. affairs require my attention, I give myself up wholly to them until they are set in


In short, we often see men of dull and phlegmatic tempers arriving to great estates, by making a regular and orderly disposition of their business, and that without it the greatest parts and most lively imaginations rather puzzle their affairs, than bring them to an happy issue.

I shall conclude these instances with the device of the famous Rabelais, when he was at a great distance from Paris, and without money to bear his expenses thither. The ingenious author being thus sharp-set, got together a convenient quantity of brickdust, and having disposed of it into several papers, writ upon one, 'Poison for mansieur;' upon a second, Poison for the dau phin,' and on a third, Poison for the king. Having made a provision for the Royal family of France, he laid his papers so that his landlord, who was an inquisitive man and a good subject, might get a sight of them.

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From what has been said, I think I may lay it down as a maxim, that every man of good common sense may, if he pleases, in his particular station of life, most certainly be rich. The reason why we sometimes see that men of the greatest capacities are not The plot succeeded as he desired. The so, is either because they despise wealth in host gave immediate intelligence to the comparison of something else; or at least secretary of state. The secretary pre are not content to be getting an estate, un-sently sent down a special messenger, who less they may do it in their own way, and at the same time enjoy all the pleasures and gratifications of life.

But besides these ordinary forms of growing rich, it must be allowed that there is room for genius as well in this as in all other circumstances of life.

Though the ways of getting money were long since very numerous, and though so many new ones have been found out of late

years, there is certainly still remaining so large a field for invention, that a man of an indifferent head might easily sit down and draw up such a plan for the conduct and support of his life, as was never yet once thought of.

We daily see methods put in practice by hungry and ingenious men, which demonstrate the power of invention in this par


It is reported of Scaramouch, the first famous Italian comedian, that being at Paris and in great want, he bethought himself of constantly plying near the door of a noted perfumer in that city, and when any one came out who had been buying snuff, never failed to desire a taste of them: when he had got together a quantity made up of several different sorts, he sold it again at a lower rate to the same perfumer, who finding out the trick, called it Tabac de mille fleurs, or 'Snuff of a thousand flowers. The story farther tells us, that by this means he got a very comfortable subsistence, until making too much haste to grow rich, he one day took such an unreasonable pinch out of the box of a Swiss officer, as engaged him in a quarrel, and obliged him to quit this ingenious way of life.

brought up the traitor to court, and pro vided him at the king's expense with proper accommodations, on the road. As soon as he appeared, he was known to be the celebrated Rabelais, and his powder upon examination being found very inno cent, the jest was only laughed at; for which a less eminent droll would have been sent to the galleys.

Trade and commerce might doubtless be still varied a thousand ways, out of which would arise such branches as have not yet been touched. The famous Doily is still fresh in every one's memory, who raised a fortune by finding out materials for such stuffs as might at once be cheap and gen teel. I have heard it affirmed, that had not he discovered this frugal method of gratifying our pride, we should hardly have been able to carry on the last war.

I regard trade not only as highly advan tageous to the commonwealth in general, but as the most natural and likely method of making a man's fortune; having observed since my being a Spectator in the world, greater estates got about 'Change, than at Whitehall or Saint James's. I believe I may also add, that the first acquisitions generally attended with more satisfaction. and as good a conscience.


I must not however close this essay without observing that what has been said is only intended for persons in the common ways of thriving, and is not designed for those men who from low beginnings push themselves up to the top of states, and the most considerable figures in life. My maxim of saving is not designed for such as these, since nothing is more usual thar Nor can I in this place omit doing justice for thrift to disappoint the ends of ambie to a youth of my own country, who, though tion; it being almost impossible that the he is scarce yet twelve years old, has with mind should be intent upon trifles, while it great industry and application attained to is at the same time forming the art of beating the granadiers march on sign.

some great de

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I may therefore compare these men to a great poet, who, as Longinus says, while he is full of the most magnificent ideas, is not always at leisure to mind the little beauties and niceties of his art.

I would, however, have all my readers take great care how they mistake themselves for uncommon geniuses, and men above rule, since it is very easy for them to be deceived in this particular. X.

No. 284.] Friday, January 25, 1711-12.

Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.* Virg. Ecl. vii. 17. Their mirth to share, I bid my business wait. An affected behaviour is without question a very great charm; but under the notion of being unconstrained and disengaged, people take upon them to be unconcerned in any duty of life. A general negligence is what they assume upon all occasions, and set up for an aversion to all manner of business and attention. I am the carelessest creature in the world, I have certainly the worst memory of any man living,' are frequent expressions in the mouth of a pretender of this sort. It is a professed maxim with these people never to think; there is something so solemn in reflection, they, forsooth, can never give themselves time for such a way of employing themselves. It happens often that this sort of man is heavy enough in his nature to be a good proficient in such matters as are attainable by industry; but alas! he has such an ardent desire to be what he is not, to be too volatile, to have the faults of a person of spirit, that he professes himself the most unfit man living for any manner of application. When this humour enters into the head of a female, she generally professes sickness upon all occasions, and acts all things with an indisposed air. She is offended, but her mind is too lazy to raise her to anger, therefore she lives only as actuated by a violent spleen, and gentle Scorn. She has hardly curiosity to listen to scandal of her acquaintance, and has never attention enough to hear them commended. This affectation in both sexes makes them vain of being useless, and take a certain pride in their insignificancy. Opposite to this folly is another no less unreasonable, and that is, the 'impertinence of being always in a hurry. There are those who visit ladies, and beg pardon, before they are well seated in their chairs, that they just called in, but are obliged to attend business of importance elsewhere the very next moment. Thus they run from place to place, professing that they are obliged to be still in another company than that which they are in. These persons who are just a going somewhere else


The motto originally prefixed to this paper was, Strenua nos exercet inertia. Hor.' which is now that of No. 54.

should never be detained: let all the world allow that business is to be minded, and their affairs will be at an end. Their vanity is to be importuned, and compliance with their multiplicity of affairs would effectually despatch them. The travelling ladies, who have half the town to see in an afternoon, may be pardoned for being in a constant hurry; but it is inexcusable in men to come where they have no business, to profess they absent themselves where they have. It has been remarked by some nice observers and critics, that there is nothing discovers the true temper of a person so much as his letters. I have by me two epistles, which are written by two people of the different humours above mentioned. It is wonderful that a man cannot observe upon himself, when he sits down to write, but that he will gravely commit himself to paper the same man that he is in the freedom of conversation. I have hardly seen a line from any of these gentlemen but spoke them as absent from what they were doing, as they profess they are when they come into company. For the folly is, that they have persuaded themselves they really are busy. Thus their whole time is spent in suspense of the present moment to the next, and then from the next to the succeeding, which, to the end of life, is to pass away with pretence to many things, and execution of nothing.


have many other letters of very great im-
'SIR,-The post is just going out, and I
portance to write this evening, but I could
for your civilities to me when I was last in
not omit making my compliments to you
business, that I cannot tell you a thousand
It is my misfortune to be so full of
desire you to communicate the contents of
things which I have to say to you. I must
this to no one living; but believe me to-be,
with the greatest fidelity, sir, your most
obedient, humble servant,

'MADAM,-I hate writing, of all things
in the world; however, though I have drank
the waters, and am told I ought not to use
my eyes so much, I cannot forbear writing
to you, to tell you I have been to the last
degree hipped since I saw you. How could
you entertain such a thought, as that I
should hear of that silly fellow with pa-
tience? Take my word for it, there is no-
thing in it; and you may believe it when so
lazy a creature as I am undergo the pains
to assure you of it, by taking pen, ink, and
paper in my hand. Forgive this; you know I
shall not often offend in this kind. I am
very much your servant,


send me word, however, whether he has so
The fellow is of your country; pr'ythee
great an estate,'

"Jan. 24, 1712.
'MR. SPECTATOR,-I am clerk of the

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HAVING already treated of the fable, the characters, and sentiments in the Paradise Lost, we are in the last place consider the language; and as the learned world is very much divided upon Milton as to this point, I hope they will excuse me if I ap pear particular in any of my opinions, and incline to those who judge the most advantageously of the author.

God and his Son except,

Created thing nought valu'd he nor shunn'd:


parish from whence Mrs. Simper sends her
complaint, in your Spectator of Wednesday
last. I must beg of you to publish this as
a public admonition to the aforesaid Mrs.
Simper, otherwise all my honest care in
the disposition of the greens in the church
will have no effect: I shall therefore, with
your leave, lay before you the whole mat-
ter. I was formerly, as she charges me,
for several years a gardener in the county It is requisite that the language of an
of Kent: but I must absolutely deny that it heroic poem should be both perspicuous
is out of any affection I retain for my old and sublime. In proportion as either of
employment that I have placed my greens these two qualities are wanting, the lan
so liberally about the church, but out of a guage is imperfect. Perspicuity is the
particular spleen I conceived against Mrs. first and most necessary qualification; inso
Simper (and others of the same sisterhood) much that a good-natured reader some
some time ago. As to herself, I had one times overlooks a little slip even in the
day set the hundredth psalm, and was sing-grammar or syntax, where it is impossible
ing the first line in order to put the congre- for him to mistake the poet's sense. Of
gation into the tune; she was all the while this kind is that passage in Milton, wherein
courtesying to Sir Anthony in so affected he speaks of Satan:
and indecent a manner, that the indigna-
tion I conceived at it made me forget my-
self so far, as from the tune of that psalm and that in which he describes Adam and
to wander into Southwell tune, and from
thence into Windsor tune, still unable to re-
cover myself, until I had with the utmost
confusion set a new one. Nay, I have often
seen her rise up and smile, and courtesy to
one at the lower end of the church in the
midst of a Gloria Patri; and when I have
spoken the assent to a prayer with a long
Amen, uttered with decent gravity, she has
been rolling her eyes around about in such
a manner, as plainly showed, however she
was moved, it was not towards a heavenly
object. In fine, she extended her con-
quests so far over the males, and raised
such envy in the females, that what be-
tween love of those, and the jealousy of
these, I was almost the only person that
looked in a prayer-book all church-time.
I had several projects in my head to put a
stop to this growing mischief; but as I have
long lived in Kent, and there often heard
how the Kentish men evaded the conquer-
or, by carrying green boughs over their
heads, it put me in mind of practising this
device against Mrs. Simper. I find I have
preserved many young men from her eye-
shot by this means, therefore humbly pray
the boughs may be fixed, until she shall
give security for her peaceable intentions.
Your humble servant,



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Adam the goodliest man of men since born His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve. It is plain, that in the former of these passages, according to the natural syntax, the divine persons mentioned in the first line are represented as created beings; and that, in the other, Adam and Eve are car founded with their sons and daughters Such little blemishes as these, when the thought is great and natural, we should with Horace, impute to a pardonable inadvertency, or to the weakness of human nature, which cannot attend to each minute particular, and give the last finishing to every circumstance in so long a work. The ancient critics, therefore, who were actua ted by a spirit of candour, rather than that of cavilling, invented certain figures speech, on purposes to palliate little errors of this nature in the writings of those authors who had so many greater beauties to atone for them.



If clearness and perspicuity were only to be consulted, the poet would have no thing else to do but to clothe his thoughts in the most plain and natural expressions But since it often happens that the most ob vious phrases, and those which are used in ordinary conversation, become too familiar to the ear, and contract a kind of meanness by passing through the mouths of the vul gar; a poet should take particular care to guard himself against idiomatic ways speaking. Ovid and Lucan have many poornesses of expression upon this account as taking up with the first phrases that of fered, without putting themselves to the trouble of looking after such as would not only have been natural, but also elevated and sublime. Milton has but few failings in this kind, of which, however, you may meet with some instances, as in the following passages:

Embryos and idiots, eremites and friars,
White, black, and gray, with all trumpery,
Here pilgrims roam-

A while discourse they hold,

No fear lest dinner cool; when thus began
Our author-

Who of all ages to succeed, but feeling
The evil on him brought by me, will curse
My head, ill fare our ancestor impure,
For this we may thank Adam.

the idioms of other tongues. Virgil is full
of the Greek forms of speech, which the
critics call Hellenisms, as Horace in his
odes abounds with them much more than
Virgil. I need not mention the several
dialects which Homer has made use of for
this end. Milton, in conformity with the
practice of the ancient poets, and with
Aristotle's rule, has infused a great many
Latinisms, as well as Græcisms, and some-
times Hebraisms, into the language of his
poem; as towards the beginning of it.

Nor did they not perceive the evil plight
In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel,
Yet to their general's voice they soon obey'd
Who shall tempt with wand'ring feet,
The dark unbottom'd infinite abyss;
And through the palpable obscure find out
His uncouth way, or spread his airy flight
Upborn with indefatigable wings
Over the vast abrupt!

The great masters in composition know wery well that many an elegant phrase beComes improper for a poet or an orator, when it has been debased by common use. For this reason the works of ancient auchors, which are written in dead languages, have a great advantage over those which are written in languages that are now poken. Were there any mean phrases or idioms in Virgil or Homer, they would not shock the ear of the most delicate modern reader, so much as they would nave done that of an old Greek or Roman, because we never hear them pronounced in our streets, or in ordinary con-placing the adjective after the substantive,


It is not therefore sufficient, that the anguage of an epic poem be perspicuous, anless it be also sublime. To this end it Dught to deviate from the common forms and ordinary phrases of speech. The judgment of a poet very much discovers itself n shunning the common roads of expression, without falling into such ways of speech may seem stiff and unnatural: he must not swell into a false sublime, by endeaouring to avoid the other extreme. Among the Greeks, schylus, and someimes Sophocles, were guilty of this fault; mong the Latins, Claudian and Statius; and among our own countrymen, Shakspeare and Lee. In these authors the affectation of greatness often hurts the perspicuity of the style, as in many others the endeavour after perspicuity prejudices

ts greatness.

Aristotle has observed, that the idiomatic tyle may be avoided, and the sublime ormed by the following methods. First, y the use of metaphors; such are those of Milton.

Imparadis'd in one another's arms.

-And in his hand a reed Stood waving tipt with fire. The grassy clods now calv'dSpangled with eyes

In these, and innumerable other intances, the metaphors are very bold but st: I must however observe, that the metahors are not so thick sown in Milton,

So both ascend

In the visions of God

Book 2.

Under this head may be reckoned the

adjective into a substantive, with several the transposition of words, the turning the other foreign modes of speech which this poet has naturalized, to give his verse the greater sound, and throw it out of


tle, is what agrees with the genius of the The third method mentioned by AristoGreek language more than with that of any other tongue, and is therefore more used by Homer than by any other poet; I mean the lengthening of a phrase by the addition of words, which may either be inserted or omitted, as also by the extending or contracting of particular words by the insertion or omission of certain syllables. Milton has put in practice this method of raising his language, as far as the nature of our mentioned, eremite, for what is hermit tongue will permit, as in the passage abovein common discourse. If you observe the judgment suppressed a syllable in several measure of his verse, he has with great words, and shortened those of two syllables into one; by which method, besides the above mentioned advantage, he has given a greater variety to his numbers. But this practice is more particularly remarkable in the names of persons and countries, as Beelzebub, Hessebon, and in many other particulars, wherein he has either changed the most commonly known, that he might the name, or made use of that which is not the better deviate from the language of the vulgar.

The same reason recommended to him

which always savours too much of wit: several old words, which also makes his never clash with one another, poem appear the more venerable, and gives as Aristotle observes, turns a sen-it a greater air of antiquity.

hat they


ence into a kind of an enigma or riddle;

nd that he seldom has recourse to them are in Milton several words of his own I must likewise take notice, that there

here the proper and natural words will

as well.

Another way of raising the language, and ving it a poetical turn, is to make use of

coining, as

'cerberan, miscreated, hellIf the reader is offended at this liberty in doomed, embryon, atoms, and many others. our English Poet, I would recommend to

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