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were there but one sex. Had our species to time, and supplied with their respective
no females in it, men would be quite differ- subjects.
ent creatures from what they are at pre- These two states were engaged together
sent: their endeavours to please the oppo- in a perpetual league, offensive and defen-
site sex polishes and refines them out of sive; so that if any foreign potentate offered
those manners which are most natural to attack either of them, both of the sexes
to them, and often sets them upon modelling fell upon him at once, and quickly brought
themselves, not according to the plans which him to reason. It was remarkable that for
they approve in their own opinions, but ac-many ages this agreement continued invio-
cording to those plans which they think are lable between the two states, notwithstand-
most agreeable to the female world. In ing, as was said before, they were husbands
a word, man would not only be an unhappy, and wives; but this. will not appear so won
but a rude unfinished creature, were he derful, if we consider that they did not live
conversant with none but those of his own together above a week in a year.

In the account which my author gives of Women, on the other side, are apt to form the male republic, there were several custhemselves in every thing with regard to toms very remarkable. The men never that other half of reasonable creatures shaved their beards, or paired their nails, with whom they are here blended and above once in a twelvemonth, which was confused: their thoughts are ever turn- probably about the time of the great annual ed upon appearing amiable to the other meeting upon their frontiers. I find the sex; they talk, and move, and smile, with name of a minister of state in one part of a design upon us; every feature of their their history, who was fined for appearing faces, every part of their dress, is filled too frequently in clean linen; and of a cerwith snares and allurements. There would tain great general, who was turned out of be no such animals as prudes or coquettes his post for effeminacy, it having been in the world, were there not such an ani- proved upon him by several credible wit mal as man. In short, it is the male that nesses that he washed his face every morngives charms to woman-kind, that produces ing. If any member of the commonwealth an air in their faces, a grace in their mo- had a soft voice, a smooth face, or a supple tions, a softness in their voices, and a deli-behaviour, he was banished into the comcacy in their complexions.

monwealth of females, where he was treated as a slave, dressed in petticoats, and set a spinning. They had no titles of honour among them, but such as denoted some bodily strength or perfection, as such-a-one the tall,' such-a-one the stocky,' such-aone the gruff.' Their public debates were generally managed with kicks and cuffs, insomuch that they often came from the council-table with broken shins, black eyes, and bloody noses. When they would reI am led into this train of thoughts by a proach a man in the most bitter terms, little manuscript which is lately fallen into they would tell him his teeth were white, my hands, and which I shall communicate or that he had a fair skin and a soft hand. to the reader, as I have done some other The greatest man I meet with in their his curious pieces of the same nature without tory, who was one who could lift five hun troubling him with any inquiries about the dred weight, and wore such a prodigious author of it. It contains a summary ac-pair of whiskers as had never been seen in count of two different states which bordered the commonwealth before his time. These upon one another. The one was a common- accomplishments, it seems, had rendered wealth of Amazons, or women without him so popular, that if he had not died very men; the other was a republic of males, seasonably, it is thought he might have en that had not a woman in the whole com-slaved the republic. Having made this munity. As these two states bordered upon short extract out of the history of the male one another, it was their way, it seems, to commonwealth, I shall look into the history meet upon their frontiers at a certain sea of the neighbouring state, which consisted son of the year, where those among the of females; and if I find any thing in it, will men who had not made their choice in any not fail to communicate it to the public. former meeting, associated themselves with particular women, whom they were afterwards obliged to look upon as their wives in every one of these yearly rencounters. The children that sprung up from this al- No. 434.] Friday, July 18, 1712. liance, if males, were sent to their respective fathers; if females, continued with their mothers. By means of this anniversary carnival, which lasted about a week, the commonwealths were recruited from timel

As this mutual regard between the two sexes tends to the improvement of each of them, we may observe that men are apt to degenerate into rough and brutal natures who live as if there were no such things as women in the world; as, on the contrary, women who have an indifference or aversion for their counterparts in human nature are generally sour and unamiable, sluttish and censorious.

Quales Threicia, cum flumina Thermodoontis
Pulsant, et pictis bellantur Amazones armis:
Seu circum Hyppolyten, seu cum se Martia carra
Penthesilea refert, magnoque ululante tumultu,
Fœminea exultant lunatis agmina peltis:


Virg. n. viii 600.



So march'd the Thracian Amazons of old,
When Thermodon with bloody billows roll'd:
Such troops as these in shining arms were seen,
When Theseus met in fight their maiden queen.
Such to the field Penthesilea led,

From the fierce virgin when the Grecians fled.
With such return'd triumphant from the war,
Her maids with cries attend the lofty car:
They clash with manly force their moony shields;
With female shouts resound the Phrygian fields.

could not attend the public affairs as so great an exigency of state required; but this I can give no manner of credit to, since it seems to contradict a fundamental maxim in their government, which I have before mentioned. My author gives the most probable reason of this great disaster; for he affirms that the general was brought to bed, or (as others say) miscarried, the very night before the battle: however it was, this single overthrow obliged them to call in the male republic to their assistance; but, notwithstanding their common efforts to repulse the victorious enemy, the war continued for many years before they could entirely bring it to a happy conclusion.

HAVING carefully perused the manucript I mentioned in my yesterday's paper, 30 far as it relates to the republic of women, I find in it several particulars which may very well deserve the reader's attention. The girls of quality, from six to twelve years old, were put to public schools, where they learned to box and play at cudgles, with several other accomplishments of the same nature: so that nothing was more asual than to see a little miss returning home at night with a broken pate, or two or three teeth knocked out of her head. They were afterwards taught to ride the reat horse, to shoot, dart or sling, and listed into several companies, in order to Derfect themselves in military exercises. No woman was to be married till she had Killed her man. The ladies of fashion used o play with young lions instead of lap-dogs; and when they made any parties of diverion, instead of entertaining themselves at mbre and piquet, they would wrestle and pitch the bar for a whole afternoon togeher. There was never any such thing as blush seen, or a sigh heard, in the whole ommonwealth. The women never dressed ut to look terrible; to which end they would Ometimes, after a battle, paint their cheeks ith the blood of their enemies. For this eason, likewise, the face which had the ost scars was looked upon as the most eautiful. If they found lace, jewels, bands, or any ornaments in silver or gold, mong the booty which they had taken, As the two armies romped together upon ney used to dress their horses with it, these occasions, the women complained of ut never entertained a thought of wear- the thick bushy beards and long nails of g it themselves. There were particular their confederates, who thereupon took care ghts and privileges allowed to any mem-to prune themselves into such figures as er of the commonwealth who was a mo- were most pleasing to their friends and er of three daughters. The senate was allies. ade up of old women, for by the laws of e country, none was to be a counsellor state that was not past child-bearing. hey used to boast that their republic had ntinued four thousand years, which is ogether improbable, unless we may supse, what I am very apt to think, that Ey measured their time by lunar years. here was a great revolution brought about this female republic by means of a neigharing king, who had made war upon them eral years with various success, and at gth overthrew them in a very great battle. is defeat they ascribe to several causes: ne say that the secretary of state, having n troubled with the vapours, had comted some fatal mistakes in several desches about that time. Others pretend the first minister being big with child, OL. II.

The campaigns which both sexes passed together made them so well acquainted with one another, that at the end of the war they did not care for parting. In the beginning of it they lodged in separate camps, but afterwards, as they grew more familiar, they pitched their tents promiscuously.

From this time, the armies being checkered with both sexes, they polished apace. The men used to invite their fellow soldiers into their quarters, and would dress their tents with flowers and boughs for their reception. If they chanced to like one more than another, they would be cutting her name in the table, or chalking out her figure upon a wall, or talking of her in a kind of rapturous language, which by degrees improved into verse and sonnet. These were as the first rudiments of architecture, painting, and poetry, among this savage people. After any advantage over the enemy, both sexes used to jump together, and make a clattering with their swords and shields, for joy, which in a few years produced several regular tunes and set dances.


When they had taken any spoils from the enemy, the men would make a present of every thing that was rich and showy to the women whom they most admired, and would frequently dress the necks, or heads, or arms, of their mistresses, with any thing which they thought appeared gay or pretty. The women observing that the men took delight in looking upon them when they, were adorned with such trappings and gewgaws, set their heads at work to find out new inventions and to outshine one another in all councils of war, or the like solemn meetings. On the other hand, the men observing how the women's hearts were set upon finery, begun to embellish themselves, and look as agreeably as they could in the eyes of their associates. In short, after a few years' conversing toge

ther, the women had learned to smile, and
the men to ogle; the women grew soft, and
the men lively.

When they had thus insensibly formed
one another, upon finishing of the war,
which concluded with an entire conquest
of their common enemy, the colonels in one
army married the colonels in the other; the
captains in the same manner took the cap-
tains to their wives: the whole body of
common soldiers were matched after the
example of their leaders. By this means
the two republics incorporated with one
another, and became the most flourishing
and polite government in the part of the
world which they inhabited.

No. 435.] Saturday, July 19, 1712.
Nec duo sunt, et forma duplex, nec fœmina dici,
Ovid. Met. iv. 378.

Nec puer ut possint, neutrumque et utrumque videntur.

Both bodies in a single body mix,
A single body with a double sex.-Addison,

a hat and feather, a riding-coat, and a periwig, or at least tie up their hair in a bag or riband, in imitation of the smart part of the opposite sex. As in my yesterday's paper I gave an account of the mixture of two sexes in one commonwealth, I shall here take notice of this mixture of two sexes in one person. I have already shown my dislike of this immodest custom more than once; but in contempt of every thing I have hitherto said, I am informed that the highways about this great city are still very much infested with these female cavaliers.

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I remember when I was at my friend Sir Roger de Coverley's, about this time twelvemonth, an equestrian lady of this order appeared upon the plains which lay at a distance from his house. I was at that time walking in the fields with my old friend; and as his tenants ran out on every side to see so strange a sight, Sir Roger asked one of them, who came by us, what it was? To which the country fellow replied, "Tis a gentlewoman, saving your worship's preMOST of the papers I give the public are sence, in a coat and hat.' This produced a written on subjects that never vary, but great deal of mirth at the knight's house, are for ever fixed and immutable. Of this where we had a story at the same time kind are all my more serious essays and of another of his tenants, who meeting this discourses; but there is another sort of spe- gentleman-like lady on the highway, was culations, which I consider as occasional asked by her whether that was Coverleypapers, that take their rise from the folly, hall? The honest man seeing only the extravagance, and caprice of the present male part of the querist, replied, Yes, age. For I look upon myself as one set to sir;' but upon the second question, whether watch the manners and behaviour of my Sir Roger de Coverley was a married man? countrymen and contemporaries, and to having dropped his eye upon the petticoat, mark down every absurd fashion, ridicu- he changed his note into No, madam." lous custom, or affected form of speech, Had one of these hermaphrodites apthat makes its appearance in the world peared in Juvenal's days, with what an during the course of my speculations. The indignation should we have seen her de petticoat no sooner begun to swell, but I scribed by that excellent satirist! he would observed its motions. The party-patches have represented her in a riding habit as a had not time to muster themselves before greater monster than the centaur. He I detected them. I had intelligence of the would have called for sacrifices of purify coloured hood the very first time it ap-ing waters, to expiate the appearance peared in a public assembly. I might here such a prodigy. He would have invoked mention several other the like contingent the shades of Portia and Lucretia, to see subjects, upon which I have bestowed dis- into what the Roman ladies had transformtinct papers. By this means I have so effec- ed themselves. tually quashed those irregularities which For my own part, I am for treating the gave occasion to them, that I am afraid sex with greater tenderness, and have all posterity will scarce have a sufficient idea along made use of the most gentle methods to of them to relish those discourses which bring them off from any little extravagance were in no little vogue at the time they into which they have sometimes unwarily were written. They will be apt to think fallen. I think it however absolutely neces that the fashions and customs I attack- sary to keep up the partition between the ed were some fantastic conceits of my two sexes, and to take notice of the smallest own, and that their great grandmothers encroachments which the one makes upon could not be so whimsical as I have repre- the other. I hope therefore I shall not sented them. For this reason, when I think hear any more complaints on this subject on the figure my several volumes of specu- I am sure my she-disciples, who peruse lations will make about a hundred years these my daily lectures, have profited bat hence, I consider them as so many pieces little by them, if they are capable of giving of old plate, where the weight will be re-into such an amphibious dress. This garded, but the fashion lost.

should not have mentioned, had I not lately Among the several female extravagan- met one of these my female readers in ces I have already taken notice of, there Hyde-park, who looked upon me with & is one which still keeps its ground. I mean masculine assurance, and cocked her hat that of the ladies who dress themselves in full in my face.


For my part, I have one general key to the behaviour of the fair sex. When I see them singular in any part of their dress, I conclude it is not without some evil intention: and therefore question not but the design of this strange fashion is to smite more effectually their male beholders. Now to set them right in this particular, I would fain have them consider with themselves, whether we are not more likely to be struck by a figure entirely female, than with such a one as we may see every day in our glasses. Or, if they please, let them reflect upon their own hearts, and think how they would be affected should they meet a man on horseback, in his breeches and jack-boots, and at the same time dressed up in a commode and a nightraile.

me and exercise at the several weapons following, viz:

'Back sword,

Single falchion, 'Sword and dagger, Case of falchions, 'Sword and buckler, Quarter staff.'

If the generous ardour in James Miller to dispute the reputation of Timothy Buck had something resembling the old heroes of romance, Timothy Buck returned answer in the same paper with the like spirit, adding a little indignation at being challenged, and seeming to condescend to fight James Miller, not in regard to Miller himself, but in that as the fame went about, he had fought Parkes of Coventry. The acceptance of the combat ran in these words:

I must observe that this fashion was first 'I Timothy Buck, of Clare-market, masof all brought to us from France, a country ter of the noble science of defence, hearing which has infected all the nations of Europe he did fight Mr. Parkes of Coventry, will with its levity. I speak not this in deroga-not fail (God willing) to meet this fair intion of a whole people, having more than viter at the time and place appointed, deonce found fault with those general reflec-siring a clear stage and no favour. tions which strike at kingdoms or common"Vivat Regina.' wealths in the gross-a piece of cruelty, which an ingenious writer of our own compares to that of Caligula, who wished that the Roman people had all but one neck, that he might behead them at a blow. I shall therefore only remark, that as liveliness and assurance are in a peculiar manner the qualifications of the French nation, the same habits and customs will not give the same offence to that people which they produce amongst those of our own country. Modesty is our distinguishing character, as vivacity is theirs: and when this our national virtue appears in that female beauty for which our British ladies are celebrated above all others in the universe, it makes up the most amiable object that the eye of man can possibly behold. C.

No. 436.] Monday, July 21, 1712.
-Verso pollice vulgi
Quemlibet occidunt populariter. Juv. Sat. iii. 30.
With thumbs bent back, they popularly kill.


BEING a person of insatiable curiosity, I Could not forbear going on Wednesday last o a place of no small renown for the galantry of the lower order of Britons, to the Bear-garden, at Hockley in the Hole; where (as a whitish brown paper, put into my hand in the street, informed me) there was to be a trial of skill exhibited between Wo masters of the noble science of deence, at two of the clock precisely. I was not a little charmed with the solemnity of he challenge which ran thus:

'I James Miller, sergeant, (lately come rom the frontier of Portugal) master of he noble science of defence, hearing in most places where I have been of the great ame of Timothy Buck, of London, master f the said science, do invite him to meet

I shall not here look back on the spectacles of the Greeks and Romans of this kind, but must believe this custom took its rise from the ages of knight-errantry; from those who loved one woman so well, that they hated all men and women else; from those who would fight you, whether you were or not of their mind; from those who demanded the combat of their contemporaries, both for admiring their mistress or discommending her. I cannot therefore but lament, that the terrible part of the ancient fight is preserved, when the amorous side of it is forgotten. We have retained the barbarity, but lost the gallantry of the old. combatants. I could wish, methinks, these gentlemen had consulted me in the promulgation of the conflict. I was obliged by a fair young maid, whom I understood to be called Elizabeth Preston, daughter of the keeper of the garden, with a glass of water; who I imagined might have been, for form's sake, the general representative of the lady fought for, and from her beauty the proper Amaryllis on these occasions. It would have run better in the challenge, I James Miller, sergeant, who have trafrontier of Portugal, for the love of Eliza velled parts abroad, and came last from the beth Preston, do assert that the said Elizabeth is the fairest of women. Then the

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answer; I Timothy Buck, who have staid in Great Britain during all the war in foreign parts, for the sake of Susannah Page, do deny that Elizabeth Preston is so fair as the said Susannah Page. Let Susannah Page look on, and I desire of James Miller no favour.'

This would give the battle quite another turn; and a proper station for the ladies, whose complexion was disputed by the sword, would animate the disputants with a more gallant incentive than the expectation of money from the spectators; though I would not have that neglected, but thrown to that fair one whose lover was approved by the donor.

if all their lives depended on the first blow. The combatants met in the middle of the stage, and shaking hands, as removing all malice, they retired with much grace to the extremities of it; from whence they immediately faced about, and approached each other, Miller with a heart full of resolution, Buck with a watchful untroubled countenance; Buck regarding principally his own defence, Miller chiefly thoughtful of annoying his opponent. It is not easy to describe the many escapes and impercepti ble defences between two men of quick eyes and ready limbs; but Miller's heat laid him open to the rebuke of the calm Buck, by a large cut on the forehead. Much Yet, considering the thing wants such effusion of blood covered his eyes in a moamendments, it was carried with great or-ment, and the huzzas of the crowd under. James Miller came on first, preceded doubtedly quickened the anguish. The by two disabled drummers, to show, I sup- Assembly was divided into parties upon pose, that the prospect of maimed bodies their different ways of fighting; while a did not in the least deter him. There poor nymph in one of the galleries appaascended with the daring Miller a gentle-rently suffered for Miller, and burst into a man, whose name I could not learn, with a dogged air, as unsatisfied that he was not principal. This son of anger lowered at the whole assembly, and, weighing himself as he marched round from side to side, with a stiff knee and shoulder, he gave intimations of the purpose he smothered till he saw the issue of the encounter. Miller had a blue ribbon tied round the sword arm; which ornament I conceive to be the remains of that custom of wearing a mistress's favour on such occasions of old.

Miller is a man of six foot eight inches height, of a kind but bold aspect, well fashioned, and ready of his limbs; and such readiness as spoke his ease in them was obtained from a habit of motion in military exercise.

The expectation of the spectators was now almost at its height; and the crowd pressing in, several active persons thought they were placed rather according to their fortune than their merit, and took it in their heads to prefer themselves from the open area or pit to the galleries. The dispute between desert and property brought many to the ground, and raised others in proportion to the highest seats by turns, for the space of ten minutes, till Timothy Buck came on, and the whole assembly, giving up their disputes, turned their eyes upon the champions. Then it was that every man's affection turned to one or the other irresistibly. A judicious gentleman near me said, I could, methinks, be Miller's second, but I had rather have Buck for mine. Miller had an audacious look, that took the eye; Buck, a perfect composure, that engaged the judgment. Buck came on in a plain coat, and kept all his air till the instant of engaging; at which time he undressed to his shirt, his arm adorned with a bandage of red riband. No one can describe the sudden concern in the whole assembly; the most tumultuous crowd in nature was as still and as much engaged as

flood of tears. As soon as his wound was wrapped up, he came on again with a little rage, which still disabled him farther. But what brave man can be wounded into more patience and caution? The next was a warm eager onset, which ended in a decisive stroke on the left leg of Miller. The lady in the gallery, during this second strife, covered her face, and for my part I could not keep my thoughts from being mostly employed on the consideration of her ur happy circumstance that moment, hearing the clashing of swords, and apprehending life or victory concerning her lover in every blow, but not daring to satisfy herself on whom they fell. The wound was exposed to the view of all who could delight in it, and sewed up on the stage. The surly se cond of Miller declared at this time, that he would that day fortnight fight Mr. Buck at the same weapons, declaring himself the master of the renowned Gorman; but Buck denied him the honour of that courageous disciple, and asserting that he himself bad taught that champion, accepted the challenge.

There is something in nature very unac countable on such occasions, when we see the people take a certain painful gratification in beholding these encounters. Is it cruelty that administers this sort of delight? or is it a pleasure which is taken in the exercise of pity? It was, methought, pretty remarkable that the business of the day being a trial of skill, the popularity did not run so high as one would have expected on the side of Buck. Is it that people's passions have their rise in self-love, and thought themselves (in spite of all the courage they had) liable to the fate of Miller, but could not so easily think themselves qualified like' Buck?

Tully speaks of this custom with less horror than one would expect, though he confesses it was much abused in his time, and seems directly to approve of it under

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