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earance of Christianity in ordinary life Fourthly, Because the rule of morality nd conversation, and which distinguishes is much more certain than that of faith, all s from all our neighbours. the civilized nations of the world agreeing Hypocrisy cannot indeed be too much in the great points of morality, as much as etested, but at the same time it is to be they differ in those of faith. referred to open impiety. They are both qually destructive to the person who is ossessed with them; but, in regard to thers, hypocrisy is not so pernicious as are-faced irreligion. The due mean to be bserved is, to be sincerely virtuous, and t the same time to let the world see we are 'I do not know a more dreadful meace in the holy writings, than that which pronounced against those who have this erverted modesty to be ashamed before en in a particular of such unspeakable mportance.
Fifthly, Because infidelity is not of so'malignant a nature as immorality; or, to put the same reason in another light, because it is generally owned, there may be salvation for a virtuous infidel, (particularly in the case of invincible ignorance,) but none for a vicious believer.
o, 459.] Saturday, August 16, 1712.
-Quicquid dignum sapiente bonoque est.
-Whate'er befits the wise and good.-Creech. RELIGION may be considered under two eneral heads. The first comprehends what e are to believe, the other what we are to ractise. By those things which we are to elieve, I mean whatever is revealed to us the holy writings, and which we could ot have obtained the knowledge of by the ght of nature; by the things which we are practise, I mean all those duties to which e are directed by reason or natural relion. The first of these I shall distinguish the name of faith, the second by that of orality.
If we look into the more serious part of ankind, we find many who lay so great a ress upon faith, that they neglect molity; and many who build so much upon orality, that they do not pay a due regard faith. The perfect man should be defece in neither of these particulars, as will very evident to those who consider the nefits which arise from each of them, and ich I shall make the subject of this day's per.
Notwithstanding this general division of ristian duty into morality and faith, and at they have both their peculiar excelcies, the first has the pre-eminence in eral respects.
First, Because the greatest part of moity (as I have stated the notion of it,) is a fixed eternal nature, and will endure en faith shall fail, and be lost in convic
Secondly, Because a person may be quaed to do greater good to mankind, and come more beneficial to the world, by rality without faith, than by faith with morality.
Thirdly, Because morality gives a greater fection to human nature, by quieting the d, moderating the passions, and advancthe happiness of every man in his private acity.
Sixthly, Because faith seems to draw its principal, if not all its excellency, from the influence it has upon morality; as we shall see more at large, if we consider wherein consists the excellency of faith, or the belief of revealed religion; and this I think is,
First, In explaining, and carrying to greater height, several points of morality. Secondly, In furnishing new and stronger motives to enforce the practice of morality. Thirdly, In giving us more amjable ideas of the Supreme Being, more endearing notions of one another, and a truer state of ourselves, both in regard to the grandeur and vileness of our natures.
Fourthly, By showing us the blackness and deformity of vice, which in the Christian system is so very great, that he who is possessed of all perfection, and the sovereign judge of it, is represented by several of our divines as hating sin to the same degree that he loves the sacred person who was made the propitiation of it.
Fifthly, In being the ordinary and prescribed method of making morality effectual to salvation.
I have only touched on these several heads, which every one who is conversant in discourses of this nature will easily enlarge upon in his own thoughts, and draw conclusions from them which may be useful to him in the conduct of his life. One I am sure is so obvious that he cannot miss it, namely, that a man cannot be perfect in his scheme of morality, who does not strengthen and support it with that of the Christian faith.
Besides this, I shall lay down two or three other maxims, which I think we may deduce from what has been said.
First, That we should be particularly cautious of making any thing an article of faith, which does not contribute to the confirmation or improvement of morality.
Secondly, That no article of faith can be true and authentic, which weakens or subverts the practical part of religion, or what have hitherto called morality..
Thirdly, That the greatest friend of mo rality and natural religion cannot possibly apprehend any danger from embracing Christianity, as it is preserved pure and uncorrupt in the doctrines of our national church.*
There is likewise another maxim which
* The Gospel.
I think may be drawn from the foregoing | heads; two that dwelt in sorcery, and were
For example, In that disputable point of
In this case the injury done our neighbour is plain and evident; the principle that puts us upon doing it, of a dubious and disputable nature. Morality seems highly violated by the one; and whether or no a zeal for what a man thinks the true system of faith may justify it, is very uncertain. I cannot but think, if our religion produces charity as well as zeal, it will not be for showing itself by such cruel instances. But to conclude with the words of an excellent author, We have just enough of religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one
No. 460.] Monday, August 18, 1712.
Decipimur specie recti- Hor. Ars Poet. v. 25.
of themselves. To these repaired a multitude from every side, by two different paths which lead towards each of them. Some who had the most assuming air went directly of themselves to Error, without expecting a conductor; others of a softer nature went first to Popular Opinion, from whence, a she influenced and engaged them with their own praises, she delivered them over to his government.
When we had ascended to an open part of the summit where Opinion abode, we found her entertaining several who had ar rived before us. Her voice was pleasing; she breathed odours as she spoke. She seemed to have a tongue for every one; every one thought he heard of something that was valuable in himself, and expecteda paradise which she promised as the reward of his merit. Thus were we drawn to fol low her, till she should bring us where it was to be bestowed; and it was observable that, all the way we went, the company was either praising themselves in their qualifications, or one another for those qualifications which they took to be conspicuous in their own characters, or dis praising others for wanting theirs, or vying in the degrees of them.
At last we approached a bower, at the entrance of which Error was seated. The trees were thick woven, and the place where he sat artfully contrived to darken him a little. He was disguised in a whitish robe, which he had put on, that he might appear to us with a nearer resemblance to Truth; and as she has a light whereby she manifests the beauties of nature to the eyes of her adorers, so he had provided himself with a magical wand, that he might do OUR defects and follies are too often un-something in imitation of it, and please with known to us; nay, they are so far from being delusions. This he lifted solemnly, and, known to us, that they pass for demonstra-muttering to himself, bid the glories which tions of our worth. This makes us easy in he kept under enchantment to appear be the midst of them, fond to show them, fond fore us. Immediately we cast our eyes on to improve them, and to be esteemed for that part of the sky to which he pointed, them. Then it is that a thousand unac- and observed a thin blue prospect, which countable conceits, gay inventions, and ex- cleared as mountains in a summer morning travagant actions, must afford us pleasures, when the mist goes off, and the palace of and display us to others in the colours which Vanity appeared to sight. we ourselves take a fancy to glory in. Indeed there is something so amusing for the time in this state of vanity and ill-grounded satisfaction, that even the wiser world has chosen an exalted word to describe its enchantments and called it, The Paradise of Fools.'
Perhaps the latter part of this reflection
Methought I was transported to a hill,
The foundation seemed hardly a founda tion, but a set of curling clouds, which it stood upon by magical contrivance. The way by which we ascended was painted like a rainbow; and as we went, the bree that played about us bewitched the senses The walls were gilded all for show; the lowest set of pillars were of the slight fin Corinthian order, and the top of the build ing being rounded, bore so far the resem blance of a bubble.
At the gate the travellers neither me with a porter, nor waited till one shoul appear; every one thought his merits a su ficient passport, and pressed forward. I the hall we met with several phantom that roved amongst us, and ranged th
ompany according to their sentiments. | and I heard it firmly resolved, that he here was decreasing Honour, that had should be used no better wherever they othing to show but an old coat of his an- met with him hereafter. estor's achievements. There was Ostentaon, that made himself his own constant bject; and Gallantry strutting upon his ptoes. At the upper end of the hall stood throne, whose canopy glittered with all e riches that gayety could contrive to vish on it; and between the gilded arms at Vanity, decked in the peacock's feaners, and acknowledged for another Venus y her votaries. The boy who stood beside er for a Cupid, and who made the world bow before her, was called Self-Conceit. His eyes had every now and then a cast wards, to the neglect of all objects about im; and the arms which he made use of or conquest, were borrowed from those gainst whom he had a design. The arrow hich he shot at the soldier, was fledged rom his own plume of feathers; the dart e directed against the man of wit, was inged from the quills he writ with; and hat which he sent against those who premed upon their riches, was headed with old out of their treasuries. He made nets or statesmen from their own contrivances; e took fire from the eyes of the ladies, ith which he melted their hearts; and ghtning from the tongues of the eloquent, inflame them with their own glories. At e foot of the throne sat three false Graces; lattery with a shell of paint, Affectation ith a mirror to practise at, and Fashion ver changing the posture of her clothes. hese applied themselves to secure the onquests which Self-Conceit had gotten, nd had each of them their particular olities. Flattery gave new colours and omplexions to all things; Affectation new rs and appearances, which, as she said, ere not vulgar; and Fashion both conealed some home defects, and added some reign external beauties.
I had already seen the meaning of most part of that warning which he had given, and was considering how the latter words should be fulfilled, when a mighty noise was heard without, and the door was blackened by a numerous train of harpies crowding in upon us. Folly and Broken-Credit were seen in the house before they entered. Trouble, Shame, Infamy, Scorn, and Poverty, brought up the rear. Vanity, with her Cupid and Graces, disappeared; her subjects ran into holes and corners; but many of them were found and carried off (as I was told by one who stood near me) either to prisons or cellars, solitude, or little company, the mean arts or the viler crafts of life. But these,' added he, with a disdainful air, are such who would fondly live here, when their merits neither matched the lustre of the place, nor their riches its expenses. We have seen such scenes as these before now; the glory you saw will all return when the hurry is over. I thanked him for his information; and believing him so incorrigible as that he would stay till it was his turn to be taken, I made off to the door, and overtook some few, who, though they would not hearken to Plain-Dealing, were now terrified to good purpose by the example of others. But when they had touched the threshold, it was a strange shock to them to find that the delusion of Error was gone, and they plainly discerned the building to hang a little up in the air without any real foundation. At first we saw nothing but a desperate leap remained for us, and I a thousand times blamed my unmeaning curiosity that had brought me into so much danger. But as they began to sink lower in their own minds, methought the palace sunk along with us, till they were arrived at the due point of esteem which they ought to have for themselves, then the part of the building in which they stood touched the earth, and we departing out, it retired from our eyes. Now, whether they who stayed in the palace were sensible of this descent, I cannot tell: it was then my opinion that they were not. However it be, my dream broke up at it, and has given me occasion all my life to reflect upon the fatal consequences of following the suggestions of Vanity.
As I was reflecting upon what I saw, I eard a voice in the crowd bemoaning the ondition of mankind, which is thus managed y the breath of Opinion, deluded by Error, red by Self-Conceit, and given up to be ained in all the courses of Vanity, till corn or Poverty come upon us. These exressions were no sooner handed about, but immediately saw a general disorder, till last there was a parting in one place, and grave old man, decent and resolute, was d forward to be punished for the words he ad uttered. He appeared inclined to have 'MR. SPECTATOR,-I write to you to depoken in his own defence, but I could not sire that you would again touch upon a cerserve that any one was willing to hear tain enormity, which is chiefly in use among m. Vanity cast a scornful smile at him; the politer and better-bred part of mankind; elf-Conceit was angry; Flattery, who I mean the ceremonies, bows, courtesies, new him for Plain-Dealing, put on a whisperings, smiles, winks, nods, with zard, and turned away; Affectation tossed other familiar arts of salutation, which take er fan, made mouths, and called him Envy up in our churches so much time that might Slander: and Fashion would have it, that be better employed, and which seem so least he must be Ill-manners. Thus utterly inconsistent with the duty and true ghted and despised by all, he was driven intent of our entering into those religious it for abusing people of merit and figure; assemblies. The resemblance which this
bears to our indeed proper behaviour in reform the taste of a profane age; and per theatres, may be some instance of its in- suade us to be entertained with divine
distinguished by so
congruity in the above-mentioned places. poems, whilst we are In Roman-catholic churches and chapels many thousand humours, and split into so abroad, I myself have observed, more than many different sects and parties; yet pere once, persons of the first quality, of the sons of every party, sect, and humour, are nearest relation, and intimatest acquaint- fond of conforming their taste to your
it were, and unknown, and with so little poem into all your readers, according to ance, passing by one another unknowing as You can transfuse your own relish of a notice of each other, that it looked like their capacity to receive; and when you having their minds more suitably and more recommend the pious passion that reigns solemnly engaged; at least it was an ac- in the verse, we seem to feel the devotion, knowledgment that they ought to have been and grow proud and pleased inwardly, that I have been told the same even of we have souls capable of relishing what the
Mahometans, with relation to the propriety of their demeanour in the conventions of
Upon reading the hymns that you have their erroneous worship; and I cannot but published in some late papers, I had a mind think either of them sufficient laudable to try yesterday whether I could write ond patterns for our imitation in this particular. The cxivth Psalm appears to me an ad
marking on the excellent memories of language. As I was describing the journey I cannot help, upon this occasion, re- mirable ode, and I began to turn it into our two or three hundred people were dressed: beauty in this psalm which was entirely church shall give a particular account how Presence amongst them, I perceived a to be digested and fixed in the head, that and that is that the poet utterly conceals
a thing, by reason of its variety, so difficult
new to me, and which I was
going to lose;
and rather lets a possessive pronoun without a substantive, than he will so much
of divine service can be time sufficient for so elaborate an undertaking, the duty of the place too being jointly, and no doubt as mention any thing of divinity there.
"Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his
oft pathetically, performed along with it. Where it is said in sacred writ, that "the dominion or kingdom." The reason now woman ought to have a covering on her seems evident, and this conduct necessary: head because of the angels," the last word for, if God had appeared before, there is by some thought to be metaphorically could be no wonder why the mountains used, and to signify young men. Allowing should leap and the sea retire: therefore, this interpretation to be right, the text that this convulsion of nature may may not appear to be wholly foreign to our brought in with due surprise, his name is not mentioned till afterward; and the When you are in a disposition proper with a very agreeable turn of thought, God for writing on such a subject, I earnestly is introduced at once in all his majesty. recommend this to you; and am, sir, your This is what I have attempted to imitate
No. 461.] Tuesday, August 19, 1712.
Dryden. FOR want of time to substitute something else in the room of them, I am at present obliged to publish compliments above my desert in the following letters. It is no small satisfaction to have given occasion to ingenious men to employ their thoughts. upon sacred subjects from the approbation of such pieces of poetry as they have seen in my Saturday's papers. I shall never publish verse on that day but what is written by the same hand:* yet I shall not accompany those writings with eulogiums, but leave them to speak for themselves.
For the Spectator.
MR. SPECTATOR,-You very much promote the interests of virtue, while you
and to in a translation without paraphrase, preserve what I could of the spirit sacred author.
"If the following essay be not too incorn gible, bestow upon it a few brightenings from your genius, that I may learn how to write better, or to write no daily admirer and humble servant, &c.' the
"When Israel, freed from Pharaoh's hand,
"Across the deep their journey lay,
"The mountains shook like frighted sheep,
"What power could make the deep divide! Make Jordan backward roll his tide?
Dr. Isaac Watts.
† Jordan beheld their march, and fled
Why did ye leap, ye little bills?
And whence the fright that Sinai feels?
'Let every mountain, every flood,
"He thunders-and all nature mourns;
certain carelessness, that constantly at tends all his actions, carries him on with greater success than diligence and assiduity does others who have no share in this endowment. Dacinthus breaks his word upon all occasions, both trivial and important; and, when he is sufficiently railed at for that abominable quality, they who talk of him end with, After all, he is a very pleasant fellow.' Dacinthus is an ill-natur'MR. SPECTATOR,-There are those ed husband, and yet the very women end ho take the advantage of your putting a their freedom of discourse upon this subalfpenny value upon yourself, above the ject, But, after all, he is very pleasant st of our daily writers, to defame you in company. Dacinthus is neither, in point ablic conversation, and strive to make of honour, civility, good-breeding, or goodpopular upon the account of this said nature, unexceptionable; and yet all is anlfpenny. But, if I were you, I would in-swered, For he is a very pleasant fellow.' st upon that small acknowledgment for When this quality is conspicuous in a man e superior merit of yours, as being a work who has, to accompany it, manly and virinvention. Give me leave, therefore, to tuous sentiments, there cannot certainly be you justice, and say in your behalf, any thing which can give so pleasing a hat you cannot yourself, which is, that gratification as the gayety of such a person; our writings have made learning a more but when it is alone, and serves only to gild cessary part of good-breeding than it was a crowd of ill qualities, there is no man so fore you appeared; that modesty is be- much to be avoided as your pleasant fellow. me fashionable, and impudence stands in A very pleasant fellow shall turn your good ed of some wit, since you have put them name to a jest, make your character conth in their proper lights. Profaneness, and yet be received by the rest of the world temptible, debauch your wife or daughter, wdness, and debauchery, are not now with welcome wherever he appears. It is alifications; and a man may be a very ne gentleman, though he is neither a very ordinary with those of this character to be attentive only to their own satisfaceper nor an infidel. tions, and have very little bowels for the concerns or sorrows of other men; nay, they are capable of purchasing their own pleasures at the expense of giving pain to others. But they who do not consider this sort of men thus carefully, are irreauthor of the following letter carries the sistibly exposed to their insinuations. The matter so high, as to intimate that the liberties of England have been at the mercy of a prince, merely as he was of this pleasant character.
'I would have you tell the town the story the Sibyls, if they deny giving you two ence. Let them know, that those sacred apers were valued at the same rate after wo thirds of them were destroyed, as when ere was the whole set. There are so any of us who will give you your own rice, that you may acquaint your non-conmist readers, that they shall not have it, cept they come in within such a day, der three pence. I do not know but you ight bring in the Date Obolum Belisario th a good grace. The witlings come MR. SPECTATOR,-There is no clusters to two or three coffee-houses hich have left you off; and I hope you give into as pride, or any other passion passion which all mankind so naturally Ell make us, who fine to your wit, merry which appears in such different disguises: th their characters who stand out against it is to be found in all habits and comI am your most humble servant. plexions. It is not a question, whether it does more harm or good in the world; and if there be not such a thing as what we may call a virtuous and laudable pride?
'P. S. I have lately got the ingenious thors of blacking for shoes, powder for louring the hair, pomatum for the hands, smetic for the face, to be your constant stomers; so that your advertisements will much adorn the outward man, as your aper does the inward.'
It is this passion alone, when misapplied, that lays us so open to flatterers; and he who can agreeably condescend to soothe our humour or temper, finds always an open avenue to our soul; especially if the 0.462.] Wednesday, August 20, 1712. flatterer happen to be our superior.
'One might give many instances of this in a late English monarch, under the title of "The gayeties of king Charles II." This prince was by nature extremely familiar, of very easy access, and much delighted to see and be seen; and this happy temper, which in the highest degree gratified his people's vanity, did him more service with his loving subjects than all