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she had no notions of before. Lætitia is light his shadow.' According to this defi
transported at having a new world thus tion, there is nothing so contradictory to
opened to her, and hangs upon the man nature as error and falsehood. The P
that gives her such agreeable informations. tonists have so just a notion of the A
Erastus has carried this point still farther, mighty's aversion to every thing which
as he makes her daily not only more fond false and erroneous, that they looked up
of him, but infinitely more satisfied with truth as no less necessary than virtue
herself. Erastus finds a justness or beauty qualify a human soul for the enjoyment
in whatever she says or observes, that Læ- a separate state. For this reason, as the
titia herself was not aware of; and by his recommended moral duties to qualify a
assistance she has discovered a hundred season the will for a future life, so they pr
good qualities and accomplishments in her-scribed several contemplations and scienc
self, which she never before once dreamed to rectify the understanding. Thus Pla
of. Erastus, with the most artful com- has called mathematical demonstrations t
plaisance in the world, by several remote cathartics, or purgatives of the soul,
hints, finds the means to make her say or being the most proper means to cleanse
propose almost whatever he has a mind to, from error, and give it a relish of trut
which he always receives as her own dis- which is the natural food and nourishme
covery, and gives her all the reputation of the understanding, as virtue is the pe
of it.
fection and happiness of the will.

Erastus has a perfect taste in painting,
and carried Lætitia with him the other day
to see a collection of pictures. I sometimes
visit this happy couple. As we were last
week walking in the long gallery before
dinner, I have lately laid out some money
in paintings,' says Erastus: 'I bought that
Venus and Adonis purely upon Letitia's
judgment; it cost me threescore guineas;
and I was this morning offered a hundred
for it. I turned towards Lætitia, and saw
her cheeks glow with pleasure, while at
the same time she cast a look upon Erastus,
the most tender and affectionate I ever

Flavilla married Tom Tawdry, she was
taken with his laced-coat and rich sword-
knot; she has the mortification to see Tom
despised by all the worthy part of his own
sex. Tom has nothing to do after dinner,
but to determine whether he will pare his
nails at St. James's, White's, or his own
house. He has said nothing to Flavilla since
they were married which she might not
have heard as well from her own woman.
He however takes great care to keep up
the saucy ill-natured authority of a hus-
band. Whatever Flavilla happens to as-
sert, Tom immediately contradicts with an
oath by way of preface, and, My dear, I
must tell you you talk most confoundedly
silly.' Flavilla had a heart naturally as well
disposed for all the tenderness of love as
that of Lætitia; but as love seldom con-
tinues long after esteem, it is difficult to
determine, at present whether the unhappy
Flavilla hates or despises the person most
whom she is obliged to lead her whole life

No. 507.] Saturday, October 11, 1712.
Defendit numerus, junctæque umbone phalanges.
Juv. Sat. ii. 46.
Preserv'd from shame by numbers on our side.

THERE is something very sublime, though
very fanciful, in Plato's description of the
Supreme Being; that 'truth is his body, and

There are many authors who have show wherein the malignity of a lie consists, an set forth in proper colours the heinousnes of the offence. I shall here consider on particular kind of this crime, which ha not been so much spoken to; I mean tha abominable practice of party-lying. Thi vice is so very predominant among us a present, that a man is thought of no princi ple, who does not propagate a certain sys tem of lies. The coffee-houses are sup ported by them, the press is choked wit them, eminent authors live upon them Our bottle conversation is so infected with them, that a party-lie is grown as fashion able an entertainment as a lively catch, o a merry story. The truth of it is, half the great talkers in the nation would be struck dumb were this fountain of discourse dried up. There is however one advantage re sulting from this detestable practice: th very appearances of truth are so little re garded, that lies are at present discharged in the air, and begin to hurt nobody. Whe we hear a party-story from a stranger, w consider whether he is a whig or a tor that relates it, and immediately conclud they are words of course, in which the honest gentleman designs to recommend hi zeal, without any concern for his veracity A man is looked upon as bereft of commo sense, that gives credit to the relations o party writers; nay, his own friends shak their heads at him, and consider him in n other light than an officious tool, or a well meaning idiot. When it was formerly th fashion to husband a lie, and trump it up i some extraordinary emergency, it gene rally did execution, and was not a littl serviceable to the faction that made use o it; but at present every man is upon hi guard: the artifice has been too often re peated to take effect.

I have frequently wondered to see me of probity, who would scorn to utter a false hood for their own particular advantage give so readily into a lie, when it is become the voice of their faction, notwithstanding they are thoroughly sensible of it as such.



How is it possible for those who are men world. When Pompey was desired not to of honour in their persons, thus to become set sail in a tempest that would hazard his notorious liars in their party? If we look life, It is necessary for me,' says he, "to into the bottom of this matter, we may find, sail, but it is not necessary for me to live." I think, three reasons for it, and at the Every man should say to himself, with the same time discover the insufficiency of these same spirit, 'It is my duty to speak truth, reasons to justify so criminal a practice. though it is not my duty to be in an office." In the first place, men are apt to think One of the fathers has carried this point so that the guilt of a lie, and consequently the high as to declare he would not tell a lie, punishment may be very much diminished, though he were sure to gain heaven by it. if not wholly worn out, by the multitudes However extravagant such a protestation of those who partake in it. Though the may appear, every one will own that a man weight of a falsehood would be too much may say, very reasonably, he would not for one to bear, it grows light in their tell a lie if he were to gain hell by it; or, if imaginations when it is shared among many. you have a mind to soften the expression, But in this case a man very much deceives that he would not tell a lie to gain any temhimself; guilt, when it spreads through poral reward by it, when he should run the numbers, is not so properly divided as mul-hazard of losing much more than it was tiplied. Every one is criminal in proportion possible for him to gain.

to the offence which he commits, not to the

number of those who are his companions in it. Both the crime and the penalty lie as


Omnes autem et habentur et dicuntur tyranni, qui

potestate sunt perpetua, in ea civitate quæ libertate

usa est.

Corn. Nepos in Milt. c. 8.

heavy upon every individual of an offending No. 508.] Monday, October 13, 1712. multitude, as they would upon any single person, had none shared with him in the offence. In a word, the division of guilt is like to that of matter: though it may be separated into infinite portions, every portion shall have the whole essence of matter in it, and consist of as many parts as the whole did before it was divided.

who exercise a perpetual power in that state, which For all those are accounted and denominated tyrants was before free.

THE following letters complain of what I have frequently observed with very much indignation; therefore I shall give them to the public in the words with which my correspondents, who suffer under the hardships mentioned in them, describe them.

But in the second place, though multitodes, who join in a lie, cannot exempt themselves from the guilt, they may from the shame of it. The scandal of a lie is in a manner lost and annihilated, when diffused among several thousands; as a drop of the blackest tincture wears away and vanishes, 'MR. SPECTATOR,-In former ages all when mixed and confused in a considerable pretensions to dominion have been supbody of water; the blot is still in it, but is ported and submitted to, either upon acnot able to discover itself. This is certainly Count of inheritance, conquest, or election; very great motive to several party-offen- and all such persons, who have taken upon ders, who avoid crimes, not as they are them any sovereignty over their fellowprejudicial to their virtue, but to their creatures upon any other account, have reputation. It is enough to show the weak- been always called tyrants, not so much ness of this reason, which palliates guilt because they were guilty of any particular without removing it, that every man who barbarities, as because every attempt to is influenced by it declares himself in effect such a superiority was in its nature tyranan infamous hypocrite, prefers the appear-nical. But there is another sort of potenance of virtue to its reality, and is deter- tates, who may with greater propriety be mined in his conduct neither by the dictates called tyrants than those last mentioned, of his own conscience, the suggestions of both as they assume a despotic dominion true honour, nor the principles of religion. over those as free as themselves, and as The third and last great motive for men's they support it by acts of notable opprespining in a popular falsehood, or, as I have sion and injustice; and these are the rulers hitherto called it, a party-lie, notwith-in standing they are convinced of it as such, is the doing good to a cause which every party may be supposed to look upon as the most meritorious. The unsoundness of this principle has been so often exposed, and is So universally acknowledged, that a man must be an utter stranger to the principles either of natural religion or Christianity, who suffers himself to be guided by it. If a man might promote the supposed good of his country by the blackest calumnies and falsehoods, our nation abounds more in patriots than any other of the Christian

all clubs and meetings. In other governments the punishments of some have been alleviated by the rewards of others: but what makes the reign of these potentates so particularly grievous is, that they are exquisite in punishing their subjects, at the same time that they have it not in their power to reward them. That the reader may the better comprehend the nature of these monarchs, as well as the miserable state of those that are their vassals, I shall give an account of the king of the company

am fallen into, whom, for his particular tyranny, I shall call Dionysius: as also of

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the seeds that sprung up to this odd sort | train of each is equal in number, rathe
of empire.
than give battle, the superiority is soon ad
justed by a desertion from one of them.

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Full counsel must mature. Peace is despair'd,
And who can think submission? War then, war,
Open, or understood, must be resolved."

'I am, sir, your most obedient humbl servant.'

Upon all meetings at taverns, it is necessary some one of the company should Now, the expulsion of these unjus take it upon him to get all things in such rulers out of all societies, would gain a ma order and readiness, as may contribute as as everlasting a reputation as either of th much as possible to the felicity of the con- Brutus's got for their endeavours to extir vention; such as hastening the fire, getting pate tyranny from among the Romans. a sufficient number of candles, tasting the confess myself to be in a conspiracy agains wine with a judicious smack, fixing the sup- the usurper of our club; and to show m per, and being brisk for the despatch of it. reading, as well as my merciful disposition Know, then, that Dionysius went through shall allow him until the ides of March t these offices with an air that seemed to dethrone himself. If he seems to affed express a satisfaction rather in serving the empire until that time, and does not gradu public that in gratifying any particular in-ally recede from the incursions he has mad clination of his own. We thought him a upon our liberties, he shall find a dinne person of an exquisite palate, and therefore dressed which he has no hand in, and shal by consent beseeched him to be always our be treated with an order, magnificence, an proveditor; which post, after he had hand- | luxury, as shall break his proud heart; a somely denied, he could do no otherwise the same time that he shall be convince than accept. At first he made no other use in his stomach he was unfit for his post of his power than in recommending such and a more mild and skilful prince receiv and such things to the company, ever allow- the acclamations of the people, and be se ing these points to be disputable; insomuch up in his room: but, as Milton says, that I have often carried the debate for These thoughts partridge, when his majesty has given intimation of the high relish of duck, but at the same time has cheerfully submitted, and devoured his partridge with most gracious resignation. This submission on his side naturally produced the like on ours; of which he in a little time made such barba- 'MR. SPECTATOR,-I am a young wo rous advantage, as in all those matters, man at a gentleman's seat in the country which before seemed indifferent to him, to who is a particular friend of my father's issue out certain edicts as uncontrollable and came hither to pass away a month o and unalterable as the laws of the Medes two with his daughters. I have been en and Persians. He is by turns outrageous, tertained with the utmost civility by the peevish, forward, and jovial. He thinks it whole family, and nothing has been omitted our duty for the little offices, as proveditor, which can make my stay easy and agreea that in return all conversation is to be in-ble on the part of the family; but there is terrupted or promoted by his inclination for or against the present humour of the company. We feel, at present, in the utmost extremity, the insolence of office; however, I, being naturally warm, ventured to oppose him in a dispute about a haunch of venison. I was altogether for roasting, but Dionysius declared himself for boiling with so much prowess and resolution, that the cook thought it necessary to consult his own safety, rather than the luxury of my proposition. With the same authority that he orders what we shall eat and drink, he also commands us where to do it: and we change our taverns according as he suspects any treasonable practices in the settling the bill by the master, or sees any bold rebellion in point of attendance by the waiters. Another reason for changing the seat of empire, I conceive to be the pride he takes in the promulgation of our slavery, though we pay our club for our entertainments, even in these palaces of our grand monarch. When he has a mind to take the air, a party of us are commanded out by way of life-guard, and we march under as great restrictions as they do. If we meet a neighbouring king, we give or keep the way, according as we are out-numbered or not; and if the

gentleman here, a visitant as I am, whos behaviour has given me great uneasiness When I first arrived here, he used me with the utmost complaisance; but, forsooth, tha was not with regard to my sex; and since h has no designs upon me, he does not know why he should distinguish me from ja ma in things indifferent. He is, you must know one of those familiar coxcombs, who hav observed some well-bred men with a goo grace converse with women, and say n fine things, but yet treat them with tha sort of respect which flows from the hear and the understanding, but is exerted in n professions or compliments. This puppy to imitate this excellence, or avoid the con trary fault of being troublesome in complai sance, takes upon him to try his talent upo me, insomuch that he contradicts me upo all occasions, and one day told me I lied If I had struck him with my bodkin, an behaved myself like a man, since he wi not treat me as a woman, I had, I think served him right. I wish, sir, you woul please to give him some maxims of beha viour in these points, and resolve me if al maids are not in point of conversation to be treated by all bachelors as their mistresses If not so, are they not to be used as gently

s their sisters? Is it sufferable that the op of whom I complain should say that he would rather have such-a-one without a roat, than me with the Indies? What ight has any man to make suppositions of hings not in his power, and then declare is will to the dislike of one that has never ffended him? I assure you these are things worthy your considération, and I hope we hall have your thoughts upon them. I am, hough a woman justly offended, ready to orgive all this, because I have no remedy ut leaving very agreeable company sooner han I desire. This also is a heinous agravation of his offence, that he is inflicting anishment upon me. Your printing this etter may perhaps be an admonition to reorm him; as soon as it appears I will write my name at the end of it, and lay it in his way; the making which just reprimand, I ope you will put in the power of, sir, your onstant reader, and humble servant.'


which is the true source of wealth and prosperity. I just now said, the man of thrift shows regularity in every thing; but you may, perhaps, laugh that I take notice of such a particular as I am going to do, for an instance that this city is declining if their ancient economy is not restored. The thing which gives me this prospect, and so much offence, is the neglect of the Royal Exchange. I mean the edifice so called, and the walks appertaining thereunto. The Royal Exchange is a fabric that well deserves to be so called, as well to express that our monarch's highest glory and advantage consists in being the patron of trade, as that it is commodious for business, and an instance of the grandeur both of prince and people. But, alas! at present it hardly seems to be set apart for any such use or purpose. Instead of the assembly of honourable merchants, substantial tradesmen, and knowing masters of ships; the mumpers, the halt, the blind, the lame; and your venders of trash, apples, plums; your raggamuffins, rake-shames, and wenches, No. 509.] Tuesday, October 14, 1712. have justled the greater number of the former out of that place. Thus it is, espeHominis frugi et temperantis functus officium. cially on the evening change: so that what with the din of squallings, oaths, and cries Discharging the part of a good economist. of beggars, men of the greatest consequence THE useful knowledge in the following in our city absent themselves from the etter shall have a place in my paper, place. This particular, by the way, is of hough there is nothing in it which imme- evil consequence; for, if the 'Change be iately regards the polite or the learned no place for men of the highest credit to world; I say immediately, for upon reflec- frequent, it will not be a disgrace for those on every man will find there is a remote of less abilities to be absent. I remember fluence upon his own affairs, in the pros- the time when rascally company were kept erity or decay of the trading part of man-out, and the unlucky boys with toys and ind. My present correspondent, I believe, balls were whipped away by a beadle. I as never in print before; but what he says have seen this done indeed of late, but then ell deserves a general attention, though it has been only to chase the lads from elivered in his own homely maxims, and chuck, that the beadle might seize their kind of proverbial simplicity; which sort copper. flearning has raised more estates, than ver were, or will be, from attention to irgil, Horace, Tully, Seneca, Plutarch, any of the rest, whom, I dare say, this orthy citizen would hold to be indeed inenious, but unprofitable writers. But to

he letter.

Ter. Heaut. Act iii. Sc. 3.

In I must repeat the abomination, that the walnut-trade is carried on by old women within the walks, which makes the place impassable by reason of shells and trash. The benches around are so filthy, that no one can sit down, yet the beadles and officers have the impudence at Christmas to ask for their box, though they deserve the strappado. I do not think it impertinent to have mentioned this, because it bespeaks a neglect in the domestic care of the city, and the domestic is the truest picture of a man every where else.

Mr. William Spectator. Don Broad-street, Oct. 10, 1712. SIR,I accuse you of many discourses the subject of money, which you have eretofore promised the public, but have ot discharged yourself thereof. But, for- 'But I designed to speak on the busimuch as you seemed to depend upon ad-ness of money and advancement of gain. ce from others what to do in that point, The man proper for this, speaking in the ave sat down to write you the needful upon general, is of a sedate, plain good underat subject. But, before I enter thereupon, standing, not apt to go out of his way, but shall take this opportunity to observe to so behaving himself at home, that business ou, that the thriving frugal man shows it may come to him. Sir William Turner, every part of his expense, dress, ser- that valuable citizen, has left behind him a ants, and house; and I must, in the first most excellent rule, and couched it in very ace complain to you, as Spectator, that few words, suited to the meanest capacity. these particulars there is at this time, He would say, "Keep your shop, and your roughout the city of London, a lamenta shop will keep you." It must be confessed, e change from that simplicity of manners, that if a man of a great genius could add

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steadiness to his vivacities, or substitute | going from college to college to borrow, slower men of fidelity to transact the me- they have done since the death of this w thodical part of his affairs, such a one thy man. I say, Mr. Hobson kept a sta would outstrip the rest of the world; but of forty good cattle, always ready and business and trade are not to be managed for travelling; but, when a man came fo by the same heads which write poetry, and horse, he was led into the stable, whe make plans for the conduct of life in gene- there was great choice; but he obliged b ral. So though we are at this day beholden to take the horse which stood next to to the late witty and inventive duke of stable door; so that every customer Buckingham for the whole trade and manu- alike well served according to his chan facture of glass, yet I suppose there is no and every horse ridden with the same j one will aver, that, were his grace yet liv- tice; from whence it became a prove ing, they would not rather deal with my when what ought to be your election v diligent friend and neighbour, Mr. Gumley, forced upon you, to say, "Hobson's choic for any goods to be prepared and delivered This memorable man stands drawn on such a day, than he would with that il-fresco at an inn (which he used) in Bishop lustrious mechanic above-mentioned. gate-street, with a hundred pound b under his arm, with this inscription up the said bag:

'No, no, Mr. Spectator, you wits must not pretend to be rich; and it is possible the reason may be, in some measure, because "The fruitful mother of a hundred more."t you despise, or at least you do not value it enough to let it take up your chief atten- "Whatever tradesman will try the e tion; which a trader must do, or lose his periment, and begin the day after you pu credit, which is to him what honour, re-lish this my discourse to treat his custome putation, fame, or glory, is to other sort of all alike, and all reasonably and honest I will ensure him the same success, I a sir, your loving friend,




-Si sapis,

I shall not speak to the point of cash itself, until I see how you approve of these my maxims in general: but I think a speculation upon "many a little makes a mickle, a penny saved is a penny got, penny wise and a pound foolish, it is need that makes No. 510.] Wednesday, October 15, 171 the old wife trot," would be very useful to the world; and if you treated them with knowledge, would be useful to yourself, for it would make demands for your paper among those who have no notion of it at present. But of these matters more hereafter. If you did this, as you excel many writers of the present age for politeness, so you would outgo the author of the true razor strops for use.

I shall conclude this discourse with an explanation of a proverb, which by vulgar error is taken and used when a man is reduced to an extremity, whereas the propriety of the maxim is to use it when you would say there is plenty, but you must make such a choice as not to hurt another who is to come after you.

Neque præterquam quas ipse amor molestias Habet addas, et illas, quas habet, recte feras. Ter. Eun. Act i. Sc. 1 If you are wise, add not to the troubles which atte the passion of love, and bear patiently those which inseparable from it.

'I WAS the other day driving in a ha through Gerrard-street, when my eye w immediately catched with the prettiest o ject imaginable-the face of a very fair gi between thirteen and fourteen, fixed at t chin to a painted sash, and made part the landscape. It seemed admirably don and, upon throwing myself eagerly out the coach to look at it, it laughed, and flu from the window. This amiable figu dwelt upon me; and I was considering t 'Mr. Tobias Hobson,* from whom we vanity of the girl, and her pleasant coquet have the expression, was a very honourable in acting a picture until she was taken man, for I shall ever call the man so who tice of, and raised the admiration of the b gets an estate honestly. Mr. Tobias Hob-holders. This little circumstance ma son was a carrier; and, being a man of great me run into reflections upon the force abilities and invention, and one that saw beauty, and the wonderful influence t where there might good profit arise, though the duller men overlooked it, this ingenious man was the first in this island who let out hackney-horses. He lived in Cambridge; and, observing that the scholars, rid hard, his manner was to keep a large stable of horses, with boots, bridles, and whips, to furnish the gentlemen at once, without

* Mr. Hobson was the carrier between London and Cambridge. At the latter place he erected a handsome stone conduit, and left sufficient land for its maintenance for ever. He died in the time of the plague, 1630, in the eighty-sixth year of his age.

female sex has upon the other part of t species. Our hearts are seized with the enchantments, and there are few of us, b brutal men, who by that hardness lose t chief pleasure in them, can resist their i sinuations, though never so much agai our own interests and opinion. It is co mon with women to destroy the good effe a man's following his own way and inclin

†There is a scarce folio print, I believe, from th picture, engraved by Payne, with eight English ver beneath.

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