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could but look into their minds, he would | others entertain concerning you. In short, find that they imagine he lightly esteems of their sense when he thinks to impose upon them, and that he is less esteemed by them for his attempt in doing so. His endeavour to glory at their expense becomes a ground of quarrel, and the scorn and indifference with which they entertain it begins the immediate punishment: and indeed (if we should even go no farther) silence, or a negligent indifference, has a deeper way of wounding than opposition, because opposition proceeds from an anger that has a sort of generous sentiment for the adversary mingling along with it, while it shows that there is some esteem in your mind for him: in short, that you think him worth while to contest with. But silence, or a negligent indifference, proceeds from anger, mixed with a scorn that shows another he is thought by you too contemptible to be regarded.

you are against yourself; the laugh of the company runs against you; the censuring world is obliged to you for that triumph which you have allowed them at your own expense; and truth, which you have injured, has a near way of being revenged on you, when by the bare repetition of your story you become a frequent diversion for the public.

The other method which the world has taken for correcting this practice of false surprise, is to overshoot such talkers in their own bow, or to raise the story with

'MR. SPECTATOR,-The other day, walking in Pancras church-yard, I thought of your paper wherein you mention epitaphs, and am of opinion this has a thought in it worth being communicated to your readers.

"Here innocence and beauty lies, whose breath
Was snatch'd by early, not untimely, death.
Hence did she go, just as she did begin
Sorrow to know, before she knew to sin.
Death, that does sin and sorrow thus prevent,
Is the next blessing to a life well spent."
"I am, sir, your servant.'

farther degrees of impossibility, and set up No. 539.] Tuesday, November 18, 1712.

for a voucher to them in such a manner as must let them see they stand detected. Thus I have heard a discourse was once managed upon the effects of fear. One of the company had given an account how it had turned his friend's hair gray in a night, while the terrors of a shipwreck encompassed him. Another, taking the hint from hence, began, upon his own knowledge, to enlarge his instances of the like nature to such a number, that it was not probable he could ever have met with them: and as he still grounded these upon different causes for the sake of variety, it might seem at last, from his share of the conversation, almost impossible that any one who can feel the passion of fear, should all his life escape so common an effect of it. By this time some of the company grew negligent, or desirous to contradict him; but one rebuked the rest with an appearance of severity, and with the known old story in his head, assured them he did not scruple to believe that the fear of any thing can make a man's hair gray, since he knew one whose periwig had suffered so by it. Thus he stopped the talk, and made them easy. Thus is the same method taken to bring us to shame, which we fondly take to increase our character. It is indeed a kind of mimickry, by which another puts on our air of conversation to show us to ourselves. He seems to look ridiculous before you, that you may remember how ear a resemblance you bear to him; or that you may know that he will not lie under the imputation of believing you. Then it is that you are struck dumb immediately with a conscientious shame for what you have been saying. Then it is that you are inwardly grieved at the sentiments which you cannot but perceive



Heteroclita sunto.—Que Genus.

Be they heteroclites.

MR. SPECTATOR,I am a young widow of good fortune and family, and just come to town; where I find I have clusters of pretty fellows come already to visit me, some dying with hopes, others with fears, though they never saw me. Now, what I would beg of you would be to know whether I may venture to use these pert fellows with the same freedom as I did my country acquaintance. I desire your leave to use them as to me shall seem meet, without imputation of a jilt; for since I make declaration that not one of them shall have me, I think I ought to be allowed the liberty of insulting those who have the vanity to believe it is in their power to make me break that resolution. There are schools for learning to use foils, frequented by those who never design to fight; and this useless way of aiming at the heart, without design to wound it on either side, is the play with which I am resolved to divert myself. The man who pretends to win, I shall use him like one who comes into a fencing-school to pick a quarrel. I hope upon this foundation you will give me the free use of the natural and artificial force of my eyes, looks, and gestures. As for verbal promises, I will make none, but shall have no mercy on the conceited interpreters of glances and motions. I am particularly skilled in the downcast eye, and the recovery into a sudden full aspect and away again, as you may have seen sometimes practised by us country beauties beyond all that you have observed in courts and cities. Add to this, sir, that I have a ruddy heedless look, which covers artifice the best of any thing. Though I can dance

very well, I affect a tottering untaught way| Spectator, this reverend divine gave us his of walking, by which I appear an easy grace's sermon, and yet I do not know prey; and never exert my instructed how; even I that am sure have read it a charms, until I find I have engaged a pursuer. Be pleased, sir, to print this letter, which will certainly begin the chase of a rich widow. The many foldings, escapes, returns, and doublings, which I make, I shall from time to time communicate to you, for the better instruction of all females, who set up, like me, for reducing the present exorbitant power and insolence of man. I am, sir, your faithful correspondent,


least twenty times, could not tell what t make of it, and was at a loss sometimes t guess what the man aimed at. He was s just, indeed, as to give us all the heads and the subdivisions of the sermon, and farther I think there was not one beautiful though in it but what we had. But then, sir, thi gentleman made so many pretty additions and he could never give us a paragraph of the sermon but he introduced it with some thing which methought looked more like design to show his own ingenuity than t instruct the people. In short, he adde and curtailed in such a manner, that h vexed me; insomuch that I could not for bear thinking (what I confess I ought no to have thought in so holy a place,) tha this young spark was as justly blameabl mend a noble play of Shakspeare or Jon as Bullock or Penkethman, when the son. Pray, sir, take this into your considera tion; and, if we must be entertained wit the works of any of those great men, desir find them, that so when we read them t these gentlemen to give them us as the our families at home they may the bette remember they have heard them a church. Sir, your humble servant.'

'DEAR MR. SPECTATOR,-I depend upon your professed respect for virtuous love for your immediately answering the design of this letter: which is no other than to lay before the world the severity of certain parents, who desire to suspend the marriage of a discreet young woman of eighteen, three years longer, for no other reason but that of her being too young to enter into that state. As to the consideration of riches, my circumstances are such, that I cannot be suspected to make my addresses to her on such low motives as avarice or ambition. If ever innocence, wit, and beauty, united their utmost charms, they have in her. I wish you would expatiate a little on this subject, and admonish her parents that it may be from the very imperfection of human nature itself, and not No. 540.] Wednesday, November 19, 1712 any personal frailty of her or me, that our inclinations baffled at present may alter; and while we are arguing with ourselves to put off the enjoyment of our present passions, our affections may change their objects in the operation. It is a very delicate subject to talk upon; but if it were but hinted, I am in hopes it would give the parties concerned some reflection that might expedite our happiness. There is a possibility, and I hope I may say it without imputation of immodesty to her I love with the highest honour; I say there is a possibility this delay may be as painful to her as it is to me; if it be as much, it must be more, by reason of the severe rules the sex are under, in being denied even the relief tation of six virtues holiness, temperanc Spenser's general plan is the represe of complaint. If you oblige me in this, and chastity, friendship, justice, and courtesy I succeed, I promise you a place at my wed-in six legends by six persons. Thes ding, and a treatment suitable to your personages are supposed, under proper a spectatorial dignity. Your most humble legories suitable to their respective chara ters, to do all that is necessary for t full manifestation of the respective virtu which they are to exert.



-Non deficit alter.-Virg. En. vi. 143. A second is not wanting. 'MR. SPECTATOR,-There is no part o your writings which I have in more esteer honourable and candid endeavour to set th than your criticism upon Milton. It is a works of our noble writers in the gracef light which they deserve. You will los much of my kind inclination towards you if you do not attempt the encomium Spenser also, or at least indulge my pa sion for that charming author so far as print the loose hints I now give you on th subject.

'SIR,-I yesterday heard a young gentleman, that looked as if he had come just to the gown and a scarf, upon evil speaking: "These, one might undertake to sho which subject you know archbishop Til-under the several heads, are admirab lotson has so nobly handled in a sermon in his folio. As soon as ever he had named his text, and had opened a little the drift of his discourse, I was in great hopes he had been one of Sir Roger's chaplains. I have conceived so great an idea of the charming discourse above, that I should have thought one part of my sabbath very well spent in hearing a repetition of it. But, alas! Mr.

drawn; no images improper, and most su prisingly beautiful. The Redcross Knig runs through the whole steps of the Chr tian life; Guyon does all that temperan can possibly require; Britomartis (a woma observes the true rules of unaffected cha tity; Arthegal is in every respect of li strictly and wisely just; Calidore is right courteous.

In short, in Fairly-land, where knightserrant have a full scope to range, and to do even what Ariostos or Orlandos could not do in the world without breaking into credibility, Spenser's knights have, under those six heads, given a full and truly poetical system of Christian, public, and low life.

'His legend of friendship is more diffuse; and yet even there the allegory is finely drawn, only the heads various; one knight could not there support all the parts.

To do honour to his country, prince Arthur is a universal hero; in holiness, temperance, chastity, and justice, superexcellent. For the same reason, and to compliment queen Elizabeth, Gloriana, queen of fairies, whose court was the asylum of the oppressed, represents that glorious queen. At her commands all these knights set forth, and only at hers the RedCross Knight destroys the dragon, Guyon overturns the Bower of Bliss, Arthegal

. Justice) beats down Geryoneo (i. e. Philip II. king of Spain) to rescue Belge (ie. Holland,) and he beats the Grantorto (the same Philip in another light) to restore Irena (i. e. Peace) to Europe.

'Chastity being the first female virtue, Britomartis is a Briton; her part is fine, though it requires explication. His style very poetical; no puns, affectations of wit, forced antitheses, or any of that low tribe.


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"Like as a wayward child, whose sounder sleepe
Is broken with some fearful dream's affright,
With froward will doth set himself to weep,
Ne can be still'd for all his nurse's might,

But kicks and squalls, and shrieks for fell despite :
Now scratching her, and her loose locks misusing,
Now seeking darkness, and now seeking light;
Then craving suck, and then the suck refusing:


"There entering in, they found the good man's self Full busily unto his work ybent,

Who was so weel a wretched wearish elf,
With hollow eyes and rawbone cheeks far spent,
As if he had in prison long been pent.
Full black and griesly did his face appear,
Besmear'd with smoke, that nigh his eye-sight blent,
With rugged beard, and hoary shagged hair,

The which he never wont to comb, or comely shear. 35.

Rude was his garment, and to rags all rent,
Ne better had he, ne for better cared;
His blister'd hands amongst the cinders brent,
And fingers filthy, with long nails prepared,
Right fit to rend the food on which he fared.
His name was Care: a blacksmith by his trade,
That neither day nor night from working spared,
But to small purpose iron wedges made:
These be unquiet thoughts that careful minds invade."

'Homer's epithets were much admired by antiquity: see what great justness and variety there are in these epithets of the trees in the forest, where the Redcross Knight lost truth, B. i. Cant. i. Stan. 8, 9. "The sailing pine, the cedar proud and tall, The vine-prop elm, the poplar never dry; The builder oak, sole king of forests all, The aspine, good for staves, the cypress funeral. 9.

"The laurel, meed of mighty conquerors,
And poets sage; the fir, that weepeth still,
The willow, worn of forlorn paramours,
The yew, obedient to the bender's will,
The birch for shafts, the sailow for the mill:
The myrrhe sweet, bleeding in the bitter wound,
The war-like beech, the ash, for nothing ill,
The fruitful olive, and the plantane round,
The carver holm, the maple, seldom inward sound."

'I shall trouble you no more, but desire you to let me conclude with these verses, though I think they have already been quoted by you. They are addressed to young ladies oppressed with calumny, v. 6. 14

"The best (said he) that I can you advise,
Is to avoid the occasion of the ill;
For when the cause whence evil doth arise,
Removed is, the effect surceaseth still.

Abstain from pleasure and restrain your will,
Subdue desire and bridle loose delight,
Use scanted diet, and forbear your fill,
Shun secresy, and talk in open sight,

So shall you soon repair your present evil plight."


Such was this lady's loves in her love's fond accusing." No. 541.] Thursday, November 20, 1712.

Curiosity occasioned by jealousy, upon occasion of her lover's absence. Ibid. Stan. 8, 9.

"Then as she looked long, at last she spied
One coming towards her with hasty speed,
Well ween'd she then, ere him she plain descry'd,
That it was one sent from her love indeed :
Whereat her heart was fill'd with hope and dread,
Ne would she stay till he in place could come,
But ran to meet him forth to know his tidings somme;
Even in the door him meeting, she begun,
And where is he, thy lord, and how far hence ?
Declare at once: and hath he lost or won ?"

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My friend the Templar, whom I have so often mentioned in these writings, having determined to lay aside his poetical Care and his house are described thus, v. studies, in order to a closer pursuit of the

6. 33, 34, 35.

law, has put together, as a farewell essay, some thoughts concerning pronunciation They spied a little cottage, like some poor man's nest, and action, which he has given me leave

"Not far away, nor meet for any guest,

to communicate to the public. They are chiefly collected from his favourite author Cicero, who is known to have been an intimate friend of Roscius the actor, and a good judge of dramatic performances, as well as the most eloquent pleader of the time in which he lived.

Cicero concludes his celebrated books De Oratore with some precepts for pronunciation and action, without which part he affirms that the best orator in the world can never succeed; and an indifferent one, who is master of this, shall gain much greater applause. What could make a stronger impression,' says he, 'than those exclamations of Gracchus?" Whither shall I turn? Wretch that I am! to what place betake myself? Shall I go to the Capitol? Alas! it is overflowed with my brother's blood. Or shall I retire to my house? Yet there I behold my mother plunged in misery, weeping and despairing!" These breaks and turns of passion, it seems, were so enforced by the eyes, voice, and gesture of the speaker, that his very enemies could not refrain from tears. I insist,' says Tully, 'upon this the rather, because our orators, who are as it were actors of the truth itself, have quitted this manner of speaking: and the players, who are but the imitators of truth, have taken it up.'

I shall therefore pursue the hint, he has here given me, and for the service of the British stage I shall copy some of the rules which this great Roman master has laid down; yet without confining myself wholly to his thoughts or words: and to adapt this essay the more to the purpose for which I intend it, instead of the examples he has inserted in this discourse out of the ancient tragedies, I shall make use of parallel passages out of the most celebrated of our own.

The design of art is to assist action as much as possible in the representation of nature; for the appearance of reality is that which moves us in all representations, and these have always the greater force the nearer they approach to nature, and the less they show of imitation.

Nature herself has assigned to every motion of the soul its peculiar cast of the countenance, tone of voice, and manner of gesture, through the whole person; all the features of the face and tones of the voice answer, like strings upon musical instruments, to the impressions made on them by the mind. Thus the sounds of the voice, according to the various touches which raise them, form themselves into an acute or grave, quick or slow, loud or soft, tone. These two may be subdivided into various kinds of tones, as the gentle, the rough, the contracted, the diffuse, the continued, the intermitted, the broken, abrupt, winding, softened or elevated. Every one of these may be employed with art and judgment; and all supply the actor, as colours do the painter, with an expressive variety.

Anger exerts its peculiar voice in an

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Fiery what quality ?-why Gloster! Gloster!
I'd speak with the Duke of Cornwall and his wife.
Are they informed of this? my breath and blood!
Fiery! the fiery duke!'-&c.

Sorrow and complaint demand a voice quite different; flexible, slow, interrupted, and modulated in a mournful tone: as in that pathetical soliloquy of cardinal Wolsey on his fall.

'Farewell!-A long farewell to all my greatness!
This is the state of man!-to day he puts forth
The tender leaves of hope; to-morrow blossoms,
And bears his blushing honours thick upon him;
The third day comes a frost, a killing frost,
And when he thinks, good, easy man, full surely
His greatness is a ripening, nips his root;
And then he falls as I do.'

We have likewise a fine example of this in the whole of Andromache in the Distrest Mother, particularly in these lines—

'I'll go, and in the anguish of my heart

Weep o'er my child-If he must die, my life
Is wrapt in his, I shall not long survive:
'Tis for his sake that I have suffered life,
Groan'd in captivity, and out-liv'd Hector.
Yes, my Astyanax, we'll go together!
Together to the realms of night we'll go,
There to thy ravish'd eyes thy sire I'll show,
And point him out among the shades below.

Fear expresses itself in a low, hesitating, and abject sound. If the reader considers the following speech of lady Macbeth, while her husband is about the murder of Duncan and his grooms, he will imagine her even affrighted with the sound of her own voice while she is speaking it.

'Alas! I am afraid they have awak'd,

And 'tis not done; th' attempt and not the deed,
Confound us-Hark! I laid the daggers ready,
He could not miss them. Had he not resembled
My father as he slept, I had done it.'

Courage assumes a louder tone, as in that speech of Don Sebastian.

"Here satiate all your fury:

Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me;
I have a soul, that, like an ample shield,
Can take in all, and verge enough for more.'

Pleasure dissolves into a luxurious, mild, tender, and joyous modulation; as in the following lines in Caius Marius.

Lavinia! O there's music in the name,
That soft'ning me to infant tenderness,
Makes my heart spring like the first leaps of life.”

And perplexity is different from all these; grave, but not bemoaning, with an earnest uniform sound of voice; as in that celebrated speech of Hamlet.

'To be, or not to be!--that is the question.
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune:
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them. To die, to sleep:
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart ache, and a thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to; 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd! To die, to sleep!-
To sleep; perchance to dream! Ay, there's the rub;
For, in that sleep of death, what dreams may cone


When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause-There's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
Th' oppressor's wrongs, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make,
With a bare bodkin? Who would fardles bear,
To groan and sweat under a weary life?
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will,
And makes us rather choose those ills we have,
Than fly to others that we know not of.'

As all these varieties of voice are to be directed by the sense, so the action is to be directed by the voice, and with a beautiful propriety, as it were, to enforce it. The arm, which by a strong figure Tully calls the orator's weapon, is to be sometimes raised and extended: and the hand, by its motion, sometimes to lead, and sometimes to follow, the words as they are uttered. The stamping of the foot too has its proper expression in contention, anger, or absolute command. But the face is the epitome of

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There is another thing which my author does not think too minute to insist on, though it is purely mechanical; and that is the right pitching of the voice. On this occasion he tells the story of Gracchus, who employed a servant with a little ivory pipe to stand behind him, and give him the right pitch, as often as he wandered too far from the proper modulation. Every voice,' says Tully, 'has its particular medium and compass, and the sweetness of speech consists in leading it through all the variety of tones naturally, and without touching any extreme. Therefore,' says he, 'leave the pipe at home, but carry the sense of custom with you.

Et sibi præferri se gaudet-
Ovid, Met. Lib. ii. 430.
-He heard,
Well pleased, himself before himself preferred.


the whole man, and the eyes are, as it No. 542.] Friday, November 21, 1712. were, the epitome of the face; for which reason, he says, the best judges among the Romans were not extremely pleased even with Roscius himself in his mask. No part of the body, besides the face, is capable of as many changes as there are different emotions in the mind, and of expressing them all by those changes. Nor is this to be done without the freedom of the eyes; therefore Theophratus called one, who barely rehearsed his speech with his eyes fixed, an 'absent actor.'

As the countenance admits of so great variety, it requires also great judgment to govern it. Not that the form of the face is to be shifted on every occasion; lest it turn to farce and buffoonery; but it is certain that the eyes have a wonderful power of marking the emotions of the mind; sometimes by a steadfast look, sometimes by a careless one-now by a sudden regard, then by a joyful sparkling, as the sense of the word is diversified: for action is, as it were, the speech of the features and limbs, and must therefore conform itself always to the sentiments of the soul. And it may be observed, that in all which relates to the gesture there is a wonderful force implanted by nature: since the vulgar, the unskilful, and even the most barbarous, are chiefly affected by this. None are moved by the sound of words but those who understand the language; and the sense of many things is lost upon men of a dull apprehension: but action is a kind of universal tongue: all men are subject to the same passions, and consequently know the same marks of them in others, by which they themselves express them.

Perhaps some of my readers may be of opinion that the hints I have here made use of out of Cicero are somewhat too refined for the players on our theatre; in an

WHEN I have been present in assemblies where my paper has been talked of, I have been very well pleased to hear those who would detract from the author of it observe that the letters which are sent to the Spectator are as good, if not better, than any of his works. Upon this occasion many letters of mirth are usually mentioned, which some think the Spectator writ to himself, and which others commend because they fancy he received them from his correspondents. Such are those from the valetudinarian; the inspector of the sign-posts; the master of the fan exercise; with that of the hooped petticoat; that of Nicholas Hart, the annual sleeper; that from Sir John Envil; that upon London cries; with multitudes of the same nature. As I love nothing more than to mortify the ill-natured, that I may do it effectually, I must acquaint them they have very often praised me when they did not design it, and that they have approved my writings when they thought they had derogated from them. I have heard several of these unhappy gentlemen proving, by undeniable arguments, that I was not able to pen a letter which I had written the day before. Nay, I have heard some of them throwing out ambiguous expressions, and giving the company reason to suspect that they themselves did me the honour to send me such and such a particular epistle, which happened to be talked of with the esteem or approbation of those who were present. These rigid critics are so afraid of allowing me any thing which does not belong to me, that they will not

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