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thoughts taken up how they shall die rather than how they shall live. I remem ber an excellent saying that I learned a school, Finis coronat opus. You know bes whether it be in Virgil or in Horace, it my business to apply it. If your affairs wil permit you to take the country air with m sometimes, you will find an apartment fit ted up for you, and shall be every day en tertained with beef or mutton of my ow feeding; fish out of my own ponds; and fruit out of my own gardens. You shal have free egress and regress about my house, without having any questions asked you; and in a word, such a hearty welcome as you may expect from your most sincer friend and humble servant,



The club of which I am a member being entirely dispersed, I shall consult my reade next week upon a project relating to the institution of a new one.


No. 550.] Monday, December 1, 1712.
Quid dignum tanto feret hic promissor hiatu?

I could not but approve so good a resolu- | finding out a convenient place where I may tion, notwithstanding the loss I shall suffer build an almshouse, which I intend to en by it. Sir Andrew has since explained dow very handsomely for a dozen super himself to me more at large in the follow- annuated husbandmen. It will be a grea ing letter, which is just come to my hands. pleasure to me to say my prayers twice day with men of my own years, who all of 'GOOD MR. SPECTATOR,-Notwithstand-them, as well as myself, may have thei ing my friends at the club have always rallied me, when I have talked of retiring from business, and repeated to me one of my own sayings, that "a merchant has never enough until he has got a little more;" I can now inform you, that there is one in the world who thinks he has enough, and is determined to pass the remainder of his life in the enjoyment of what he has. You know me so well, that I need not tell you I mean, by the enjoyment of my possessions, the making of them useful to the public. As the greatest part of my estate has been hitherto of an unsteady and volatile nature, either tost upon seas or fluctuating in funds, it is now fixed and settled in substantial acres and tenements. I have removed it from the uncertainty of stocks, winds, and waves, and disposed of it in a considerable purchase. This will give me great opportunity of being charitable in my way, that is, in setting my poor neighbours to work, and giving them a comfortable subsistence out of their own industry. My gardens, my fish-ponds, my arable and pasture grounds, shall be my several hospitals, or rather work-houses, in which I propose to maintain a great many indigent persons, who are now starving in my neighbourhood. I have got a fine spread of improvable lands, and in my own thoughts am already plowing up some of them, fencing others; planting woods, and draining marshes. In fine, as I have my share in the surface of this island, I am resolved to make it as beautiful a spot as any in her majesty's dominions; at least there is not an inch of it which shall not be cultivated to the best advantage, and do its utmost for its owner. As in my mercantile employment I so disposed of my affairs, that, from whatever corner of the compass the wind blew, it was bringing home one or other of my ships; I hope as a husbandman to contrive it so, that not a shower of rain or a glimpse of sunshine shall fall upon my estate without bettering some part of it, and contributing to the products of the season. You know it has been hitherto my opinion of life, that it is thrown away when it is not some way useful to others. But when I am riding out by myself, in the fresh air, on the open heath that lies by my house, I find several other thoughts growing up in me. I am now of opinion, that a man of my age may find business enough on himself, by setting his mind in order, preparing it for another world, and reconciling it to the thoughts of death. I must therefore acquaint you, that besides those usual methods of charity, of which I have before spoken, I am at this very instant

Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 138. In what will all this ostentation end?-Roscommon. SINCE the late dissolution of the club whereof I have often declared myself member, there are very many persons wh by letters, petitions, and recommendations put up for the next election. At the sam time I must complain, that several indireg and underhand practices have been mad use of upon this occasion. A certain coun try gentleman began to tap upon the firs information he received of Sir Roger death; when he sent me up word that, if would get him chosen in the place of th deceased, he would present me with a bar rel of the best October I had ever tasted my life. The ladies are in great paint know whom I intend to elect in the room of Will Honeycomb. Some of them indee are of opinion that Mr. Honeycomb did no take sufficient care of their interest in th club, and are therefore desirous of havin in it hereafter a representative of their ow sex. A citizen who subscribes himself Y Z. tells me that he has one-and-twent shares in the African company, and offer to bribe me with the odd one in case b may succeed Sir Andrew Freeport, whic he thinks would raise the credit of tha fund. I have several letters, dated from Jenny Man's, by gentlemen who are candi dates for captain Sentry's place; and a many from a coffee-house in St. Paul

church-yard of such who would fill up the vacancy occasioned by the death of my worthy friend the clergyman, whom I can never mention but with a particular respect.

Having maturely weighed these several particulars, with the many remonstrances that have been made to me on this subject, and considering how invidious an office I shall take upon me if I make the whole election depend upon my single voice, and being unwilling to expose myself to those clamours, which on such an occasion will not

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fail to be raised against me for partiality, No. 551.] Tuesday, December 2, 1712. injustice, corruption, and other qualities, which my nature abhors, I have formed to myself the project of a club as follows.

I have thoughts of issuing out writs to all and every of the clubs that are established in the cities of London and Westminster, requiring them to choose out of their respective bodies a person of the greatest merit, and to return his name to me before Lady-day, at which time I intend to sit upon business.

By this means I may have reason to hope, that the club over which I shall preside will be the very flower and quintessence of all other clubs. I have communicated this my project to none but a particular friend mine, whom I have celebrated twice or thrice for his happiness in that kind of wit which is commonly known by the name of a pun. The only objection he makes to it is, that I shall raise up enemies to myself if I act with so regal an air, and that my detractors, instead of giving me the usual title of Spectator, will be apt to call me the King of Clubs.

But to proceed on my intended project: it is very well known that I at first set forth in this work with the character of a silent man; and I think I have so well preserved my taciturnity, that I do not remember to have violated it with three sentences in the space of almost two years. As a monosyllable is my delight, I have made very few excursions, in conversations which have related, beyond a Yes or a No. By this means my readers have lost many good things which I have had in my heart, though I did not care for uttering them.

Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque,
Carminibus venit.

Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 400.

So ancient is the pedigree of verse, And so divine a poet's function.-Roscommon. 'MR. SPECTATOR,-When men of worthy and excelling geniuses have obliged the world with beautiful and instructive writings, it is in the nature of gratitude that praise should be returned them, as one proper consequent reward of their performances. Nor has mankind ever been so degenerately sunk, but they have made this return, and even when they have not been wrought up by the generous endeavours so as to receive the advantages designed by it. This praise, which arises first in the mouth of particular persons, spreads and lasts according to the merit of authors; and, when it thus meets with a full success, changes its denomination, and is called fame. They, who have happily arrived at this, are, even while they live, inflamed by the acknowledgments of others, and spurred on to new undertakings for the benefit of mankind, notwithstanding the detraction which some abject tempers would cast upon them: but when they decease, their characters being free from the shadow which envy laid them under, begin to shine with the greater splendour; their spirits survive in their works; they are admitted into the highest companies, and they continue pleasing and instructing posterity from age to age. Some of the best gain a character, by being able to show that they are no strangers to them; and others obtain a new warmth to labour for the happiness and ease of mankind, from a reflection upon those honours which are paid to their memories.

Now in order to diversify my character, and to show the world how well I can talk if I have a mind, I have thoughts of being The thought of this took me up as I very loquacious in the club which I have turned over those epigrams which are the now under consideration. But that I may remains of several of the wits of Greece, proceed the more regularly in this affair, I and perceived many dedicated to the fame design, upon the first meeting of the said of those who had excelled in beautiful poclub, to have my mouth opened in form; etic performances. Wherefore, in pursuintending to regulate myself in this particu-ance to my thought, I concluded to do lar by a certain ritual which I have by me, that contains all the ceremonies which are practised at the opening of the mouth of a cardinal. I have likewise examined the forms which were used of old by Pythagoras, when any of his scholars, after an apprenticeship of silence, was made free of his speech. In the mean time, as I have VOL. II.


something along with them to bring their praises into a new light and language, for the encouragement of those whose modest tempers may be deterred by the fear of envy or detraction from fair attempts, to which their parts might render them equal. You will perceive them as they follow to be conceived in the form of epi

when we light upon such a turn, we join with something that circumscribes a bounds it to the qualities of our subje He who gives his praise in gross, will oft appear either to have been a stranger those he writes upon, or not to have four any thing in them which is praise-worthy

taphs, a sort of writing which is wholly set | particular character. It would be better apart for a short-pointed method of praise. ON ORPHEUS, WRITTEN BY ANTIPATER. "No longer, Orpheus, shall thy sacred strains Lead stones, and trees, and beasts along the plains; No longer sooth the boisterous winds to sleep, Or still the billows of the raging deep; For thou art gone. The Muses mourn thy fall In solemn strains, thy mother most of all. Ye mortals, idly for your sons ye moan, If thus a goddess could not save her own."

'Observe here, that if we take the fable for granted, as if it was believed to be in that age when the epigram was written, the turn appears to have piety to the gods, and a resigning spirit in its application. But if we consider the point with respect to our present knowledge, it will be less esteemed; though the author himself, because he believed it, may still be more valued than any one who should now write with a point of the same nature.

"Still in our ears Andromache complains,
And still in sight the fate of Troy remains;
Still Ajax fights, still Hector's dragg'd along:
Such strange enchantment dwells in Homer's song;
Whose birth could more than one poor realm adorn,
For all the world is proud that he was born."

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The thought in the first part of this is natural, and depending upon the force of poesy; in the latter part it looks as if it would aim at the history of seven towns contending for the honour of Homer's birthplace; but when you expect to meet with that common story, the poet slides by, and raises the whole world for a kind of arbiter, which is to end the contention amongst its several parts.

"This tomb be thine, Anacreon! All around
Let ivy wreathe, let flow'rets deck the ground;
And from its earth, enrich'd with such a prize,
Let wells of milk and streams of wine arise:
So will thine ashes yet a pleasure know,
If any pleasure reach the shades below."

The poet here written upon is an easy gay author, and he who writes upon him has filled his own head with the character of his subject. He seems to love his theme so much, that he thinks of nothing but pleasing him as if he were still alive, by entering into his libertine spirit; so that the humour is easy and gay, resembling Anacreon in its air, raised by such images, and pointed with such a turn as he might have used. I give it a place here, because the author may have designed it for his honour; and I take an opportunity from it to advise others, that when they would praise they cautiously avoid every looser qualification, and fix only where there is a real foundation in merit.

"Divine Euripides, this tomb we sce
So fair, is not a monument for thee,
So much as thou for it; since all will own
Thy name and lasting praise adorn the stone."

"The thought here is fine, but its fault is, that it is general, that it may belong to any great man, because it points out no

"Winde, gentle ever-green, to form a shade
Around the tomb where Sophocles is laid:
Sweet ivy winde thy boughs, and intertwine
With blushing roses and the clust'ring vine:
Thus will thy lasting leaves, with beauties hung,
Prove grateful emblems of the lays he sung;
Whose soul, exalted like a god of wit,
Among the Muses and the Graces writ."

"This epigram I have opened more tha any of the former: the thought towards th latter end seemed closer couched, so as require an explanation. I fancied the po aimed at the picture which is generall made of Apollo and the Muses, he sittin with his harp in the middle, and the around him. This looked beautiful to m thought, and because the image arose be fore me out of the words of the original a I was reading it, I ventured to explai them so.

"The very bees, O sweet Menander hung
To taste the Muses' spring upon thy tongue;
The very Graces made the scenes you writ
Their happy point of fine expression hit.
Thus still you live, you make your Athens shine,
And raise its glory to the skies in thine."

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racter of its subject; for Menander writ re This epigram has a respect to the cha markably with a justness and purity of lan guage. It has also told the country he wa born in, without either a set or a hidde manner, while it twists together the glor of the poet and his nation, so as to make th nation depend upon his for an increase o its own.

'I will offer no more instances at presen to show that they who deserve praise hav it returned them from different ages: le these which have been laid down show me that envy will not always prevail. And t the end that writers may more successfull enliven the endeavours of one another, le them consider, in some such manner as have attempted, what may be the justes spirit and art of praise. It is indeed ver hard to come up to it. Our praise is triflin when it depends upon fable; it is false whe it depends upon wrong qualifications; means nothing when it is general; it is ex tremely difficult to hit when we propose t raise characters high, while we keep t them justly. I shall end this with tran scribing that excellent epitaph of Mr Cowley, wherein, with a kind of grave and philosophic humour, he very beautifully speaks of himself (withdrawn from the world, and dead to all the interests of it,) as of a man really deceased. At the same time it is an instruction how to leave the public with a good grace.


'Hic, O viator, sub lare parvulo
Couleius hic est conditus, hic jacet
Defunctus humani laboris
Sorte, supervacuaque vita;
Non indecora pauperie nitens,
Et non inerti nobilis otio,
Vanoque dilectis popello
Divitiis animosus hostis.
Possis ut illum dicere mortuum,
En terra jam nunc quantula sufficit!
Exempta sit curis, viator,
Terra sit illa levis, precare.
Hic sparge flores, sparge breves rosas,
Nam vita gaudet mortua floribus,
Herbisque odoratis corona

Vatis adhuc cinerem calentem."

'DEAR MR. SPECTATOR,-I am a gentleman of a pretty good fortune, and of a temper impatient of any thing which I think an injury. However, I always quarrelled according to law, and instead of attacking my adversary by the dangerous method of sword and pistol, I made my assaults by that more secure one of writ or warrant. I cannot help telling you, that either by the justice of my causes, or the superiority of my counsel, I have been generally successful: and to my great satisfaction I can say it, that by three actions of slander, and half a dozen trespasses, I have for several years enjoyed a perfect tranquillity in my reputation and estate: by these means also I have been made known to the judges; the serjeants of our circuit are my intimate friends; and the ornamental counsel pay a very profound respect to one who has made so great a figure in the law. Affairs of consequence having brought me to town, I had the curiosity the other day to visit Westminsterhall; and having placed myself in one of the courts, expected to be most agreeably entertained. After the court and counsel were with due ceremony seated, up stands The publication of these criticisms hav-a learned gentleman, and began, When this

"From life's superfluous cares enlarg'd,
His debt of human toil discharg'd
Here Cowley lies, beneath this shed,
To ev'ry worldly interest dead:
With descent poverty content:
His hours of ease not idly spent;
To fortune's goods a foe profess'd,
And hating wealth, by all caress'd.
'Tis sure, he's dead: for lo! how small
A spot of earth is now his all!
O! wish that earth may lightly lay,
And ev'ry care be far away!

Bring flow'rs, the short-liv'd roses bring,
To life deceas'd fit offering!
And sweets around the poet strow,
Whilst yet with life his ashes glow."

ing procured me the following letter from a very ingenious gentleman, I cannot forbear inserting it in the volume,* though it did not come soon enough to have a place in any of my single papers.

'MR. SPECTATOR,-Having read over
in your paper, No. 551, some of the
grams made by the Grecian wits, in com-
mendation of their celebrated poets, I could
not forbear sending you another, out of the
same collection; which I take to be as great
a compliment to Homer as any that has yet
been paid him.

Τις ποθ' στον Τροίης πολεμον, &c.
"Who first transcrib'd the famous Trojan war,
And wise Ulysses' acts, O Jove, make known:
For since, 'tis certain thine these poems are,
No more let Homer boast they are his own."


matter was last "stirred" before lordship; the next humbly moved to "quash" an indictment; another complained that his adversary had "snapped" a judgment; the

next informed the court that his client was "stripped," of his possessions; another begepi-been "saddled" with costs. At last up got ged leave to acquaint his lordship they had been "hung up" a whole term by a writ of a grave serjeant, and told us his client had error. At this I could bear it no longer, but came hither, and resolved to apply myself to your honour to interpose with these gentlemen, that they would leave off such low and unnatural expressions: for surely though the lawyers subscribe to hideous French and false Latin, yet they should let their clients have a little decent and proper English for their money. What man that has a value for a good name would like to have it said in a public court, that Mr. Such-a-one was stripped, saddled, or hung up? This being what has escaped your spectatorial observation, be pleased to correct such an illiberal cant among professed speakers, and you will infinitely oblige your humble servant,

'If you think it worthy of a place in your speculations, for aught I know, (by that means) it may in time be printed as often in English as it has already been in Greek. I am, (like the rest of the world,) sir, your great admirer, G. R.

'4th Dec.'

The reader may observe, that the beauty of this epigram is different from that of the foregoing. An irony is looked upon as the finest palliative of praise; and very often conveys the noblest panegyric under the

'PHILONICUS. Joe's Coffee-house, Nov. 28.'

appearance of satire. Homer is here seem- No. 552.] Wednesday, December 3, 1712,

ingly accused and treated as a plagiary; but what is drawn up in the form of an accusation is certainly, as my correspondent observes, the greatest compliment that could have been paid to that divine poet.

The translation of Cowley's epitaph, and all that follows except the concluding letter, signed Philonicus, was not printed in the Spectator in folio, but added in the 8vo. edition of 1712.

-Qui prægravat artes
Infra se positas, extinctus amabitur idem.
Hor. Ep. i. Lib. 2. 13.
For those are hated that excel the rest,
Although, when dead, they are belov'd and blest.

As I was tumbling about the town the other day in a hackney-coach, and delight

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'Care shall be taken that the fixed stars be placed according to their true longitude and latitude, from the many and correct observations of Hevelius, Cassini, Mr. Flamstead, reg. astronomer; Dr. Halley, Savilian professor of geometry in Oxon; and from whatever else can be procured to render the globe more exact, instructive, and useful.

'That all the constellations be drawn in a curious, new, and particular manner; each star in so just, distinct, and conspicuous a proportion, that its magnitude may be readily known by bare inspection, according to the different light and sizes of the stars. That the track or way of such comets as have been well observed, but not hitherto expressed in a globe, be carefully delineated in this.


ing myself with busy scenes in the shops of and calamity, and a hope of endless rapeach side of me, it came into my head, with ture, joy, and hallelujah hereafter. no small remorse, that I had not been fre- When I am doing this justice, I am not quent enough in the mention and recom- to forget the best mechanic of my acquaintmendation of the industrious part of man-ance, that useful servant to science and kind. It very naturally, upon this occasion, knowledge, Mr. John Rowley; but I think touched my conscience in particular, that I lay a great obligation on the public, by I had not acquitted myself to my friend acquainting them with his proposals for a Mr. Peter Motteux. That industrious man pair of new globes. After his preamble he of trade, and formerly brother of the quill, promises in the said proposals that, has dedicated to me a poem upon tea. It would injure him, as a man of business, if I did not let the world know that the author of so good verses writ them before he was concerned in traffic. In order to expiate my negligence towards him, I immediately resolved to make him a visit. I found his spacious warehouses filled and adorned with tea, China and Indiaware. I could observe a beautiful ordonnance of the whole; and such different and considerable branches of trade carried on in the same house, I exulted in seeing disposed by a poetical head. In one place were exposed to view silks of various shades and colours, rich brocades, and the wealthiest products of foreign looms. Here you might see the finest laces held up by the fairest hands; and there, examined by the beauteous eyes of the buyers, the most delicate cambrics, muslins, and linens. I could not but congratulate my friend on the humble, but I hoped beneficial, use he had made of his talents, and wished I could be a patron to his trade, as he had been pleased to make me of his poetry. The honest man has, I know, the modest desire of gain which is peculiar to those who understand better things than riches; and, I dare say, he would be contented with much less than what is called wealth at that quarter of the town which he inhabits, and will oblige all his customers with demands agreeable to the moderation of his desires. Among other omissions of which I have been also guilty, with relation to men of industry of a superior order, I must acknowledge my silence towards a proposal frequently enclosed to me by Mr. Renatus Harris, organ-builder. The ambition of this artificer is to erect an organ in St. Paul's cathedral, over the west door, at the entrance into the body of the church, which in art and magnificence shall transcend any work of that kind ever before invented. The proposal in perspicuous language sets forth the honour and advantage such a performance would be to the British name, as well as that it would apply the power of sounds in a manner more amazingly forcible than, perhaps, has yet been known, and I am sure to an end much more worthy. Had the vast sums which have been laid out upon operas, without skill or conduct, and to no other purpose but to suspend or vitiate our understandings, been disposed this way, we should now perhaps have an engine so formed as to strike the minds of half the people at once in a place of worship, with a forgetfulness of present care

"That by reason the descriptions formerly made, both in the English and Dutch great globe, are erroneous, Asia, Africa, and America, be drawn in a manner wholly new; by which means it is to be noted that the undertakers will be obliged to alter the latitude of some places in ten degrees, the longitude of others in twenty degrees; besides which great and necessary alterations, there be many remarkable countries, cities, towns, rivers, and lakes, omitted in other globes, inserted here according to the best discoveries made by our late navigators. Lastly, that the course of the trade-winds, the monsoons, and other winds periodically shifting between the tropics, be visibly expressed.

'Now, in regard that this undertaking is of so universal use, as the advancement of the most necessary parts of the mathematics, as well as tending to the honour of the British nation, and that the charge of carrying it on is very expensive, it is desired that all gentlemen who are willing to promote so great a work will be pleased to subscribe on the following conditions.

1. The undertakers engage to furnish each subscriber with a celestial and terrestrial globe, each of thirty inches diameter, in all respects curiously adorned, the stars gilded, the capital cities plainly distinguished, the frames, meridians, horizons, hour circles, and indexes, so exactly finished up, and accurately divided, that a pair of these globes will appear, in the judgment of any disinterested and intelligent person,

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